December 5, 2020

Download Ebook Free Allergy, Immunity And Tolerance In Early Childhood

Allergy, Immunity and Tolerance in Early Childhood

Allergy, Immunity and Tolerance in Early Childhood
Author : Hans Ulrich Wahn,Hugh A. Sampson
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-09-10
Category : Medical
Total pages :408
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Allergy, Immunity and Tolerance in Early Childhood: The First Steps of the Atopic March provides valuable insights on the atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergies, which have developed into major health problems in most parts of the world. As the natural history of these chronic diseases has been extensively studied, including their major genetic, environmental, and lifestyle determinants and potential protective factors, the book presents tactics on how pediatric allergists can provide early intervention. In addition, the book unites key, global experts in the field who summarize their collective, and current, knowledge of the early stage of the "Atopic March", along with novel ideas for potential options of prevention. Summarizes the current knowledge of the epidemiological, genetic, and cellular basis of allergic diseases Ideal reference for the study of allergies in young children, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, childhood asthma, and food allergies Provides landmark findings in the field of immunology and allergy development Fulfills the need for a book that focuses on primary and secondary allergy prevention, especially during the first years of life Unites key, global experts in the field who summarize their collective, and current, knowledge, along with novel ideas for potential options of prevention

Allergy, Immunity and Tolerance in Early Childhood

Allergy, Immunity and Tolerance in Early Childhood
Author : Hans Ulrich Wahn,Hugh A. Sampson
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-09-01
Category :
Total pages :408
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Allergy, Immunity and Tolerance in Early Childhood: The First Steps of the Atopic March provides valuable insights on the atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergies, which have developed into major health problems in most parts of the world. As the natural history of these chronic diseases has been extensively studied, including their major genetic, environmental, and lifestyle determinants and potential protective factors, the book presents tactics on how pediatric allergists can provide early intervention. In addition, the book unites key, global experts in the field who summarize their collective, and current, knowledge of the early stage of the "Atopic March", along with novel ideas for potential options of prevention. Summarizes the current knowledge of the epidemiological, genetic, and cellular basis of allergic diseases Ideal reference for the study of allergies in young children, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, childhood asthma, and food allergies Provides landmark findings in the field of immunology and allergy development Fulfills the need for a book that focuses on primary and secondary allergy prevention, especially during the first years of life Unites key, global experts in the field who summarize their collective, and current, knowledge, along with novel ideas for potential options of prevention

Milk, Mucosal Immunity and the Microbiome

Milk, Mucosal Immunity and the Microbiome
Author : Pearay L. Ogra,W. Allan Walker,Bo Lönnerdal
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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"This publication covers the 94th Nestle Nutritional Institute Workshop, which was designed to provide a comprehensive overview on the latest human milk research and its role in modulating mucosal immunity, the microbiome, and its impact on the neonate. This publication should provide scientific support to anyone seeking a deeper understanding of human milk and its immunological properties, and enlarge the knowledge of those who specialize in human milk research"--

Asthma in Early Childhood, An Issue of Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America, E-Book

Asthma in Early Childhood, An Issue of Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America, E-Book
Author : Theresa Guilbert,Leonard .B Bacharie
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2019-04-15
Category : Medical
Total pages :129
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This issue of Immunology and Allergy Clinics is devoted to Asthma in Childhood and is Guest Edited by Drs. Leonard Bacharier and Theresa Guilbert. Articles in this outstanding issue include: Inception and Natural History of Pediatric Asthma; Recent Diagnosis Techniques in Pediatric Asthma; Management / co-morbidities for Preschool-aged Children with Asthma; Management/ co-morbidities for School-aged Children with Asthma; Effects of the Environment on Disease Activity; New Advances of Self-Management/Adherence Monitoring and Management in Pediatric Asthma; Severe Asthma in Early Childhood; Inner-city Asthma in Early Childhood; Personalized Medicine and Pediatric Asthma; Prevention in Pediatric Asthma; Asthma in the Schools; and New Directions in Pediatric Asthma.

