December 5, 2020

Download Ebook Free Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
Author : Celia Holland
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-05-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :460
GET BOOK

This book tackles a number of different perspectives concerning the parasitic helminth Ascaris, both in animals and in humans and the disease known as ascariasis. It seeks to identify interesting, exciting and novel aspects, which will interest readers from a broad range of disciplines. Over a quarter of the world's population are infected with the human roundworm, and the equivalent in pigs is equally ubiquitous. Both contribute to insidious and chronic nutritional morbidity, and this has been quantified, in humans, as disability adjusted life years approximating 10.5 million. Ascaris larvae develop in host parenteral tissues, and the resultant pathology has been condemnation. Ascariasis, despite its staggering global prevalence and the sheer numbers of people it infects, remains a classic neglected disease. However, renewed interest in the consequences of early infection with worms from the perspective of immune modulation, co-infections and the development of allergy further enhances the relevance of these parasites. Brings together a wide range of topics and approaches and recent, comprehensive and progressive research concerning the neglected parasite Ascaris Provides a blueprint of how a single parasite entity can stimulate interest in basic biology, clinical science, veterinary science, public health and epidemiology Presents a wealth of new insights given that a book on this parasite has not been published for over 20 years 16 chapters from a range of top authors from around the world

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
Author : Johnny Vlaminck,Peter Geldhof
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :460
GET BOOK

Roundworms are the most prevalent parasite of swine in the world today. Their presence on a pig farm can have detrimental effects on farm profitability due to their impact on growth rate, feed conversion, and general health of the produced pigs. For farmers, it is therefore essential to be aware of the “worm status” of their herd in order to make informed decisions on how to control this disease on their farm. This chapter concentrates on the diverse aspects involved in the diagnosis and control of Ascaris suum infections on pig farms. It focuses on how the results obtained from different detection methods should be interpreted and what efforts could be made to control parasite transmission and consequentially reduce the prevalence and economic impact of this parasite on a pig farm.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
Author : Celia V. Holland,Jerzy M. Behnke,Christina Dold
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :460
GET BOOK

Larval ascariasis is much less well understood than adult worm infection. Part of the explanation for this is the difficulty in assessing the impact of larval infections in human subjects. In contrast, adult worms can be counted after post-chemotherapeutic expulsion or, additionally, eggs voided in host feces can be quantified as an indirect measure of infection intensity. Furthermore, respiratory and hepatic disease, which may be associated with transient passage of larvae through these organs, can be either non-specific or cryptic, making Ascaris-specific diagnosis through clinical signs of infection challenging. The influence of early infection on parasite establishment and host immunity is recognized as important but it remains challenging to unravel the complexities of the relationship. Both pigs as natural hosts of Ascaris suum and a range of abnormal hosts have been utilized to investigate larval migration. Few if any of these model systems have enabled clarification of the basis of variation in susceptibility and resistance to larval migration and accumulation in the liver and lungs. In this chapter, we document the literature on larval ascariasis with a particular emphasis on studies utilizing mice because mice are now developing as useful model systems for the study of early Ascaris infection, the migratory path and its duration being similar to that of pigs. We describe a mouse model of early Ascaris infection that mimics the extremes of the host phenotype displayed in the aggregated distribution of adult worms in human and pig populations, outline the existing evidence for the role of the liver in susceptibility to larval ascariasis and discuss future directions for the use of this model system.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
Author : Sarah Williams-Blangero,Mona H. Fenstad,Satish Kumar,John Blangero
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :460
GET BOOK

Ascaris infections remain major global public health problems despite the wide availability of cheap, effective anthelminthic drugs. An improved understanding of host susceptibility to Ascaris infection may suggest new approaches for targeting available drugs more effectively, or may suggest novel targets for drug development efforts. This chapter explores our current understanding of the underlying genetic architecture of susceptibility to Ascaris infection. The past and potential future uses of different types of genetic approaches, from quantitative genetic studies of heritability, to gene localization, to sequencing of functional variants, are explored. The field of human complex disease genetics is moving rapidly as a result of both technological and theoretical advances. State-of-the-art genetic techniques promise to yield new insights which will dramatically improve our understanding of the determinants of differential host susceptibility to Ascaris infection.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
Author : Simon J. Brooker,Rachel L. Pullan
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :460
GET BOOK

