November 26, 2020

Download Ebook Free Alcohol And Its Biomarkers

Alcohol and Its Biomarkers

Alcohol and Its Biomarkers
Author : Amitava Dasgupta
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2015-02-18
Category : Science
Total pages :312
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Alcohol and Its Biomarkers: Clinical Aspects and Laboratory Determination is a concise guide to all currently known alcohol biomarkers, their clinical application, and the laboratory methods used to detect them. Pathologists can use this resource to understand the limitations and cost factors associated with each method for determining certain alcohol biomarkers. In addition, interferences in these determinations are discussed, so that clinicians can understand the causes of falsely elevated biomarkers and pathologists and laboratory scientists can potentially eliminate them. The book focuses on the analytical methods used to detect alcohol in blood and urine, the limitations of alcohol determination using enzymatic methods, and the differences between clinical and forensic alcohol measurement. Chapters also cover cutting-edge alcohol biomarkers for potential use. Focuses on the analytical methods used for detecting alcohol in blood and urine along with the pitfalls and limitations of alcohol determination using enzymatic methods Explains the difference between clinical and forensic alcohol measurement Includes a brief overview of the benefits of consuming alcohol in moderation and the hazards of heavy drinking

Assessing Alcohol Problems

Assessing Alcohol Problems
Author : John P. Allen,Megan Columbus
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release Date : 1997-01-01
Category : Self-Help
Total pages :573
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A revision of the landmark study by D.J. Lettieri "Alcoholism Treatment Assessment Research Instruments". Assists in locating, examining, and selecting instruments appropriate for use in all stages of the assessment process. Includes state-of-the-art reviews of and recommendations for assessment procedures. Written with the clinician and the less experienced researcher in mind. Includes screening, diagnosis, assessment of drinking behavior, treatment planning, treatment and process assessment, and outcome evaluation. Also Fact Sheets and Sample Instruments.

Molecular Aspects of Alcohol and Nutrition

Molecular Aspects of Alcohol and Nutrition
Author : Vinood B. Patel
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-11-06
Category : Science
Total pages :400
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Molecular Aspects of Alcohol and Nutrition is a valuable resource for nutrition researchers and nutritionists who study or treat alcohol-related diseases. Experts from across the field of alcohol research explain how alcohol disrupts normal fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolic processes occurring in the liver as well as other parts of the body. The book discusses how this can lead to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) as well as contribute to the onset of Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. It also explores how alcohol affects nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and can lead to anemia and reduced amounts of fat soluble vitamins. This book explores both the primary and secondary consequences of alcohol consumption. Chapters in the first section investigate the basic science of alcohol metabolism – focusing on how alcohol and its toxic metabolites disrupt and impair normal nutrient regulation at the molecular level. Further chapters explore how alcohol affects many extra-hepatic organs and tissues as well as the secondary consequences of alcohol consumption such as reduced levels of minerals like magnesium, calcium, and trace elements like zinc. Offers a valuable resource for nutrition researchers and nutritionists who study alcohol-related diseases and attempt to treat them through nutritional strategies Explores how alcohol and its toxic metabolite acetaldehyde disrupt and impair normal macro and micro nutrient regulation at the molecular level Investigates how alcohol affects and interferes with cell signaling, cell death pathways, calcium homeostasis leading to osteoporosis, oxygen balance, as well as the pathophysiology of alcohol consumption and abuse

Critical Issues in Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse Testing

Critical Issues in Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse Testing
Author : Amitava Dasgupta
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-01-10
Category : Science
Total pages :560
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Critical Issues in Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse Testing, Second Edition, addresses the general principles and technological advances for measuring drugs and alcohol, along with the pitfalls of drugs of abuse testing. Many designer drugs, for example, are not routinely tested in drugs of abuse panels and may go undetected in a drug test. This updated edition is a must-have for clinical pathologists, toxicologists, clinicians, and medical review officers and regulators, bridging the gap between technical and clinical information. Topics of note include the monitoring of pain management drugs, bath salts, spices (synthetic marijuana), designer drugs and date rape drugs, and more. Serves as a ready resource of information for alcohol and drug testing Ideal resource for making decisions related to the monitoring and interpretation of results Includes concise content for clinical laboratory scientists, toxicologists and clinicians