Feeding During Late Infancy and Early Childhood

Feeding During Late Infancy and Early Childhood
Author : Olle Hernell,Jacques Schmitz
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release Date : 2005-01-01
Category : Health & Fitness
Total pages :237
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In its resolution WHA54.2 (2001) the WHO recommends the promotion and support of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, and then the provision of safe and appropriate complementary foods whilst continuing breastfeeding until 2 years of age or beyond. The 56 Nutrition Workshop has been specifically developed to review the medical and scientific aspects of these topics and to sustain the Nestle Development Nutrition Program (NDNP).

Nutrition and Allergic Diseases

Nutrition and Allergic Diseases
Author : Joost van Neerven,Huub Savelkoul
Publisher : MDPI
Release Date : 2018-04-20
Category : Medical
Total pages :264
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Nutrition and Allergic Diseases" that was published in Nutrients

Allergy E-Book

Allergy E-Book
Author : Stephen T Holgate,Martin K. Church,David H. Broide,Fernando D Martinez
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2011-10-11
Category : Medical
Total pages :432
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The new edition of Allergy, by Drs. Stephen Holgate, Martin Church, David Broide, and Fernando Martinez, uses an enhanced clinical focus to provide the clear, accessible guidance you need to treat allergy patients. A more consistent format throughout features new differential diagnosis and treatment algorithms, updated therapeutic drug information in each chapter, and additional coverage of pediatric allergies. With current discussions of asthma, allergens, pollutants, drug treatment, and more, this comprehensive resource is ideal for any non-specialist who treats patients with allergies. Prescribe appropriate therapies and effectively manage patients’ allergies using detailed treatment protocols. Identify allergic conditions quickly and easily with algorithms that provide at-a-glance assistance. Explore topics in greater detail using extensive references to key literature. Manage allergies in both adult and pediatric patients using coverage of treatment practices for both in each chapter. Stay current on hot topics including asthma, allergens, pollutants, and more. Get up-to-date coverage of cell-based condition with brand new chapters on Eosinophilia: Clinical Manifestations and Therapeutic Options and Systemic Mastocytosis. Apply the latest best practices through new and updated treatment algorithms. Find therapeutic drug information more easily with guidance incorporated into each chapter.

Pediatric Allergy: Principles and Practice E-Book

Pediatric Allergy: Principles and Practice E-Book
Author : Donald Y. M. Leung,Hugh Sampson,Raif Geha,Stanley J. Szefler
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2010-10-13
Category : Medical
Total pages :704
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Pediatric Allergy supplies the comprehensive guidance you need to diagnose, manage, and treat virtually any type of allergy seen in children. Drs. Leung, Sampson, Geha, and Szefler present the new full-color second edition, with coverage of the diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis, the immune mechanisms underlying allergic disease, the latest diagnostic tests, and more. Treat the full range of pediatric allergic and immunologic diseases through clinically focused coverage relevant to both allergists and pediatricians. Understand the care and treatment of pediatric patients thanks to clinical pearls discussing the best approaches. Easily refer to appendices that list common food allergies and autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases. Apply the newest diagnostic tests available—for asthma, upper respiratory allergy, and more—and know their benefits and contraindications. Treat the allergy at its source rather than the resulting reactions through an understanding of the immune mechanisms underlying allergic diseases. Get coverage of new research that affects methods of patient treatment and discusses potential reasons for increased allergies in some individuals. Better manage potential anaphylaxis cases through analysis of contributing facts and progression of allergic disease. Effectively control asthma and monitor its progression using the new step-by-step approach. Eliminate difficulty in prescribing antibiotics thanks to coverage of drug allergies and cross-reactivity.

Food Allergy in Children, An Issue of Pediatric Clinics - E-Book

Food Allergy in Children, An Issue of Pediatric Clinics - E-Book
Author : Hemant Sharma,Robert Wood,Max J. Coppes
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2011-05-12
Category : Medical
Total pages :244
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Dr. Coppes and his co-Editors have created a comprehensive table of contents that addresses the full spectrum of food allergies in children. Articles are presented to be most useful to pediatricians, as the issue begins with the clinical presentation and epidemiology of food allergy, and then progresses to the diagnostic testing and pahthophysiology. Articles are also included that are devoted to specific types of food allergy, dairy, soy, egg, peanut, and tree nut. Finally, articles are also devoted to living with food allergies, management of allergies in schools and camps, and therapies for food allergies.

