December 1, 2020

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Alkene Polymerization Reactions with Transition Metal Catalysts

Alkene Polymerization Reactions with Transition Metal Catalysts
Author : Yury Kissin
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2008-03-10
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :495
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During the past 30 years, the field of alkene polymerization over transition metal catalysts underwent several major changes: 1. The list of commercial heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalysts for the synthesis of polyethylene and stereoregular polyolefins was completely renewed affording an unprecedented degree of control over the polymer structure. 2. Research devoted to metallocene and other soluble transition-metal catalysis has vastly expanded and has shifted toward complexes of transition metals with multidentate ligands. 3. Recent developments in gel permeation chromatography, temperature-rising fractionation, and crystallization fractionation provided the first reliable information about differences between various active centers in transition-metal catalysts. 4. A rapid development of high-resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy resulted in greatly expanded understanding of the chemical and steric features of polyolefins and alkene copolymers. These developments require a new review of all aspects of alkene polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts. The first chapter in the book is an introductory text for researchers who are entering the field. It describes the basic principles of polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts, the types of catalysts, and commercially manufactured polyolefins. The next chapter addresses the principal issue of alkene polymerization catalysis: the existence of catalyst systems with single and multiple types of active centers. The subsequent chapters are devoted to chemistry and stereochemistry of elemental reaction steps, structures of catalyst precursors and reactions leading to the formation of active centers, kinetics of polymerization reactions, and their mechanisms. The book describes the latest commercial polymerization catalysts for the synthesis of polyethylenes and polypropylene The book provides a detailed description of the multi-center nature of commercial Ziegler-Natta catalysts. The book devotes specialized chapters to the most important aspects of transition metal polymerization catalysts: the reactions leading to the formation of active centers, the chemistry and stereochemistry of elemental polymerization steps, reaction kinetics, and the polymerization mechanism. The book contains an introductory chapter for researchers who are entering the field of polymerization catalysis. It describes the basic principles of polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts and the types of commercially manufactured polyolefins and copolymers The book contains over 2000 references, the most recent up to end of 2006.

Late Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysis

Late Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysis
Author : Bernhard Rieger,Lisa Saunders Baugh,Smita Kacker,Susanne Striegler
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2006-03-06
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :345
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At the start of the 1950s, Ziegler and Natta discovered that simple metallorganic catalysts are capable of transforming olefins into linear polymers with highly ordered structures. This pioneering discovery was recognized with a Nobel Prize in 1963. In the 80s and 90s, the development of molecular defined metallocenes led to a renaissance for non-polar polyolefin materials. Designer catalysts allowed a greater precision in defining properties of the material. The past 10 years have seen the discovery of new catalysts based on late transition metals, which allow the combination of polar monomers with non-polar olefins and thus lead to innovative materials. Here, the world's leading authors from industry and academia describe the latest developments in this fascinating field for the first time in such comprehensive detail. In so doing, they introduce readers systematically to the basic principles and show how these new catalysts can effectively be used for polymerization reactions. This makes the book an ideal and indispensable reference for specialists, advanced students, and scientists of various disciplines dealing with research into catalysts and materials science.

Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts

Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts
Author : Ray Hoff,Robert T. Mathers
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2010-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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A one-stop resource for understanding and applying polymerization catalysts An edited volume featuring contributions from leading researchers, the Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts covers the design and synthesis of catalysts, and their applications in synthesis of polymers. Dealing with those polymerization catalysts that afford commercially acceptable yields of polymer with respect to catalyst mass and promising newer catalysts, this practical reference provides polymer and organic chemists with a comprehensive overview of the known methods for developing and applying these important catalysts. With both recent advances and historically important catalysts, the subjects covered in this text include: Metal alkyls and other compounds that function as co-catalysts with a large number of catalysts The varieties of porous silica either necessary or valuable in certain catalyst formulations Catalyst scale-up and commercialization Copper catalysts for olefin polymerization Morphology control Along with the above topics, the Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts provides tables of valuable data to assist in reproducing a synthesis or applying the knowledge to a new problem. Polymerization reactivities, polymer properties, monomer and solvent purity requirements, molecular weights, distribution, and reactivity ratios are also covered. The Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts offers an excellent one-stop resource for understanding and applying polymerization catalysts.