Addiction Mechanisms, Phenomenology and Treatment

Addiction Mechanisms, Phenomenology and Treatment
Author : W.W. Fleischhacker,D.J. Brooks
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2003-09-04
Category : Medical
Total pages :111
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Substance-related disorders pose an increasing challenge not only to the field of psychiatry but also to public health. The rapid development of our society has also changed the face of substance use and abuse, both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this volume international experts present reviews of the latest research covering many areas ranging from neurobiology to psychological management, as well as different drugs, from alcohol to ecstasy.

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline for the Pharmacological Treatment of Patients With Alcohol Use Disorder

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline for the Pharmacological Treatment of Patients With Alcohol Use Disorder
Author : American Psychiatric Association
Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
Release Date : 2018-01-11
Category : Medical
Total pages :224
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Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major public health problem in the United States. The estimated 12-month and lifetime prevalence values for AUD are 13.9% and 29.1%, respectively, with approximately half of individuals with lifetime AUD having a severe disorder. AUD and its sequelae also account for significant excess mortality and cost the United States more than $200 billion annually. Despite its high prevalence and numerous negative consequences, AUD remains undertreated. In fact, fewer than 1 in 10 individuals in the United States with a 12-month diagnosis of AUD receive any treatment. Nevertheless, effective and evidence-based interventions are available, and treatment is associated with reductions in the risk of relapse and AUD-associated mortality. The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline for the Pharmacological Treatment of Patients With Alcohol Use Disorder seeks to reduce these substantial psychosocial and public health consequences of AUD for millions of affected individuals. The guideline focuses specifically on evidence-based pharmacological treatments for AUD in outpatient settings and includes additional information on assessment and treatment planning, which are an integral part of using pharmacotherapy to treat AUD. In addition to reviewing the available evidence on the use of AUD pharmacotherapy, the guideline offers clear, concise, and actionable recommendation statements, each of which is given a rating that reflects the level of confidence that potential benefits of an intervention outweigh potential harms. The guideline provides guidance on implementing these recommendations into clinical practice, with the goal of improving quality of care and treatment outcomes of AUD.

Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System

Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2011-07-05
Category : Medical
Total pages :74
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Glutamate is the most pervasive neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Despite this fact, no validated biological markers, or biomarkers, currently exist for measuring glutamate pathology in CNS disorders or injuries. Glutamate dysfunction has been associated with an extensive range of nervous system diseases and disorders. Problems with how the neurotransmitter glutamate functions in the brain have been linked to a wide variety of disorders, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, substance abuse, and traumatic brain injury. These conditions are widespread, affecting a large portion of the United States population, and remain difficult to treat. Efforts to understand, treat, and prevent glutamate-related disorders can be aided by the identification of valid biomarkers. The Institute of Medicine's Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders held a workshop on June 21-22, 2010, to explore ways to accelerate the development, validation, and implementation of such biomarkers. Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System: Workshop Summary investigates promising current and emerging technologies, and outlines strategies to procure resources and tools to advance drug development for associated nervous system disorders. Moreover, this report highlights presentations by expert panelists, and the open panel discussions that occurred during the workshop.

