June 19, 2021

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Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution

Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution
Author : Jane Q. Koenig
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :249
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Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution provides the reader with an overview of the health effects of air pollution in human subjects. The majority of the book is devoted to the discussion of the health effects of common widespread air pollutants regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through national ambient air quality standards. The book reviews the sources and fate of common air pollutants in ambient air and researches the adverse effects of these outdoor and indoor air pollutants in `in vivo' cell systems, animals, and humans. Research for the book was conducted in controlled laboratory studies and epidemiologic studies. Special emphasis throughout Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution is placed on the effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma.

Air Pollution

Air Pollution
Author : United States. General Accounting Office
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1989
Category : Air
Total pages :28
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Adverse health effects of ambient air pollution

Adverse health effects of ambient air pollution
Author : Sics Editore
Publisher : SICS Editore
Release Date : 2014-10-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :129
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With the exception of malodorous sulphur compounds, adverse health effects of ambient air pollutants are experienced only in built-up areas where the most hazardous compounds are respirable particles and nitrogen dioxide.

Air Pollution and Health in Rapidly Developing Countries

Air Pollution and Health in Rapidly Developing Countries
Author : Gordon McGranahan,Frank Murray
Publisher : Earthscan
Release Date : 2012
Category : Medical
Total pages :227
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In developing countries the price of rapid growth is all too often noxious airborne pollution, which annually contributes to a disturbing number of avoidable deaths. In recent decades, however, there has been considerable progress in the epidemiology of air pollution, significant changes in international air pollution guidelines, and the emergence of more systematic approaches to air pollution control. While many of these advances have originated in affluent countries, there have been major developments in other parts of the world. In this book, a distinguished cast of leading researchers in both the scientific and policy dimensions of air pollution and health have synthesized the recent developments in the field and their relevance for public health in developing countries. The authors review studies from a wide range of Asian, African and Latin American countries and contrast the findings with those from Europe and North America. They also describe various tools and systems for air pollution management and emphasize approaches that can be used when data is scarce. With a clear focus on the scientific and technical aspects of air pollution and health, this book is essential reading for pollution and health policy-makers, researchers and others concerned with air pollution and health in developing countries.

Monitoring Ambient Air Quality for Health Impact Assessment

Monitoring Ambient Air Quality for Health Impact Assessment
Author : World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe,World Health Organization
Publisher : WHO Regional Office Europe
Release Date : 1999
Category : Medical
Total pages :196
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A guide to the principles and methods of air quality assessment aimed at measuring population exposure to ambient air pollutants and estimating the effects on health. Addressed to policy-makers as well as scientists engaged in air quality monitoring, the book responds to the failure of most monitoring systems to provide data that are useful in estimating and managing threats to health. The need for exposure data on populations at special risk is also addressed. Throughout, emphasis is placed on methods of monitoring and modelling that are cost-effective, targeted, and appropriate to local and national conditions. The report has six chapters. The first introduces WHO activities related to air quality management and explains the need for monitoring systems capable of assessing health impact. The types of information required for health impact assessment are described in chapter two, which outlines several methods of monitoring and modelling that can be used to measure the level and distribution of exposure to air pollutants in populations, identify population groups with high exposure, and estimate adverse effects on health. Chapter three formulates a general concept of air quality assessment, offering advice on principles for designing a monitoring network, interpreting and reporting data, and solving problems with quality assurance. Also included is a comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of different methods for air quality monitoring. Against this background, the fourth and most extensive chapter describes specific methods for the monitoring of carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, lead, and atmospheric cadmium. Monitoring strategies for each pollutant are presented according to a standard format, which covers health effects, sources and exposure patterns, monitoring methods, recommended strategies for monitoring and assessment, and a practical example. The remaining chapters offer advice on the collation, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data, and summarize the main conclusions and recommendations of the report. Detailed technical guidelines for the use of various methods and models are provided in a series of annexes. The report also reproduces the newly revised WHO air quality guidelines for Europe.

Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution

Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution
Author : American Lung Association
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1989
Category : Air
Total pages :85
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Air Pollution Control

Air Pollution Control
Author : Sudarshan Prasad Mahajan
Publisher : The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)
Release Date : 2009-01-01
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :196
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Air pollution is aggravated in recent times because of four developments: increasing traffic, growing cities, rapid economic development, and industrialization. This book discusses the most important issues pertaining to air pollutants, their characterization, ambient concentrations, and effects on human health and ecology.

Ambient Air Pollution

Ambient Air Pollution
Author : EnviroComp Institute, The
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2007-03-01
Category :
Total pages :129
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The Growth and Yield Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Valencia Orange Trees

The Growth and Yield Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Valencia Orange Trees
Author : David M. Olszyk,California. Air Resources Board
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1989
Category : Oranges
Total pages :61
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Air Pollution XXIV

