April 14, 2021

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Assisted History Matching for Unconventional Reservoirs

Assisted History Matching for Unconventional Reservoirs
Author : Sutthaporn Tripoppoom,Wei Yu,Kamy Sepehrnoori,Jijun Miao
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 2021-08-15
Category : Science
Total pages :330
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As unconventional reservoir activity grows in demand, reservoir engineers relying on history matching are challenged with this time-consuming task in order to characterize hydraulic fracture and reservoir properties, which are expensive and difficult to obtain. Assisted History Matching for Unconventional Reservoirs delivers a critical tool for today's engineers proposing an Assisted History Matching (AHM) workflow. The AHM workflow has benefits of quantifying uncertainty without bias or being trapped in any local minima and this reference helps the engineer integrate an efficient and non-intrusive model for fractures that work with any commercial simulator. Additional benefits include various applications of field case studies such as the Marcellus shale play and visuals on the advantages and disadvantages of alternative models. Rounding out with additional references for deeper learning, Assisted History Matching for Unconventional Reservoirs gives reservoir engineers a holistic view on how to model today's fractures and unconventional reservoirs. Provides understanding on simulations for hydraulic fractures, natural fractures, and shale reservoirs using embedded discrete fracture model (EDFM) Reviews automatic and assisted history matching algorithms including visuals on advantages and limitations of each model Captures data on uncertainties of fractures and reservoir properties for better probabilistic production forecasting and well placement

Shale Gas and Tight Oil Reservoir Simulation

Shale Gas and Tight Oil Reservoir Simulation
Author : Wei Yu,Kamy Sepehrnoori
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 2018-08-10
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :430
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Shale Gas and Tight Oil Reservoir Simulation delivers the latest research and applications used to better manage and interpret simulating production from shale gas and tight oil reservoirs. Starting with basic fundamentals, the book then includes real field data that will not only generate reliable reserve estimation, but also predict the effective range of reservoir and fracture properties through multiple history matching solutions. Also included are new insights into the numerical modelling of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in tight oil reservoirs. This information is critical for a better understanding of the impacts of key reservoir properties and complex fractures. Models the well performance of shale gas and tight oil reservoirs with complex fracture geometries Teaches how to perform sensitivity studies, history matching, production forecasts, and economic optimization for shale-gas and tight-oil reservoirs Helps readers investigate data mining techniques, including the introduction of nonparametric smoothing models

Assisted History Matching Workflow for Unconventional Reservoirs

Assisted History Matching Workflow for Unconventional Reservoirs
Author : Sutthaporn Tripoppoom
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019
Category :
Total pages :448
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The information of fractures geometry and reservoir properties can be retrieved from the production data, which is always available at no additional cost. However, in unconventional reservoirs, it is insufficient to obtain only one realization because the non-uniqueness of history matching and subsurface uncertainties cannot be captured. Therefore, the objective of this study is to obtain multiple realizations in shale reservoirs by adopting Assisted History Matching (AHM). We used multiple proxy-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm and Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) to perform AHM. The reason is that MCMC has benefits of quantifying uncertainty without bias or being trapped in any local minima. Also, using MCMC with proxy model unlocks the limitation of an infeasible number of simulations required by a traditional MCMC algorithm. For fractures modeling, EDFM can mimic fractures flow behavior with a higher computational efficiency than a traditional local grid refinement (LGR) method and more accuracy than the continuum approach. We applied the AHM workflow to actual shale gas wells. We found that the algorithm can find multiple history matching solutions and quantify the fractures and reservoir properties posterior distributions. Then, we predicted the production probabilistically. Moreover, we investigated the performance of neural network (NN) and k-nearest neighbors (KNN) as a proxy model in the proxy-based MCMC algorithm. We found that NN performed better in term of accuracy than KNN but NN required twice running time of KNN. Lastly, we studied the effect of enhanced permeability area (EPA) and natural fractures existence on the history matching solutions and production forecast. We concluded that we would over-predict fracture geometries and properties and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) if we assumed no EPA or no natural fractures even though they actually existed. The degree of over-prediction depends on fractures and reservoir properties, EPA and natural fractures properties, which can only be quantified after performing AHM. The benefits from this study are that we can characterize fractures geometry, reservoir properties, and natural fractures in a probabilistic manner. These multiple realizations can be further used for a probabilistic production forecast, future fracturing design improvement, and infill well placement decision

Shale Analytics

Shale Analytics
Author : Shahab D. Mohaghegh
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-02-09
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :287
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This book describes the application of modern information technology to reservoir modeling and well management in shale. While covering Shale Analytics, it focuses on reservoir modeling and production management of shale plays, since conventional reservoir and production modeling techniques do not perform well in this environment. Topics covered include tools for analysis, predictive modeling and optimization of production from shale in the presence of massive multi-cluster, multi-stage hydraulic fractures. Given the fact that the physics of storage and fluid flow in shale are not well-understood and well-defined, Shale Analytics avoids making simplifying assumptions and concentrates on facts (Hard Data - Field Measurements) to reach conclusions. Also discussed are important insights into understanding completion practices and re-frac candidate selection and design. The flexibility and power of the technique is demonstrated in numerous real-world situations.