Transition Metal Catalyzed Polymerizations

Transition Metal Catalyzed Polymerizations
Author : Roderic P. Quirk
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release Date : 1983
Category : Science
Total pages :886
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Carraher's Polymer Chemistry, Ninth Edition

Carraher's Polymer Chemistry, Ninth Edition
Author : Charles E. Carraher Jr.
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2013-09-05
Category : Science
Total pages :818
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Most of the advancements in communication, computers, medicine, and air and water purity are linked to macromolecules and a fundamental understanding of the principles that govern their behavior. These fundamentals are explored in Carraher's Polymer Chemistry, Ninth Edition. Continuing the tradition of previous volumes, the latest edition provides a well-rounded presentation of the principles and applications of polymers. With an emphasis on the environment and green chemistry and materials, this edition offers detailed coverage of natural and synthetic giant molecules, inorganic and organic polymers, biomacromolecules, elastomers, adhesives, coatings, fibers, plastics, blends, caulks, composites, and ceramics. Using simple fundamentals, this book demonstrates how the basic principles of one polymer group can be applied to all of the other groups. It covers reactivities, synthesis and polymerization reactions, techniques for characterization and analysis, energy absorption and thermal conductivity, physical and optical properties, and practical applications. This edition includes updated techniques, new sections on a number of copolymers, expanded emphasis on nanotechnology and nanomaterials, and increased coverage of topics including carbon nanotubes, tapes and glues, photochemistry, and more. With topics presented so students can understand polymer science even if certain parts of the text are skipped, this book is suitable as an undergraduate as well as an introductory graduate-level text. The author begins most chapters with theory followed by application, and generally addresses the most critical topics first. He provides all of the elements of an introductory text, covering synthesis, properties, applications, and characterization. This user-friendly book also contains definitions, learning objectives, questions, and additional reading in each chapter.

Activation Of Alkenes And Alkynes

Activation Of Alkenes And Alkynes
Author : M.M. Taqui Khan
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012-12-02
Category : Science
Total pages :208
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Homogeneous Catalysis by Metal Complexes, Volume II: Activation of Alkenes and Alkynes reviews and systematizes the chemistry of metal ion activation of alkenes and alkynes. The book presents the migration of ? bonds; the oxo reaction; and the hydrosilation of alkenes and alkynes. The text also covers topics on the oxidation of alkenes and alkynes, as well as the multiple insertion reactions of alkenes and alkynes.

Early Main Group Metal Catalysis

Early Main Group Metal Catalysis
Author : Sjoerd Harder
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2020-02-03
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :400
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Early Main Group Metal Catalysis gives a comprehensive overview of catalytic reactions in the presence of group 1 and group 2 metals. Chapters are ordered to reaction type, contain educational elements and deal with concepts illustrated by examples that cover the main developments. After a short introduction on polar organometallic chemistry and synthesis of early main group metal complexes, a variety of catalytic reactions are described, e.g. polymerization of alkenes, hydroamination and phosphination reactions, hydrosilylation, hydroboration and hydrogenation catalysis, as well as enantioselective and Lewis-acid catalysis. The book addresses organic chemists and researchers in industry interested in the state-of-the-art and new possibilities of early main group metal catalysis as well as newcomers to the field. Written by a team of leaders in the field, it is a very welcome addition to the area of main group metal chemistry, and to the field of catalysis.

Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts

Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts
Author : Ray Hoff
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2018-05-08
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :768
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Including recent advances and historically important catalysts, this book overviews methods for developing and applying polymerization catalysts – dealing with polymerization catalysts that afford commercially acceptable high yields of polymer with respect to catalyst mass or productivity. • Contains the valuable data needed to reproduce syntheses or use the catalyst for new applications • Offers a guide to the design and synthesis of catalysts, and their applications in synthesis of polymers • Includes the information essential for choosing the appropriate reactions to maximize yield of polymer synthesized • Presents new chapters on vanadium catalysts, Ziegler catalysts, laboratory homopolymerization, and copolymerization

Transition Metals and Organometallics as Catalysts for Olefin Polymerization

Transition Metals and Organometallics as Catalysts for Olefin Polymerization
Author : Walter Kaminsky,Hansjörg Sinn
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :442
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More than 30 years after the discovery of transition metals and organometal lics as catalysts for olefin polymerization these catalysts did not have lost their fascination. Since 1953 when Karl Ziegler has discovered the catalytic polymerization of ethylene leading to plastically formable polymers which are mechanically stable up to temperatures of about 100°C, synthetic polymers and rubbers have made their way right into private houses. This discovery has been a main impetus for the fast growing production of plastics. The stereoselective poly merization of propylene and other long-chain a-olefins first detected by Giulio Natta leads to an even broadened field of applications. Another enforcing factor were the developments of Standard Oil of Indiana and Phillipps Petroleum Company who engaged in the polymerization of a-olefins supported molybdenum, cobalt and later on chromium catalysts which clearly indicates the wide variety of suitable systems. This kind of research acknowledged merit when in 1963 the Nobel prize of chemistry was awarded to Ziegler and Natta. Although to a great extent there is a technical application for these catalysts, up to now the nature of the active centres and many reaction mechanisms are not completely known.

Organometallic Chemistry

Organometallic Chemistry
Author : M. Green
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 2005
Category : Reference
Total pages :504
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This Specialist Periodical Report aims to reflect the growing interest in the potential of organometallic chemistry.