Textbook of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

Textbook of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Author : Stefano Guandalini
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2004-08-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :828
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Taking a global approach to the subject, this book offers, in a comprehensive, cohesive package, information that is reflective of the different realities of gastroenterological and nutritional problems in different parts of the world. Designed to provide clinical knowledge in a convenient format, the chapters highlight the most common clinical concerns seen on a daily basis by the practicing pediatric gastroenterologist. Covering issues relevant for the diagnosis and treatment of a full range of problematic conditions, including nutritional disorders, the book is an up-to-date, reliable clinical primer on the disorders and diseases that may affect the gastrointestinal tract in neonates and children.

Food Allergy, An Issue of Immunology and Allergy Clinics - E-Book

Food Allergy, An Issue of Immunology and Allergy Clinics - E-Book
Author : Anna H. Nowak-Wegrzyn
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2012-02-28
Category : Medical
Total pages :960
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This issue of Immunology and Allergy Clinics provides the latest essential updates in food allergies. Topics include the following: mechanisms of allergic sensitization to foods—bypassing immune tolerance pathways; determinants of food allergenicity; epidemiology of food allergy; prevention of food allergy through manipulating the timing of food exposure; diagnosis and management of eosinophilic esophagitis; the burden of food allergies and mental health issues; state-of-the-art and new horizons in food allergy diagnostic testing; food-induced anaphylaxis; oral tolerance; immunotherapy for food allergy; complementary and alternative medicine for food allergy; paradigm shift in management of milk and egg allergy—baked milk and egg diet.

Illustrated Textbook of Paediatrics E-Book

Illustrated Textbook of Paediatrics E-Book
Author : Tom Lissauer,Graham Clayden
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2011-10-26
Category : Medical
Total pages :552
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Winner of the 2012 British Medical Association book awards' first prize in the paediatrics category! This is the fourth edition of a highly popular 'must have textbook for paediatrics for medical students'. The previous edition has been translated into eight languages and also won British Medical Association and Royal Society of Medicine prizes for the best paediatrics textbook. Case studies throughout Online access through StudentConsult Concise, synoptic, clinically-focused Highly accessible colour-coded layout Comprehensive and authoritative New section on child protection New section on global paediatrics Over fifty new images Thoroughly revised and updated throughout