Intelligent Digital Oil and Gas Fields

Intelligent Digital Oil and Gas Fields
Author : Gustavo Carvajal,Marko Maucec,Stan Cullick
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 2017-12-14
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :374
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Intelligent Digital Oil and Gas Fields: Concepts, Collaboration, and Right-time Decisions delivers to the reader a roadmap through the fast-paced changes in the digital oil field landscape of technology in the form of new sensors, well mechanics such as downhole valves, data analytics and models for dealing with a barrage of data, and changes in the way professionals collaborate on decisions. The book introduces the new age of digital oil and gas technology and process components and provides a backdrop to the value and experience industry has achieved from these in the last few years. The book then takes the reader on a journey first at a well level through instrumentation and measurement for real-time data acquisition, and then provides practical information on analytics on the real-time data. Artificial intelligence techniques provide insights from the data. The road then travels to the "integrated asset" by detailing how companies utilize Integrated Asset Models to manage assets (reservoirs) within DOF context. From model to practice, new ways to operate smart wells enable optimizing the asset. Intelligent Digital Oil and Gas Fields is packed with examples and lessons learned from various case studies and provides extensive references for further reading and a final chapter on the "next generation digital oil field," e.g., cloud computing, big data analytics and advances in nanotechnology. This book is a reference that can help managers, engineers, operations, and IT experts understand specifics on how to filter data to create useful information, address analytics, and link workflows across the production value chain enabling teams to make better decisions with a higher degree of certainty and reduced risk. Covers multiple examples and lessons learned from a variety of reservoirs from around the world and production situations Includes techniques on change management and collaboration Delivers real and readily applicable knowledge on technical equipment, workflows and data challenges such as acquisition and quality control that make up the digital oil and gas field solutions of today Describes collaborative systems and ways of working and how companies are transitioning work force to use the technology and making more optimal decisions

Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling and Application in Reservoir Simulation

Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling and Application in Reservoir Simulation
Author : Kamy Sepehrnoori,Yifei Xu,Wei Yu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2020-08-27
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :304
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The development of naturally fractured reservoirs, especially shale gas and tight oil reservoirs, exploded in recent years due to advanced drilling and fracturing techniques. However, complex fracture geometries such as irregular fracture networks and non-planar fractures are often generated, especially in the presence of natural fractures. Accurate modelling of production from reservoirs with such geometries is challenging. Therefore, Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling and Application in Reservoir Simulation demonstrates how production from reservoirs with complex fracture geometries can be modelled efficiently and effectively. This volume presents a conventional numerical model to handle simple and complex fractures using local grid refinement (LGR) and unstructured gridding. Moreover, it introduces an Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) to efficiently deal with complex fractures by dividing the fractures into segments using matrix cell boundaries and creating non-neighboring connections (NNCs). A basic EDFM approach using Cartesian grids and advanced EDFM approach using Corner point and unstructured grids will be covered. Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling and Application in Reservoir Simulation is an essential reference for anyone interested in performing reservoir simulation of conventional and unconventional fractured reservoirs. Highlights the current state-of-the-art in reservoir simulation of unconventional reservoirs Offers understanding of the impacts of key reservoir properties and complex fractures on well performance Provides case studies to show how to use the EDFM method for different needs

Reservoir Formation Damage

Reservoir Formation Damage
Author : Faruk Civan,Faruk Civan, PhD
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-08-30
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :1136
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Reservoir Formation Damage, Second edition is a comprehensive treatise of the theory and modeling of common formation damage problems and is an important guide for research and development, laboratory testing for diagnosis and effective treatment, and tailor-fit- design of optimal strategies for mitigation of reservoir formation damage. The new edition includes field case histories and simulated scenarios demonstrating the consequences of formation damage in petroleum reservoirs Faruk Civan, Ph.D., is an Alumni Chair Professor in the Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering at the University of Oklahoma in Norman. Dr. Civan has received numerous honors and awards, including five distinguished lectureship awards and the 2003 SPE Distinguished Achievement Award for Petroleum Engineering Faculty. Petroleum engineers and managers get critical material on evaluation, prevention, and remediation of formation damage which can save or cost millions in profits from a mechanistic point of view State-of-the-Art knowledge and valuable insights into the nature of processes and operational practices causing formation damage Provides new strategies designed to minimize the impact of and avoid formation damage in petroleum reservoirs with the newest drilling, monitoring, and detection techniques

Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Handbook

Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Handbook
Author : Y Zee Ma,Stephen Holditch
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 2015-10-06
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :550
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Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Handbook: Evaluation and Development is a must-have, helpful handbook that brings a wealth of information to engineers and geoscientists. Bridging between subsurface and production, the handbook provides engineers and geoscientists with effective methodology to better define resources and reservoirs. Better reservoir knowledge and innovative technologies are making unconventional resources economically possible, and multidisciplinary approaches in evaluating these resources are critical to successful development. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Handbook takes this approach, covering a wide range of topics for developing these resources including exploration, evaluation, drilling, completion, and production. Topics include theory, methodology, and case histories and will help to improve the understanding,integrated evaluation, and effective development of unconventional resources. Presents methods for a full development cycle of unconventional resources, from exploration through production Explores multidisciplinary integrations for evaluation and development of unconventional resources and covers a broad range of reservoir characterization methods and development scenarios Delivers balanced information with multiple contributors from both academia and industry Provides case histories involving geological analysis, geomechanical analysis, reservoir modeling, hydraulic fracturing treatment, microseismic monitoring, well performance and refracturing for development of unconventional reservoirs

Fundamentals of Gas Reservoir Engineering

Fundamentals of Gas Reservoir Engineering
Author : J. Hagoort
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 1988-06-01
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :326
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Gas reservoir engineering is the branch of reservoir engineering that deals exclusively with reservoirs of non-associated gas. The prime purpose of reservoir engineering is the formulation of development and production plans that will result in maximum recovery for a given set of economic, environmental and technical constraints. This is not a one-time activity but needs continual updating throughout the production life of a reservoir. The objective of this book is to bring together the fundamentals of gas reservoir engineering in a coherent and systematic manner. It is intended both for students who are new to the subject and practitioners, who may use this book as a reference and refresher. Each chapter can be read independently of the others and includes several, completely worked exercises. These exercises are an integral part of the book; they not only illustrate the theory but also show how to apply the theory to practical problems. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 are concerned with the basic physical properties of reservoirs and natural gas fluids, insofar as of relevance to gas reservoir engineering. Chapter 5 deals with the volumetric estimation of hydrocarbon fluids in-place and the recoverable hydrocarbon reserves of gas reservoirs. Chapter 6 presents the material balance method, a classic method for the analysis of reservoir performance based on the Law of Conservation of Mass. Chapters 7-10 discuss various aspects of the flow of natural gas in the reservoir and the wellbore: single phase flow in porous and permeable media; gaswell testing methods based on single-phase flow principles; the mechanics of gas flow in the wellbore; the problem of water coning, the production of water along with the gas in gas reservoirs with underlaying bottom water. Chapter 11 discusses natural depletion, the common development option for dry and wet gas reservoirs. The development of gas-condensate reservoirs by gas injection is treated in Chapter 12. Appendix A lists the commonly used units in gas reservoir engineering, along with their conversion factors. Appendix B includes some special physical and mathematical constants that are of particular interest in gas reservoir engineering. Finally, Appendix C contains the physical properties of some common natural-gas components.

Principles of Applied Reservoir Simulation

Principles of Applied Reservoir Simulation
Author : John R. Fanchi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2006
Category : Science
Total pages :511
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What makes this book so different and valuable to the engineer is the accompanying software, used by reservoir engineers all over the world every day. The new software, IFLO (replacing WINB4D, in previous editions), is a simulator that the engineer can easily install in a Windows operating environment. IFLO generates simulations of how the well can be tapped and feeds this to the engineer in dynamic 3D perspective. This completely new software is much more functional, with better graphics and more scenarios from which the engineer can generate simulations. BENEFIT TO THE READER: This book and software helps the reservoir engineer do his or her job on a daily basis, better, more economically, and more efficiently. Without simulations, the reservoir engineer would not be able to do his or her job at all, and the technology available in this product is far superior to most companies internal simulation software.-

Petrophysical Characterization and Fluids Transport in Unconventional Reservoirs

Petrophysical Characterization and Fluids Transport in Unconventional Reservoirs
Author : Jianchao Cai,Xiangyun Hu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2019-01-24
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :352
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Petrophysical Characterization and Fluids Transport in Unconventional Reservoirs presents a comprehensive look at these new methods and technologies for the petrophysical characterization of unconventional reservoirs, including recent theoretical advances and modeling on fluids transport in unconventional reservoirs. The book is a valuable tool for geoscientists and engineers working in academia and industry. Many novel technologies and approaches, including petrophysics, multi-scale modelling, rock reconstruction and upscaling approaches are discussed, along with the challenge of the development of unconventional reservoirs and the mechanism of multi-phase/multi-scale flow and transport in these structures. Includes both practical and theoretical research for the characterization of unconventional reservoirs Covers the basic approaches and mechanisms for enhanced recovery techniques in unconventional reservoirs Presents the latest research in the fluid transport processes in unconventional reservoirs

