November 24, 2020

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Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides

Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides
Author : Pavel Povinec
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-07-28
Category : Science
Total pages :538
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The purpose of this book is to present a state of art summary of current knowledge of methods of assessment of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments. It cover the traditional methods of radioactivity measurements such as radiometrics techniques, but also recent developments in the mass spectrometry sector. The book starts with a short preface introducing the subject of the book, summarising content and philosophy of the book, as well as the most important historical achievements. The scientific topics are introduced by description of sampling methods, optimisation of sampling sites and sampling frequency. The recent developments in radiochemical separation methods using chromatography resins for the treatment of actinides, transuranics and other groups of radioelements are also described. No other book is available covering all aspects of environmental radioactivity measurements, although remarkable progress has been made in detection techniques over the last ten years. At present the new methods enable to carry out investigations which were not possible before, either because of lack of sensitivity or because of the fact that they required too large samples.

Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis

Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis
Author : John E. Till,Helen A. Grogan
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2008-07-10
Category : Science
Total pages :728
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Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis comprehensively explains methods used for estimating risk to people exposed to radioactive materials released to the environment by nuclear facilities or in an emergency such as a nuclear terrorist event. This is the first book that merges the diverse disciplines necessary for estimating where radioactive materials go in the environment and the risk they present to people. It is not only essential to managers and scientists, but is also a teaching text. The chapters are arranged to guide the reader through the risk assessment process, beginning with the source term (where the radioactive material comes from) and ending with the conversion to risk. In addition to presenting mathematical models used in risk assessment, data is included so the reader can perform the calculations. Each chapter also provides examples and working problems. The book will be a critical component of the rebirth of nuclear energy now taking place, as well as an essential resource to prepare for and respond to a nuclear emergency.

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis IV

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis IV
Author : Peter Warwick
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 2011
Category : Science
Total pages :206
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Environmental Radiochemical Analysis IV is a collection of original papers presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Environmental Radiochemical Analysis. Representing the work of leading scientists across the globe this new edition provides information on: "new methods of radionuclide analyses "developments and improvements in existing methods "mass spectrometry in radionuclide measurements "results of an intercomparison study "gamma detector performance "emergency radiological foodchain monitoring. The book is essential reading for practising radioanalysts and students who are specialising in radiochemical analysis.

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis VI

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis VI
Author : Nicholas Evans
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 2019-09-18
Category : Science
Total pages :208
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Anthropogenic radionuclides have been introduced into the environment by incidents such as nuclear weapon tests, accidents in nuclear power plants, transport accidents and accidental or authorised discharges from nuclear facilities. Scientists need accurate analysis of these radionuclides in order to estimate the risk to the public from released radioactivity. This book is a snapshot of the work of leading scientists from across the globe on environmental radiochemistry and radioecology, nuclear forensics and radiation detection, radioanalytical techniques and nuclear industry applications. The research contributions were first presented at the 13th International Symposium on Nuclear and Environmental Radiochemical Analysis in September 2018. This essential work provides a key reference for graduates and professionals who work across fields involving analytical chemistry, radiochemistry, environmental science and technology, and waste disposal.

Radionuclides in the Environment

Radionuclides in the Environment
Author : Clemens Walther,Dharmendra K. Gupta
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2015-10-30
Category : Science
Total pages :273
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This book provides extensive and comprehensive information to researchers and academicians who are interested in radionuclide contamination, its sources and environmental impact. It is also useful for graduate and undergraduate students specializing in radioactive-waste disposal and its impact on natural as well as manmade environments. A number of sites are affected by large legacies of waste from the mining and processing of radioactive minerals. Over recent decades, several hundred radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) of natural elements have been produced artificially, including 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I. Several other anthropogenic radioactive elements have also been produced in large quantities, for example technetium, neptunium, plutonium and americium, although plutonium does occur naturally in trace amounts in uranium ores. The deposition of radionuclides on vegetation and soil, as well as the uptake from polluted aquifers (root uptake or irrigation) are the initial point for their transfer into the terrestrial environment and into food chains. There are two principal deposition processes for the removal of pollutants from the atmosphere: dry deposition is the direct transfer through absorption of gases and particles by natural surfaces, such as vegetation, whereas showery or wet deposition is the transport of a substance from the atmosphere to the ground by snow, hail or rain. Once deposited on any vegetation, radionuclides are removed from plants by the airstre am and rain, either through percolation or by cuticular scratch. The increase in biomass during plant growth does not cause a loss of activity, but it does lead to a decrease in activity concentration due to effective dilution. There is also systemic transport (translocation) of radionuclides within the plant subsequent to foliar uptake, leading the transfer of chemical components to other parts of the plant that have not been contaminated directly.