Air Pollution XXIV
Author : J.W.S. Longhurst,C.A. Brebbia,J. Barnes
Publisher : WIT Press
Release Date : 2016-07-14
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :280
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In these proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Air Pollution, international academics and air pollution practitioners contribute to the evolving understanding of the science and policy contexts of air pollution. All the books from the conference series have discussed important air pollution issues at an international, national and local level and by virtue of their truly international composition have brought to the discussion a unique suite of perspectives. The conference findings enjoy a wide and rapid dissemination amongst the air pollution science and policy communities. The management of air pollution is one of the most challenging problems facing the international community. A particular strength of the series has been the attention given to regulatory and market solutions to air pollution management. The Air Pollution series of conferences has consistently acknowledged that science remains the key to identifying the nature and scale of air pollution impacts and reaffirmed that science is essential in the formulation of policy relevant information for regulatory decision making. The conference series also acknowledged, at a very early stage, that science alone will not improve a polluted atmosphere. The scientific knowledge derived from well-designed studies needs to be allied with further technical and economic studies in order to ensure cost effective and efficient mitigation. In turn, the science, technology and economic outcomes are necessary but not sufficient. Topics covered include: Air pollution modelling; Air pollution mitigation and management; Aerosols and particles; Emission studies; Health effects; Indoor air pollution; Air data quality; Monitoring and measuring; Case studies; Air pollution control technologies; Industrial air pollution; Air pollution science; Global and regional studies; Climate change effects; GIS & remote sensing applications; Emerging pollutants; Socio economic issues; Public engagement; Policy and legislation.

Air Pollution and Health

Air Pollution and Health
Author : Stephen T. Holgate,Hillel S. Koren,Jonathan M. Samet,Robert L. Maynard
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 1999-04-21
Category : Medical
Total pages :1065
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Concern about the impact of air pollution has led governments and local authorities across the world to regulate, among other things, the burning of fossil fuels, industrial effluence, cigarette smoke, and aerosols. This legislation has often followed dramatic findings about the impact of pollution on human health. At the same time there have been significant developments in our ability to detect and quantify pollutants and a proliferation of urban and rural air pollution networks to monitor levels of atmospheric contamination. Air Pollution and Health is the first fully comprehensive and current account of air pollution science and it impact on human health. It ranges in scope from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and particle physics to the causes and scope of allergic reactions and respiratory, cardiovascular, and related disorders. The book has substantial international coverage and includes sections on cost implications, risk assessment, regulation, standards, and information networks. The multidisciplinary approach and the wide range of issues covered makes this an essential book for all concerned with monitoring and regulating air pollution as well as those concerned with its impact on human health. Only comprehensive text covering all the important air pollutants and relating these to human health and regulatory bodies Brings together a wide range of issues concerning air pollution in an easily accessible format Contributions from government agencies in the US and UK provide information on public policy and resource networks in the areas of health promotion and environmental protection

An Assessment of Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

An Assessment of Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean
Author : Pan American Health Organization. Area of Sustainable Development and Environmental Health
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2005
Category : Air
Total pages :68
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Ambient Air Pollution and Health Impact in China

Ambient Air Pollution and Health Impact in China
Author : Guang-Hui Dong
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-11-25
Category : Medical
Total pages :270
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This book focuses on the health impacts of air pollution in China, especially the epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for the mortality, morbidity, and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, and mental health related to pollution. It also provides the latest estimates of the magnitude of the adverse effects of air pollution on the health of the Chinese population. By providing a better understanding of the impact of air pollution on health, it improves the scientific basis of risk assessment, and also helps governments develop policies and other health protection initiatives to reduce the impacts of air pollution. The book offers environmental scientists, engineers, researchers and students a comprehensive and organized body of information in the area of air pollution.

Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on the Lung and Immune System

Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on the Lung and Immune System
Author : Russell P. Sherwin
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1989
Category : Air
Total pages :61
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Characterization and Impact of Ambient Air Pollution Measurement Error in Time-series Epidemiologic Studies

Characterization and Impact of Ambient Air Pollution Measurement Error in Time-series Epidemiologic Studies
Author : Gretchen Tanner Goldman
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2011
Category : Air
Total pages :129
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Time-series studies of ambient air pollution and acute health outcomes utilize measurements from fixed outdoor monitoring sites to assess changes in pollution concentration relative to time-variable health outcome measures. These studies rely on measured concentrations as a surrogate for population exposure. The degree to which monitoring site measurements accurately represent true ambient concentrations is of interest from both an etiologic and regulatory perspective, since associations observed in time-series studies are used to inform health-based ambient air quality standards. Air pollutant measurement errors associated with instrument precision and lack of spatial correlation between monitors have been shown to attenuate associations observed in health studies. Characterization and adjustment for air pollution measurement error can improve effect estimates in time-series studies. Measurement error was characterized for 12 ambient air pollutants in Atlanta. Simulations of instrument and spatial error were generated for each pollutant, added to a reference pollutant time-series, and used in a Poisson generalized linear model of air pollution and cardiovascular emergency department visits. This method allows for pollutant-specific quantification of impacts of measurement error on health effect estimates, both the assessed strength of association and its significance. To inform on the amount and type of error present in Atlanta measurements, air pollutant concentrations were simulated over the 20-county metropolitan area for a 6-year period, incorporating several distribution characteristics observed in measurement data. The simulated concentration fields were then used to characterize the amount and type of error due to spatial variability in ambient concentrations, as well as the impact of use of different exposure metrics in a time-series epidemiologic study. Finally, methodologies developed for the Atlanta area were applied to air pollution measurements in Dallas, Texas with consideration for the impact of this error on a health study of the Dallas-Fort Worth region that is currently underway.