Neuroscience of Alcohol

Neuroscience of Alcohol
Author : Victor R. Preedy
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-03-19
Category : Medical
Total pages :736
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Neuroscience of Alcohol: Mechanisms and Treatment presents the fundamental information necessary for a thorough understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol addiction and its effects on the brain. Offering thorough coverage of all aspects of alcohol research, treatment and prevention, and containing contributions from internationally recognized experts, the book provides students, early-career researchers, and investigators at all levels with a fundamental introduction to all aspects of alcohol misuse. Alcohol is one of the world’s most common addictive substances, with about two billion individuals worldwide consuming it in one form or another and three million annual deaths that are associated with alcohol misuse. Alcohol alters a variety of neurological processes, from molecular biology, to cognition. Moreover, addiction to alcohol can lead to numerous other health concerns and damage virtually every organ system in the body, making diagnosis and treatment of individuals addicted to alcohol of critical importance. Integrates cutting-edge research on the pharmacological, cellular and molecular aspects of alcohol use, along with its effects on neurobiological function Discusses alcohol use as a component of dual-use and poly addictions Outlines numerous screening and treatment strategies for alcohol misuse Covers both the physical and psychological effects of alcohol use and withdrawals to provide a fully-formed view of alcohol dependency and its effects

The Charnoly Body

The Charnoly Body
Author : Sushil Sharma
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2019-01-31
Category : Medical
Total pages :388
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Diversified physicochemical injuries trigger Charnoly body (CB) formation as pleomorphic, electron-dense, multi-lamellar stacks of nonfunctional mitochondrial membranes in the most vulnerable cell. Free radicals induce downregulation of mitochondrial DNA, microRNA, AgNOR, and epigenetics to trigger CB molecular pathogenesis. CB is eliminated by energy (ATP)-driven lysosome-dependent charnolophagy as a basic molecular mechanism of intracellular detoxification to prevent acute and chronic diseases. Accumulation of CB at the junction of axon hillock and charnolosome (CS) at the synapses causes cognitive impairments; whereas, nonspecific induction of CB causes GIT stress, myelosuppression, alopecia, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and infertility in multidrug-resistant malignancies. Hence, stem cell-specific CB, charnolophagy, and CS agonists/antagonists are introduced as novel charnolopharmacotherapeutics for the successful treatment of cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, infectious diseases, drug addiction, and cancer. Nanoparticles to improve drug delivery, CS exocytosis, and disease-specific spatiotemporal charnolosomics employing correlative and combinatorial bioinformatics boost mitochondrial bioenergetics through balanced diet, exercise, and antioxidants. The book will be of interest to medical scientists and practitioners.

Biomarkers in Liver Disease

Biomarkers in Liver Disease
Author : Victor R. Preedy,Vinood B. Patel
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-07-14
Category : Medical
Total pages :600
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In the past decade there has been a major sea change in the way disease is diagnosed and investigated due to the advent of high throughput technologies, such as microarrays, lab on a chip, proteomics, genomics, lipomics, metabolomics etc. These advances have enabled the discovery of new and novel markers of disease relating to autoimmune disorders, cancers, endocrine diseases, genetic disorders, sensory damage, intestinal diseases etc. In many instances these developments have gone hand in hand with the discovery of biomarkers elucidated via traditional or conventional methods, such as histopathology or clinical biochemistry. Together with microprocessor-based data analysis, advanced statistics and bioinformatics these markers have been used to identify individuals with active disease or pathology as well as those who are refractory or have distinguishing pathologies. New analytical methods that have been used to identify markers of disease and is suggested that there may be as many as 40 different platforms. Unfortunately techniques and methods have not been readily transferable to other disease states and sometimes diagnosis still relies on single analytes rather than a cohort of markers. There is thus a demand for a comprehensive and focused evidenced-based text and scientific literature that addresses these issues. Hence the formulation of Biomarkers in Disease The series covers a wide number of areas including for example, nutrition, cancer, endocrinology, cardiology, addictions, immunology, birth defects, genetics, and so on. The chapters are written by national or international experts and specialists.