Immune maturation and modulation in childhood allergies

Immune maturation and modulation in childhood allergies
Author : Johanna Huoman
Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
Release Date : 2020-10-15
Category :
Total pages :107
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The prevalence of allergic diseases has in the past century increased among children in affluent societies. Underlying causes are incompletely disentangled, but decreased diversity in environmental and microbial exposures could drive allergy development. Allergic individuals possess imbalanced immune responses, skewed in favour of Th2 cells along with lesser Th1 and Treg responses. As allergy development early in life increases the risk of developing further allergic manifestations later, early prevention is key. Thus, interventions in pregnancy, early life and childhood may modulate immunity towards tolerance, although underpinnings of immune maturation and modulation in allergy prevention throughout childhood are not entirely understood. In this thesis, these questions are addressed in children with a high propensity of developing allergic disease or who already have manifested allergies. Chemokines are crucial for immune cell recruitment to the allergic reaction site, and associate with allergy development in childhood. In Paper I, circulating levels of the allergy-related chemokines CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CXCL10 and CXCL11 were studied in the natural course of allergic disease. Elevated levels of the Th2/Treg-regulated chemokine CCL18 in infancy and childhood associated with development of asthma and/or sensitisation. Moreover, this finding conferred higher odds of developing asthma and sensitisation from early school age until adolescence. Additionally, increased levels of the Th1-associated chemokines CXCL10 after birth, and decreased levels of CXCL11 at birth, preceded asthma development later in life. Hence, Paper I showed that circulating chemokine levels in different ways precede allergy development. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, comprise a link between the genetic setup and environmental exposures, and regulate processes such as Th cell differentiation. Perinatal treatment with Lactobacillus reuteri and ?-3 fatty acids prevent development of some IgE-mediated manifestations. However, the drivers of the immunostimulating and pro-resolving effects of these treatments are sparsely examined. In Papers II and III, epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns in CD4+ cells upon pre-and postnatal L. reuteri supplementation alone or in combination with ?-3 fatty acids were studied. In Paper II, the greatest epigenome wide differential methylation was evident at birth, mainly directed towards hypomethylation, indicating transcriptional availability of affected genes. Network analyses revealed several immune related pathways, and a relationship of differentially methylated genes to allergy development. Thus, prenatal L. reuteri treatment seemingly poises Th cells towards immune activation at birth, possibly influencing immune maturation as well as allergy development in the child. In Paper III, epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns were surveyed at birth. In this on-going trial, mothers are treated during the latter half of pregnancy with a combination of L. reuteri and ?-3 fatty acids. Four different treatment groups were studied, and the largest differential methylation was seen in the double active treatment group. In contrast to Paper II, most CpGs and genes were hypermethylated, indicating repressed gene transcription. In line with Paper II, network analyses showed that T cell and immune mediated pathways were affected by treatment, and synergistic effects of the double treatment were indicated. Taken together, prenatal treatment with L. reuteri and/or ?-3 fatty acids altered the epigenome to different extents at birth, mainly towards hypermethylation, and often affected immune related pathways. Immunomodulatory effects of sublingual immunotherapy in children and adolescents are scarcely investigated. In Paper IV, circulating and salivary immune mediators were investigated in timothy grass-pollen allergic children treated with sublingual immunotherapy. Actively treated children had elevated levels of timothy grass pollen-specific IgA antibodies in saliva, along with increased circulating levels of the Th1-associated chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL11, both after treatment ending and two years later. Taken together, sublingual immunotherapy modulates local and peripheral immune responses in children with timothy grass pollen-induced allergy, by augmenting Th1-responses, lessening Th2-responses and inducing immunomodulatory responses, suggesting induction of tolerance, also partly in the long-term. Altogether, the studies in this thesis have shown altered immune regulation in children developing allergies. Moreover, immunomodulatory effects of prenatal treatment with probiotics and ?-3 fatty acids, and sublingual immunotherapy in children with grass pollen-induced allergic disease, were revealed. DNA methylation patterns and immunologic mediators in blood and saliva could potentially serve as appropriate biomarkers for allergic disease. Long term health benefits can be reached by intervening early in life, and further knowledge about the mechanisms behind this could promote the prevention of allergic diseases and hence improve the quality of life for children and adolescents. Förekomsten av allergiska sjukdomar, som böjveckseksem, hösnuva och astma, har under det senaste århundradet ökat markant bland barn i industrialiserade samhällen. De bakomliggande orsakerna är inte helt klarlagda, men samhälleliga förändringar har minskat vår mångfaldiga exponering för bakterier, virus och parasiter. Detta skulle kunna ligga till grund för immunförsvarets felaktiga reaktion mot egentligen ofarliga ämnen som ses vid allergier. Hos allergiska individer är immunförsvaret obalanserat, med en relativ övervikt av det så kallade Thjälpar- 2 (Th2)-svaret gentemot Th1- och det regulatoriska T-cells (Treg)-svaret. Allergiska sjukdomar utvecklas ofta tidigt i livet, vilket ökar risken för att utveckla vidare allergier senare i livet. Därför är det viktigt att motverka den allergiska marschens framfart tidigt genom förebyggande behandlingar. Ett tillvägagångsätt är att påbörja behandling under graviditeten och tidiga barndomen hos barn med hög risk för att bli allergiska, då grunden för immunsystemet