Introduction to Genetic Algorithms

Introduction to Genetic Algorithms
Author : S.N. Sivanandam,S. N. Deepa
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2007-10-24
Category : Mathematics
Total pages :442
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This book offers a basic introduction to genetic algorithms. It provides a detailed explanation of genetic algorithm concepts and examines numerous genetic algorithm optimization problems. In addition, the book presents implementation of optimization problems using C and C++ as well as simulated solutions for genetic algorithm problems using MATLAB 7.0. It also includes application case studies on genetic algorithms in emerging fields.

Recent trends in exploration, exploitation and processing of petroleum resources

Recent trends in exploration, exploitation and processing of petroleum resources
Author : Sukumar Laik
Publisher : Tata McGraw-Hill Education
Release Date : 2009
Category : Enhanced oil recovery
Total pages :623
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Uncertainty Quantification of Unconventional Reservoirs Using Assisted History Matching Methods

Uncertainty Quantification of Unconventional Reservoirs Using Assisted History Matching Methods
Author : Esmail Mohamed Khalil Eltahan
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019
Category :
Total pages :368
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A hallmark of unconventional reservoirs is characterization uncertainty. Assisted History Matching (AHM) methods provide attractive means for uncertainty quantification (UQ), because they yield an ensemble of qualifying models instead of a single candidate. Here we integrate embedded discrete fracture model (EDFM), one of fractured-reservoirs modeling techniques, with a commercial AHM and optimization tool. We develop a new parameterization scheme that allows for altering individual properties of multiple wells or fracture groups. The reservoir is divided into three types of regions: formation matrix; EDFM fracture groups; and stimulated rock volume (SRV) around fracture groups. The method is developed in a sleek, stand-alone form and is composed of four main steps: (1) reading parameters exported by tool; (2) generating an EDFM instance; (3) running the instance on a simulator; and (4) calculating a pre-defined objective function. We present two applications. First, we test the method on a hypothetical case with synthetic production data from two wells. Using 20 history-matching parameters, we compare the performance of five AHM algorithms. Two of which are based on Bayesian approach, two are stochastic particle-swarm optimization (PSO), and one is commercial DECE algorithm. Performance is measured with metrics, such as solutions sample size, total simulation runs, marginal parameter posterior distributions, and distributions of estimated ultimate recovery (EUR). In the second application, we assess the effect of natural fractures on UQ of a single horizontal well in the middle Bakken. This is achieved by comparing four AHM scenarios with increasingly varying natural-fracture intensity. Results of the first study show that, based on pre-set acceptance criteria, DECE fails to generate any satisfying solutions. Bayesian methods are noticeably superior to PSO, although PSO is capable to generate large number of solutions. PSO tends to be focused on narrow regions of the posteriors and seems to significantly underestimate uncertainty. Bayesian Algorithm I, a method with a proxy-based acceptance/rejection sampler, ranks first in efficiency but evidently underperforms in accuracy. Results from the second study reveal that, even though varying intensity of natural fractures cam significantly alter other model parameters, that appears not to have influence on UQ (or long-term production)

Reservoir Characterization

Reservoir Characterization
Author : Larry Lake
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012-12-02
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :682
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Reservoir Characterization is a collection of papers presented at the Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference, held at the Westin Hotel-Galleria in Dallas on April 29-May 1, 1985. Conference held April 29-May 1, 1985, at the Westin Hotel—Galleria in Dallas. The conference was sponsored by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. Reservoir characterization is a process for quantitatively assigning reservoir properties, recognizing geologic information and uncertainties in spatial variability. This book contains 19 chapters, and begins with the geological characterization of sandstone reservoir, followed by the geological prediction of shale distribution within the Prudhoe Bay field. The subsequent chapters are devoted to determination of reservoir properties, such as porosity, mineral occurrence, and permeability variation estimation. The discussion then shifts to the utility of a Bayesian-type formalism to delineate qualitative ""soft"" information and expert interpretation of reservoir description data. This topic is followed by papers concerning reservoir simulation, parameter assignment, and method of calculation of wetting phase relative permeability. This text also deals with the role of discontinuous vertical flow barriers in reservoir engineering. The last chapters focus on the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on oil reservoir. Petroleum engineers, scientists, and researchers will find this book of great value.