Information Resources in Toxicology

Information Resources in Toxicology
Author : Steve Gilbert,Asish Mohapatra,Sol Bobst,Antoinette Hayes,Sara T. Humes
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2020-05-16
Category : Medical
Total pages :1054
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This new fifth edition of Information Resources in Toxicology offers a consolidated entry portal for the study, research, and practice of toxicology. Both volumes represents a unique, wide-ranging, curated, international, annotated bibliography, and directory of major resources in toxicology and allied fields such as environmental and occupational health, chemical safety, and risk assessment. The editors and authors are among the leaders of the profession sharing their cumulative wisdom in toxicology’s subdisciplines. This edition keeps pace with the digital world in directing and linking readers to relevant websites and other online tools. Due to the increasing size of the hardcopy publication, the current edition has been divided into two volumes to make it easier to handle and consult. Volume 1: Background, Resources, and Tools, arranged in 5 parts, begins with chapters on the science of toxicology, its history, and informatics framework in Part 1. Part 2 continues with chapters organized by more specific subject such as cancer, clinical toxicology, genetic toxicology, etc. The categorization of chapters by resource format, for example, journals and newsletters, technical reports, organizations constitutes Part 3. Part 4 further considers toxicology’s presence via the Internet, databases, and software tools. Among the miscellaneous topics in the concluding Part 5 are laws and regulations, professional education, grants and funding, and patents. Volume 2: The Global Arena offers contributed chapters focusing on the toxicology contributions of over 40 countries, followed by a glossary of toxicological terms and an appendix of popular quotations related to the field. The book, offered in both print and electronic formats, is carefully structured, indexed, and cross-referenced to enable users to easily find answers to their questions or serendipitously locate useful knowledge they were not originally aware they needed. Among the many timely topics receiving increased emphasis are disaster preparedness, nanotechnology, -omics, risk assessment, societal implications such as ethics and the precautionary principle, climate change, and children’s environmental health. Introductory chapters provide a backdrop to the science of toxicology, its history, the origin and status of toxicoinformatics, and starting points for identifying resources. Offers an extensive array of chapters organized by subject, each highlighting resources such as journals, databases,organizations, and review articles. Includes chapters with an emphasis on format such as government reports, general interest publications, blogs, and audiovisuals. Explores recent internet trends, web-based databases, and software tools in a section on the online environment. Concludes with a miscellany of special topics such as laws and regulations, chemical hazard communication resources, careers and professional education, K-12 resources, funding, poison control centers, and patents. Paired with Volume Two, which focuses on global resources, this set offers the most comprehensive compendium of print, digital, and organizational resources in the toxicological sciences with over 120 chapters contributions by experts and leaders in the field.

Biomarkers of Brain Injury and Neurological Disorders

Biomarkers of Brain Injury and Neurological Disorders
Author : Kevin K. W. Wang,Zhiqun Zhang,Firas H. Kobeissy
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2014-10-28
Category : Medical
Total pages :650
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This book explores the recent advances in the techniques and platforms used in biomarker research that have revolutionized the way we study, diagnose, and treat brain injury conditions. The contributors describe different biomarker studies pertaining to brain injury and other neurological disorders and analyze the different models and technologies used to identify these biological markers. The book includes findings from "Omics research" that have been utilized to decipher and identify such biomarkers. It discusses protein, microRNA, and altered gene profiles and reviews neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and prion and Alzheimer’s disease.

Biomarkers, Diagnostics and Precision Medicine in the Drug Industry

Biomarkers, Diagnostics and Precision Medicine in the Drug Industry
Author : Abdel Halim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-06-08
Category : Medical
Total pages :294
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The high failure rate in the pharmaceutical industry has positioned biomarkers and personalized medicine in the frontline, as possible solutions. If executed right, biomarkers and companion diagnostics (CDx) can potentially help the drug industry enhance the probability of success, accelerate the time to market, and, more importantly, benefit patients by supporting accurate diagnosis and selection of the most effective and least toxic therapies. This book aims to examine the challenges and limitations in biomarkers and laboratory tests. It also offers advice on best practices to ensure proper application of biomarkers and bridges the gap between diagnostic business development claims and real-life deliverables. The book covers biomarkers for different purposes, provides examples from different technologies, which includes standard-of-care approved assays as well as for-investigational-use and for-research-use-only assays. It also includes new data for biomarkers in different therapeutic indications and offers case studies and practical examples. This book serves as a reference to drug developers, IVD providers, clinical labs, healthcare givers, academicians, and researchers for best practices to help increase the probability of success in drug development and improve patient management. Provides the unique insight of an expert with extensive experience in diagnostics and clinical laboratory on one side and drug discovery and development on the other side Addresses the challenges of drug development and precision medicine and suggests how to eliminate or mitigate these challenges through better utilization of biomarkers and diagnostics in drug development and patient management Features case studies and real-life examples from different classes of biomarkers on different platforms for different therapeutic areas and includes more than 200 illustrations