Ascariasis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) affecting 763 million people worldwide, with nutritional and developmental consequences of chronic childhood infection and severe clinical disease occurring in heavy infections. Reliably estimating the extent of the problem of Ascaris lumbricoides and ascariasis is difficult because of inaccuracies in parasitological diagnosis, the non-specificity of clinical signs, and a paucity of reliable and accurate data. As a consequence, estimating the global distribution and disease burden has been based on informed approximations, using the best available information. This chapter provides an overview of past and current estimates of the global population at risk of and infected with A. lumbricoides. The regional and global burden of ascariasis is estimated by extrapolation from data on the prevalence of infection and a series of epidemiological methods. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study uses disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden, based on an assessment of premature mortality and years lived with disability. The data and methods used to estimate the disease burden of ascariasis in the 1990 GBD study and the 2010 study are compared. Globally, intestinal nematodes are estimated to contribute 5.184 million DALYs in 2010, with ascariasis contributing 1.3148 million, trichuriasis 0.6382 million, and hookworm 3.2311 million. The 2010 study provides estimates for both 1990 and 2010, and these findings indicated that the burden of ascariasis in 2010 is much lower than in 1990, where ascariasis contributed 4.2173 billion DALYs. The use of DALYs to estimate the burden of ascariasis is not without its limitations, however, and fails to capture the broader societal impact of ascariasis and other NTDs or that they disapportionally affect the poorest populations.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
Author : Antony O.W. Stretton,Aaron G. Maule
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :460
GET BOOK

The structural simplicity of nematode nervous systems has provided a useful resource for studies on basic neurobiology. Two species have underpinned basic neuroscience research in phylum Nematoda, the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the pig parasitic nematode Ascaris suum due to their genetic tractability and large size, respectively. The fact that most of the chemotherapeutic targets for the treatment of roundworm parasite infections of animals and man associate with neuromuscular function means that nematode neurobiology research resonates beyond discovery biology and informs parasite control. These diverse drivers for the interrogation of nematode neurobiology have exposed a unique approach to the regulation of complex behavioral traits, encompassing structural simplicity with profound chemical complexity. The latter embraces extreme diversity in both the ligand-gated ion channel subunit complements for classical neurotransmitters and in the neuropeptide ligands that signal mostly via G-protein coupled receptors, offering compelling opportunities for parasite control-target discovery and validation.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
Author : Charles D. Criscione
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :460
GET BOOK

The fields of conservation genetics and genetic epidemiology share many parallel questions. Hence, methodologies can be adapted from the former to the latter. Three applications of population genetics are presented to further our understanding of Ascaris epidemiology. (1) I address if Ascaris infections in humans and pigs constitute a single population or subdivided host-affiliated populations with potential for cross-transmission and hybridization. (2) I discuss the use of landscape genetics as a means to identify transmission foci and epidemiologically relevant variables correlated to parasite population substructure. (3) I propose the novel integration of the effective population size (Ne) parameter into population monitoring and epidemiological studies of parasites in general. Using microsatellite data from a metapopulation of A. lumbricoides in Nepal, I demonstrate the utility of estimating Ne with single-sample contemporary estimators, offer epidemiologically related questions that can be addressed with Ne, and highlight assumptions of Ne estimation related to Ascaris biology.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
Author : Stig Milan Thamsborg,Peter Nejsum,Helena Mejer
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :460
GET BOOK

The roundworm Ascaris suum is a highly prevalent intestinal parasite of pigs worldwide, and the infection may have low to moderate pathogenic effects on health and productivity. Besides these direct effects, there may be indirect effects on enhanced susceptibility or pathogenicity to bacterial or viral infections, related to the migratory and immune-modulatory capacity of A. suum. Losses due to ascariasis in pigs can thus be summarized as (1) farm economic losses due to clinical effects (although limited), reduced growth and feed conversion efficiency and costs of control (e.g. use of anthelmintics), (2) abattoir operator losses due to condemnation or downgrading of livers and lower product quality, and (3) potential interference with vaccinations and higher risk of co-infections. Apart from the cost of liver condemnations that can be extrapolated from available data, it is difficult to quantify losses.

Human Helminthiasis

Human Helminthiasis
Author : Luis Rodrigo
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2017-02-15
Category : Medical
Total pages :158
GET BOOK

Human helminthiasis, known as worm infections, is any macroparasitic disease affecting humans, in which a part of the body is invaded by a lot of worms, known as helminths. They are broadly classified into flukes, tapeworms, and roundworms. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis are the most important, being included into the neglected tropical diseases. Helminthiasis has been found to result in poor birth outcome, less cognitive development, lower school and work performance, lower socioeconomic development, and poverty. Soil-transmitted helminthiases are responsible for parasitic infections in as much as a quarter of the human population worldwide. This group of infective diseases has been targeted under the joint action of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies and local governments, trying to achieve their eradication.