Ratio Estimation Techniques in the Analysis of Environmental Radionuclide Data

Ratio Estimation Techniques in the Analysis of Environmental Radionuclide Data
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1977
Category :
Total pages :129
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Ratios play a prominent role in the analysis of environmental transuranic data. The mathematical assumptions underlying the use of ratios are presented. The properties of seven different estimators of an average ratio and their standard errors are discussed with respect to their applicability to transuranic field studies. The behavior of these estimators, their standard errors, and confidence intervals are compared for three representative sets of data from safety-shot sites at the Nevada Test Site and Tonapah Test Range. Guidelines are given for deciding if an average ratio is appropriate. Recommendations for avoiding an inappropriate estimator are discussed.

Radionuclide Concentrations in Food and the Environment

Radionuclide Concentrations in Food and the Environment
Author : Michael Poschl,Leo M.L. Nollet
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2006-08-21
Category : Medical
Total pages :458
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As radiological residue, both naturally occurring and technologically driven, works its way through the ecosystem, we see its negative effects on the human population. Radionuclide Concentrations in Food and the Environment addresses the key issues concerning the relationship between natural and manmade sources of environmental radioactivity

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis III

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis III
Author : Peter Warwick (Prof.)
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 2007
Category : Science
Total pages :220
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The analysis of radionuclides in the environment became extremely important after the accident at Chernobyl in1986. The accident made scientists aware that accurate methods of radionuclide analyses are essential in order to estimate the risk to the public from released radioactivity. Methods are still being developed today because of the ongoing requirement to monitor environmental radioactivity and, to assess the radionuclide waste inventory for the recently proposed intermediate radioactive waste repository. This book brings together current developments in radioactive analyses. Environmental Radiochemical Analysis III is an authoritative, up to date review of research contributions presented at the 10th International Symposium on Environmental Radiochemical Analysis. Representing the work of leading scientists across the globe this edition provides information on: * new methods of radioanalyses * waste steams during decommissioning * radioactivity measurements in the environment * hazard assessment in decommissioning * improvements in measurement instrumentation * application of software to measurements * current IAEA activities for the ALMERA network * proficiency testing and research and development in the NDA. This exceptional work offers an insight into topical areas of research and is a key point of reference for graduates and professionals alike who work across fields involving analytical chemistry, environmental science and technology, and hazards and waste research and disposal.

Environmental Radionuclides

Environmental Radionuclides
Author : Klaus Froehlich
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2009-09-23
Category : Science
Total pages :432
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Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis
Author : Michael F. L'Annunziata
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2020-03-07
Category : Science
Total pages :1074
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Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis: Radiation Physics and Detectors, Volume One, and Radioanalytical Applications, Volume Two, Fourth Edition, constitute an authoritative reference on the principles, practical techniques and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity - everything from the very low levels encountered in the environment, to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, and fuel cycle facilities, and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. It includes sample preparation techniques for all types of matrices found in the environment, including soil, water, air, plant matter and animal tissue, and surface swipes. Users will find the latest advances in the applications of radioactivity analysis across various fields, including environmental monitoring, radiochemical standardization, high-resolution beta imaging, automated radiochemical separation, nuclear forensics, and more. Spans two volumes, Radiation Physics and Detectors and Radioanalytical Applications Includes a new chapter on the analysis of environmental radionuclides Provides the latest advances in the applications of liquid and solid scintillation analysis, alpha- and gamma spectrometry, mass spectrometric analysis, Cherenkov counting, flow-cell radionuclide analysis, radionuclide standardization, aerosol analysis, high-resolution beta imaging techniques, analytical techniques in nuclear forensics, and nuclear safeguards Describes the timesaving techniques of computer-controlled automatic separation and activity analysis of radionuclides Provides an extensive table of the radiation characteristics of most radionuclides of interest for the radioanalytical chemist