Comprehensive Organometallic Chemistry III

Comprehensive Organometallic Chemistry III
Author : Robert Crabtree
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2006-12-26
Category : Science
Total pages :9000
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Comprehensive Organometallic Chemistry, (COMC-III), Third Edition, 13 Volume Set is aimed at the specialist and non-specialist alike. It covers the major developments in the field in a carefully presented way with extensive cross-references. COMC-III provides a clear and comprehensive overview of developments since 1993 and attempts to predict trends in the field over the next ten years. Applications of organometallic chemistry continue to expand and this has been reflected by the significant increase in the number of volumes devoted to applications in COMC-III. Organic chemists have edited the volumes on organometallic chemistry towards organic synthesis - this is now organized by reaction type so as to be readily accessible to the organic community. Like its predecessors, COMC (1982) and COMC-II (1995), this new work is the essential reference text for any chemist or technologist who needs to use or apply organometallic compounds. Also available online via ScienceDirect (2006) - featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com. Presents a comprehensive overview of the major developments in the field since 1993 providing general and significant insights Highlights the expansion of applications in organometallic chemistry with a strong organic synthesis focus Provides a structured first point of entry to the key literature and background material for those planning research, teaching and writing about the area

Monitoring Polymerization Reactions

Monitoring Polymerization Reactions
Author : Wayne F. Reed,Alina M. Alb
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2013-12-02
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :488
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Offers new strategies to optimize polymer reactions With contributions from leading macromolecular scientists and engineers, this book provides a practical guide to polymerization monitoring. It enables laboratory researchers to optimize polymer reactions by providing them with a better understanding of the underlying reaction kinetics and mechanisms. Moreover, it opens the door to improved industrial-scale reactions, including enhanced product quality and reduced harmful emissions. Monitoring Polymerization Reactions begins with a review of the basic elements of polymer reactions and their kinetics, including an overview of stimuli-responsive polymers. Next, it explains why certain polymer and reaction characteristics need to be monitored. The book then explores a variety of practical topics, including: Principles and applications of important polymer characterization tools, such as light scattering, gel permeation chromatography, calorimetry, rheology, and spectroscopy Automatic continuous online monitoring of polymerization (ACOMP) reactions, a flexible platform that enables characterization tools to be employed simultaneously during reactions in order to obtain a complete record of multiple reaction features Modeling of polymerization reactions and numerical approaches Applications that optimize the manufacture of industrially important polymers Throughout the book, the authors provide step-by-step strategies for implementation. In addition, ample use of case studies helps readers understand the benefits of various monitoring strategies and approaches, enabling them to choose the best one to match their needs. As new stimuli-responsive and "intelligent" polymers continue to be developed, the ability to monitor reactions will become increasingly important. With this book as their guide, polymer scientists and engineers can take full advantage of the latest monitoring strategies to optimize reactions in both the lab and the manufacturing plant.

Homogeneous Catalysis with Compounds of Rhodium and Iridium

Homogeneous Catalysis with Compounds of Rhodium and Iridium
Author : R. Dickson
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 1985-09-30
Category : Science
Total pages :278
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Some years ago, I agreed to contribute a volume to the Academic Press 'Organo metallic Chemistry' series - the metals to be covered were rhodium and iridium. Initially, my plan was to discuss both the fundamental organometallic chemistry and applications in organic synthesis. When the first draft of the manuscript was complete, it was apparent that I had exceeded my allowance of pages by a huge amount. It was then that I decided that the catalysis section warranted separate treatment. I am grateful to Reidel for agreeing to publish this volume on Homogeneous Catalysis with Compounds of Rhodium and Iridium as part of their 'Catalysis by Metal Complexes' series. The material I had for the original Academic Press project covered the litera ture to the end of 1978. I decided to update this to the end of 1982 with a few key references from 1983. It is some measure of the rate of progress in this field that the number of references almost doubled during this revision.

Organometallic Chemistry

Organometallic Chemistry
Author : E. W. Abel,F. G. A. Stone
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 1978
Category : Reference
Total pages :464
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This Specialist Periodical Report aims to reflect the growing interest in the potential of organometallic chemistry.

Palladium-Catalyzed Modification of Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Oligonucleotides

Palladium-Catalyzed Modification of Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Oligonucleotides
Author : Anant R. Kapdi,Debabrata Maiti,Yogesh S. Sanghvi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2018-06-04
Category : Science
Total pages :358
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Palladium-Catalyzed Modification of Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Oligonucleotides describes the procedures and protocols related to the modification of nucleosides, nucleotides and oligonucleotides via Pd-mediated cross-coupling processes. The book highlights the growing area of nucleic acid modification and how Pd-mediated coupling reactions can assist this development. Users will find key synthetic protocols for these reactions in this latest volume in the Latest Trends in Palladium Chemistry series. As most of the research in the field of antiviral agents has centered on the use of modified nucleosides that have exhibited promising activity, this book provides an up-to-date reference for both professionals in industry and other interested parties. Provides synthetic routes for useful nucleoside molecules, information otherwise found only through time-consuming literature searches Covers metal-mediated and metal-catalyzed cross coupling processes of nucleosides and related compounds Includes Suzuki-Miyaura, Stille and Sonogashira reactions, as well as C-H bond functionalization Highlights the growing area of nucleic acid modification and how Pd-mediated coupling reactions can assist