Human Parasitology

Human Parasitology
Author : Burton J. Bogitsh,Thomas N. Oeltmann,Clint E. Carter
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2005-04-07
Category : Science
Total pages :488
GET BOOK

Human Parasitology emphasizes the medical aspects of the topic, while incorporating functional morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and immunology to enhance appreciation of the diverse implications of parasitism. Bridging the gap between classical clinical parasitology texts and traditional encyclopaedic treatises, Human Parasitology appeals to students interested not only in the medical aspects of Parasitology but also to those who require a solid foundation in the biology of parasites. *Updated and expanded reference section *New chapter on Immunology *Additional SEM and TEM micrographs *Professionally drawn life cycle illustrations *Addition of “Host Immune Response section for each organism

Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases

Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases
Author : Peter J. Hotez
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2020-07-24
Category : Science
Total pages :230
GET BOOK

Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases Second Edition The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are the most common infections of the world's poor, but few people know about these diseases and why they are so important. This second edition of Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases provides an overview of the NTDs and how they devastate the poor, essentially trapping them in a vicious cycle of extreme poverty by preventing them from working or attaining their full intellectual and cognitive development. Author Peter J. Hotez highlights a new opportunity to control and perhaps eliminate these ancient scourges, through alliances between nongovernmental development organizations and private-public partnerships to create a successful environment for mass drug administration and product development activities. Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases also Addresses the myriad changes that have occurred in the field since the previous edition. Describes how NTDs have affected impoverished populations for centuries, changing world history. Considers the future impact of alliances between nongovernmental development organizations and private-public partnerships. Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases is an essential resource for anyone seeking a roadmap to coordinate global advocacy and mobilization of resources to combat NTDs.

Immunity to Parasitic Infection

Immunity to Parasitic Infection
Author : Tracey Lamb
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2012-08-10
Category : Science
Total pages :520
GET BOOK

Parasitic infections remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the world today. Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system. This book examines current knowledge about immune responses to parasitic infections affecting humans, including interactions that occur during co-infections, and how immune responses may be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field. An overview of the immune system, as well as introductions to protozoan and helminth parasites, is included to guide background reading. A historical perspective of the field of immunoparasitology acknowledges the contributions of investigators who have been instrumental in developing this field of research.

Advances in Common Eye Infections

Advances in Common Eye Infections
Author : Shimon Rumelt
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2016-12-07
Category : Medical
Total pages :178
GET BOOK

This book is a new addition for a broad-spectrum library in ophthalmology and other specialties in medicine of "InTech." It addresses ocular infections. These infections may result in blindness if not correctly diagnosed and promptly treated. Therefore, it is essential to be fully aware and knowledgeable about the manifestations of these diseases, and this book covers some of the different aspects of them. The chapters were written by experts from around the globe and these reflect the importance of the subject. The book is aimed for ophthalmologists, residents in ophthalmology and infectious diseases, general practitioners, and researchers in hope to advance the knowledge for the benefit of the world habitants wherever they are.

The Geohelminths

The Geohelminths
Author : Celia V. Holland,Malcolm W. Kennedy
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2006-04-11
Category : Science
Total pages :335
GET BOOK

The soil-transmitted nematode parasites, or geohelminths, are - called because they have a direct life cycle, which involves no intermediate hosts or vectors, and are transmitted by faecal contamination of soil, foodstuffs and water supplies. They all inhabit the intestine in their adult stages but most species also have tissue-migratoryjuvenile stages, so the disease manifestations they cause can therefore be both local and systemic. The geohelminths together present an enormous infection burden on humanity. Those which cause the most disease in humans are divided into three main groupings, Ascaris lumbricoides (the large roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), and the blood-feeding hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus ), and this book concentrates on these. These intestinal parasites are highly prevalent worldwide, A. lumbricoides is estimated to infect 1471 million (over a quarter ofthe world’s population), hookworms 1277 million, and T. trichiura 1049 million. The highly pathogenic Strongyloides species might also be classified as geohelminths, but they are not dealt with here because the understanding of their epidemiology, immunology and genetics has not advanced as rapidly as for the others. This is primarily because of the often covert nature of the infections, with consequent difficulties for analysis. If there is ever a second edition of this book, then there will hopefully be much to say about this infection.

Helminth Control in School-age Children

Helminth Control in School-age Children
Author : A. Montresor,D. W. T. Crompton,World Health Organization,T.W. Gyorkos,L. Savioli
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release Date : 2002
Category : Medical
Total pages :64
GET BOOK

More than 2000 million people worldwide are affected by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and 155 000 deaths are reported each year. These infections are diseases associated with poverty, and in school-age populations in developing countries, intestinal helminth infections rank first among the causes of all communicable and noncommunicable diseases. This book describes a cost-effective approach to the control of these infections, based on the use of periodic parasitological surveys of school population samples. It is intended as a guide for health education managers responsible for implementing community-based programmes.