läggs redan under fosterlivet. För redan utvecklade allergier är det tänkbart att omforma dessa immunsvar med immunterapi, som kan minska symptom av befintliga allergier samtidigt som det är möjligt att motverka utvecklingen av senare allergier. Det är dock inte helt klarlagt hur immunutmognaden under barndomen är reglerad, eller hur dessa typer av behandlingar skulle kunna påverka allergiutveckling under den perioden. I denna avhandling undersöks immunutmognad vid allergiutveckling hos barn, och möjliga immunmodulerande förebyggande behandlingar hos barn med genetisk benägenhet att bli allergiska eller som redan utvecklat allergisk sjukdom. För att celler ska rekryteras till platsen för en allergisk reaktion krävs bland annat s.k. kemokiner. I det första arbetet undersöktes dessa lockelseämnen, då våra tidigare studier visat att nivåerna av vissa kemokiner vid födseln förutspår utvecklingen av allergi hos barn. De allergirelaterade kemokinerna CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CXCL10 och CXCL11 analyserades i blodprover vid födseln, 1 och 8 års ålder hos barn från en populationsbaserad observationsstudie. Förhöjda nivåer av CCL18, ett kemokin under reglering av både Th2- och Treg-svar, uppmättes vid 1 och/eller 8 års ålder hos barn som hade astma (särskilt svår astma) och/eller var sensibiliserade. De ökade nivåerna associerade också till högre odds för utveckling av astma från tidig skolålder upp till övre tonåren, med liknande resultat för sensibilisering. Även ökade nivåer av de Th1-associerade kemokinerna CXCL10 efter födseln och minskade nivåer av CXCL11 vid födseln föregick utvecklingen av astma senare i livet. Det första arbetet visade alltså på att cirkulerande kemokiner på olika vis föregår utvecklingen av allergier hos barn och ungdomar. Som länk mellan arv och miljö står s.k. epigenetiska modifieringar, vilka reglerar genaktiviteten utan att förändra den genetiska koden i arvsmassan. Till dessa modifieringar räknas DNAmetylering, en process som bl.a. styr utmognad av de allergirelaterade T-hjälparcellerna. Vi har i tidigare separata studier med den probiotiska stammen Lactobacillus reuteri och omega-3- behandling visat förebyggande av vissa IgE-medierade allergier. Vad som föranleder de immunstimulerande och immunmodulerande effekterna av behandlingarna är dock otillräckligt undersökt. I det andra och tredje arbetet undersöktes hur L. reuteri separat eller i kombination med omega-3-fettsyror påverkar DNA-metyleringsmönster i CD4+ Th-celler hos barn som behandlats före och efter födseln. I det andra arbetet undersöktes DNA-metyleringsmönster både lokalt och i hela genomet vid födseln, ett och två års ålder. Behandling med L. reuteri förändrade DNA-metyleringsmönster i allergirelaterade T-hjälparceller mest vid födseln mot s.k. hypometylering, vilket pekar på ökad tillgänglighet av generna för proteinuttryck. Vidare nätverksanalyser visade att flera immunrelaterade processer påverkades av behandlingen. Därtill var generna från nätverket till stor del associerade med allergiutveckling. Maternell behandling med L. reuteri under den sista graviditetsmånaden tycks alltså förändra DNA-metyleringsmönster i T-hjälparceller hos fostret mot ökad immunaktivering vid födseln, vilket i sin tur skulle kunna påverka både immunutmognad och allergiutveckling hos barnet. I likhet med det andra arbetet undersöktes i det tredje arbetet DNA-metyleringsmönster i hela epigenomet, fast endast vid födseln. I denna pågående studie behandlas mödrarna under den andra halvan av graviditeten med en kombination av L. reuteri och omega-3-fettsyror. Fyra olika behandlingsgrupper undersöktes och den största förändringen i DNA-metylering återfanns i den kombinerade aktiva behandlingsgruppen. I motsats till det andra arbetet var dock de flesta CpG positionerna och generna hypermetylerade, vilket tyder på att genernas tillgänglighet för proteinuttryck hämmas. I linje med det andra arbetet framkom T-cells- och immunrelaterade signalvägar i nätverksanalyser på dessa gener, och det fanns indikationer på synergistiska effekter mellan behandlingarna. Det tredje arbetet visade att behandling med L. reuteri och/eller omega- 3-fettsyror under senare delen av graviditeten förändrar T-hjälparcellernas epigenom i olika grad främst mot hypermetylering, och ofta påverkar immunrelaterade signalvägar. Relevansen av dessa fynd kommer i framtida studier att undersökas på proteinnivå och i relation till allergiutveckling. Med allergenspecifik immunterapi är det möjligt att modulera immunsvaret hos allergiska individer mot ett tolerant immunsvar, men effekter av sublingual immunterapi på immunförsvaret hos barn och ungdomar är knapphändigt undersökta. I det fjärde arbetet undersöktes olika immunologiska mediatorer i blod och saliv hos barn med gräspollenallergi, som deltagit i en studie med sublingual immunterapi. Nivåerna av allergirelaterade cytokiner och kemokiner undersöktes i blodprover från inklusionstillfället, efter tre år med behandling samt två år efter avslutad behandling i plasmaprov och allergenstimulerade blodceller. Dessutom mättes total-IgA, sekretoriskt IgA och gräspollenspecifikt IgA i saliv vid samma tillfällen. Barn som fått aktiv behandling hade högre nivåer av gräspollenspecifika IgA-antikroppar i saliv både när behandlingen avslutades och två år efter. Därtill ökade nivåerna av de Th1-associerade kemokinerna CXCL10 och CXCL11 i blodet vid samma tidpunkter. Sammantaget visade resultaten från det fjärde arbetet att behandlingen med sublingual immunterapi hos barn med gräspollenallergi modulerar immunsvaret både lokalt och i cirkulationen genom att öka Th1- svar, minska Th2-svar och inducera immunreglerande svar, vilket indikerar att tolerans har utvecklats hos dessa barn, delvis även på lång sikt. Sammanfattningsvis har studierna i denna avhandling visat på förändrad immunreglering hos barn som utvecklar allergi. Dessutom påvisades immunmodulerande effekter av prenatal behandling med probiotika och omega-3-fettsyror samt av sublingual immunterapi hos barn med gräspollenallergi. DNA-metyleringsmönster och immunologiska mediatorer i blod och saliv skulle kunna fungera som lämpliga biomarkörer för allergisk sjukdom, vilket är ett viktig led i att kunna förutsäga allergiutveckling och förbättra den kliniska behandlingen av allergier bland barn och ungdomar. Långsiktiga hälsofördelar kan uppnås genom att ingripa tidigt i livet, och vidare kunskap om mekanismerna bakom detta skulle kunna främja förebyggandet av allergiska sjukdomar och således kunna förbättra livskvaliteten för barn och ungdomar.