Fukushima Accident

Fukushima Accident
Author : Pavel P. Povinec,Katsumi Hirose,Michio Aoyama
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-07-09
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :400
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Fukushima Accident presents up-to-date information on radioactivity released to the atmosphere and the ocean after the accident on the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, on the distribution of radionuclides in the world atmosphere and oceans, and their impact on the total environment (man, fauna, and flora). The book will evaluate and discuss the post-Fukushima situation, emphasizing radionuclide impacts on the terrestrial and marine environments, and compare it with the pre-Fukushima sources of radionuclides in the environment. The authors’ results, as well as knowledge gathered from the literature, will provide up-to-date information on the present status of the topics. Fukushima Accident is based on the environmental and nuclear research; however, the presentation will be suitable for university-level readers. 2013 PROSE Award winner in Environmental Science from the Association of American Publishers Covers atmospheric and marine radioactivity, providing information on the global atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere and world oceans Examines radiation doses to the public and biota to understand the health risks to the public and ecosystems Provides information on monitoring radionuclides in the environment – information on sources of radionuclides, their temporal and spatial variations, and radionuclide levels Covers transport of radionuclides from different sources (e.g. nuclear power plants) as well as atmospheric simulations and modeling approaches

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis
Author : Michael F. L'Annunziata
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012-12-02
Category : Science
Total pages :771
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Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis is written by experts in the measurement of radioactivity. The book describes the broad scope of analytical methods available and instructs the reader on how to select the proper technique. It is intended as a practical manual for research which requires the accurate measurement of radioactivity at all levels, from the low levels encountered in the environment to the high levels measured in radioisotope research. This book contains sample preparation procedures, recommendations on steps to follow, necessary calculations, computer controlled analysis, and high sample throughput techniques. Each chapter includes practical techniques for application to nuclear safety, nuclear safeguards, environmental analysis, weapons disarmament, and assays required for research in biomedicine and agriculture. The fundamentals of radioactivity properties, radionuclide decay, and methods of detection are included to provide the basis for a thorough understanding of the analytical procedures described in the book. Therefore, the Handbook can also be used as a teaching text. Key Features * Includes sample preparation techniques for matrices such as soil, air, plant, water, animal tissue, and surface swipes * Provides procedures and guidelines for the analysis of commonly encountered na

Radioactivity in the Environment

Radioactivity in the Environment
Author : Vlado Valkovic
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2000-09-26
Category : Science
Total pages :696
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Numerous sources of ionizing radiation can lead to human exposure: natural sources, nuclear explosions, nuclear power generation, use of radiation in medical, industrial and research purposes, and radiation emitting consumer products. Before assessing the radiation dose to a population one requires a precise knowledge of the activity of a number of radionuclides. The basis for the assessment of the dose to a population from a release of radioactivity to the environment, the estimation of the potential clinical heath effects due to the dose received and, ultimately, the implementation of countermeasures to protect the population, is the measurement of radioactive contamination in the environment after the release. It is the purpose of this book to present the facts about the presence of radionuclides in the environment, natural and man made. There is no aspect of radioactivity, which has marked the passing century, not mentioned or discussed in this book.

Development of Ion Exchange Resin Methods for Direct Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides

Development of Ion Exchange Resin Methods for Direct Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides
Author : Paul Allan Blakeslee
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1964
Category : Ion exchange
Total pages :154
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Radionuclide X-ray Fluorescence Analysis with Environmental Applications

Radionuclide X-ray Fluorescence Analysis with Environmental Applications
Author : Juraj Tölgyessy,Emil Havránek,Eva Dejmková
Publisher : Elsevier Science Limited
Release Date : 1990
Category : Science
Total pages :254
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Nuclear analytical methods are being used increasingly for solving analytical problems and, of these methods, radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis (radionuclide XRFA) is becoming more important. The purpose of this work is to present a comprehensive, instructive analysis of the basis of radionuclide XRFA, to describe methods of sample preparation for environmental analysis and to make the reader more familiar with the procedures, methods and instrumentation of radionuclide XRFA used in this field. This book discusses the use of radionuclide XRFA for solving analytical problems of the environment and information is presented concerning the current state of research and use of radionuclide XRFA in this significant area. The present volume will serve as a basic source of data and also as a laboratory handbook.