Stability of Alcohol and Tobacco Consumption Biomarkers in a Real Rising Main Sewer

Stability of Alcohol and Tobacco Consumption Biomarkers in a Real Rising Main Sewer
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category :
Total pages :129
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Abstract: Since alcohol and tobacco consumption are among the leading causes of population health harm, it is very important to understand the consumption behaviour to develop effective harm reduction strategies. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a potential tool for estimating their consumption, but there are several uncertainties that need to be determined, including the stability of biomarkers in the sewer. Utilizing a real rising main sewer, this study investigated the stability of alcohol and tobacco consumption biomarkers. Rhodamine and acesulfame were used as flow tracer and benchmarker to understand the transportation of wastewater in the sewer with a hydraulic retention time between 2.7 and 5.0h. Ethyl sulphate (EtS) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG), two biomarkers of alcohol consumption, were found to have different in-sewer stability, with EtS much more stable than EtG. The degradation rate of EtS is approximately 8% per hour, while EtG has a half-life of 1.9h. Formation of nicotine, cotinine and trans -3′-hydroxycotinine, three biomarkers for tobacco consumption, was observed during the experiment, probably due to deconjugation of their glucuronide chemicals. The deconjugation process has prevented the determination of actual stability of the three chemicals. However, it is suggested that cotinine is relatively stable, while nicotine and trans -3′-hydroxycotinine degrade to a certain degree in the sewer system. According to our findings, the in-sewer degradation is more important during the interpretation of alcohol consumption estimation than for tobacco consumption estimation. Graphical abstract: Highlights: First study to test the stability of alcohol and tobacco biomarkers in a real sewer. Ethyl sulfate is much more stable than ethyl glucuronide in the rising main sewer. Strong de-conjugation in the sewer can interfere with the stability assessment. Results from benchmarking method and absolute concentration were comparable.

The Handbook of Neuropsychiatric Biomarkers, Endophenotypes and Genes

The Handbook of Neuropsychiatric Biomarkers, Endophenotypes and Genes
Author : Michael Ritsner
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2009-04-21
Category : Medical
Total pages :213
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Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, alcoholism, substance abuse and others are some of the most debilitating illnesses worldwide characterized by the complexity of causes, and lacking the laboratory tests that may promote diagnostic and prognostic procedures. Recent advances in neuroscience, genomic, genetic, proteomic and metabolomic knowledge and technologies have opened the way to searching biomarkers and endophenotypes, which may offer powerful and exciting opportunities to understand the etiology and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disorders. The challenge now is to translate these advances into meaningful diagnostic and therapeutic advances. This book offers a broad synthesis of the current knowledge about diverse topics of the biomarker and endophenotype strategies in neuropsychiatry. The book is organized into four interconnected volumes: “Neuropsychological Endophenotypes and Biomarkers” (with overview of methodological issues of the biomarker and endophenotype approaches in neuropsychiatry and some technological advances), “Neuroanatomical and Neuroimaging Endophenotypes and Biomarkers”, “Metabolic and Peripheral Biomarkers” and “Molecular Genetic and Genomic Markers”. The contributors are internationally and nationally recognized researchers and experts from 16 countries. This four-volume handbook is intended for a broad spectrum of readers including neuroscientists, psychiatrists, neurologists, endocrinologists, pharmacologists, clinical psychologists, general practitioners, geriatricians, health care providers in the field of neurology and mental health interested in trends that have crystallized in the last decade, and trends that can be expected to further evolve in the coming years. It is hoped that this book will also be a useful resource for the teaching of psychiatry, neurology, psychology and mental health.