Dust Mites

Dust Mites
Author : Matthew J Colloff
Publisher : CSIRO PUBLISHING
Release Date : 2009-06-05
Category : Science
Total pages :600
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Dust mites are present in almost every home – in our beds, clothing and carpets. Conservatively, at least 100 million people are affected by house dust mite allergy worldwide, manifesting itself as asthma, rhinitis or atopic dermatitis. Despite the growing recognition of this major public health problem, there is still no simple, effective, generally applicable strategy for dust mite control. Dust Mites incorporates for the first time in a single volume the topics of systematics and identification, physiology, ecology, allergen biochemistry and molecular biology, epidemiology, mite control and allergen avoidance. It explains key biological and ecological concepts for non-specialist readers, discusses ecological research methods and includes identification keys to dust mite species and life-cycle stage. It also explores how characteristics of population growth, water balance and physiology of dust mites have contributed to their importance as allergenic organisms. Many chapters contain new data, or new analyses of existing data, including global distribution maps of the most important species. Importantly, the book emphasises that studies of the biology and ecology of house dust mites should be regarded within the context of allergic disease rather than as ends in themselves, and that approaches to mite control in clinical management are subject to the same series of ecological rules as any other major problem in pest management. This comprehensive reference is essential reading for anyone involved or interested in house dust mite research and management.

Dealing with Food Allergies in Babies and Children

Dealing with Food Allergies in Babies and Children
Author : Janice Vickerstaff Joneja
Publisher : Bull Publishing Company
Release Date : 2007-10-01
Category : Health & Fitness
Total pages :448
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The tools and methods this guide provides for analyzing and treating allergies in children are adaptable to a variety of situations—without ever losing sight of a child's nutritional needs. Recognizing that deficiencies in critical nutrients during a child's early years can have enormous consequences on growth and bodily functions, the book focuses on prevention and allergy management during pregnancy, in the early weeks of life, and in early childhood. The unique allergen scale and the strategies for confronting the 10 most common allergens will help parents balance their child's specific nutritional needs while managing delicate allergies to food.