December 5, 2020

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Biofilms and Implantable Medical Devices

Biofilms and Implantable Medical Devices
Author : Ying Deng,Wei Lv
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2016-10-24
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :238
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Biofilms and Implantable Medical Devices: Infection and Control explores the increasing use of permanent and semi-permanent implants and indwelling medical devices. As an understanding of the growth and impact of biofilm formation on these medical devices and biomaterials is vital for protecting the health of the human host, this book provides readers with a comprehensive treatise on biofilms and their relationship with medical devices, also reporting on infections and associated strategies for prevention. Provides useful information on the fundamentals of biofilm problems in medical devices Discusses biofilm problems in a range of medical devices Focuses on strategies for prevention of biofilm formation

Biomaterials and Medical Device - Associated Infections

Biomaterials and Medical Device - Associated Infections
Author : L Barnes,Ian Cooper
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-11-21
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :278
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Despite advances in materials and sterilisation, patients who receive biomaterials of medical device implants are still at risk of developing an infection around the implantation site. This book reviews the fundamentals of biomaterials and medical device related infections and methods and materials for the treatment and prevention of infection. The first part of the book provides readers with an introduction to the topic including analyses of biofilms, diagnosis and treatment of infection, pathology and topography. The second part of the book discusses a range of established and novel technologies and materials which have been designed to prevent infection. Provides analysis of biofilms and their relevance to implant associated infections. Assesses technologies for controlling biofilms. Considers advantages and disadvantages of in vivo infection studies.

Biofilms in Human Diseases: Treatment and Control

Biofilms in Human Diseases: Treatment and Control
Author : Sunil Kumar,Niharika Chandra,Leena Singh,Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi,Ajit Varma
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2019-11-19
Category : Medical
Total pages :311
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This book highlights treatment strategies for bacterial biofilms in connection with a variety of human diseases. In particular, it reviews bacterial biofilm formation and its mechanism. Topics covered include biofilms in human health, the role of biofilms in mediating human diseases, and methods for testing bacterial biofilms. Further sections concentrate on biofilm-mediated diseases in different parts of the human gastrointestinal tract, while therapeutic strategies for biofilm control and natural agents that disrupt bacterial biofilms are also covered. Readers will also find the latest advances in probiotics and biofilms, as well as the use of probiotics to counteract biofilm-associated infections. Biofilms and antimicrobial resistance are discussed. Subsequent chapters address the management of inflammatory bowel disease via probiotics biofilms, as well as the role of probiotics bacteria in the treatment of human diseases associated with bacterial biofilms. The book is chiefly intended for clinicians/scientists in the fields of medical microbiology, applied microbiology, biochemistry, and biotechnology.

Medical Biofilms

Medical Biofilms
Author : Jana Jass,Susanne Surman,James Walker
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2003-04-02
Category : Science
Total pages :314
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Biofilms are formed by microorganisms growing on surfaces and comprise a series of microcolonies interspersed with spaces through which fluids and other microorganisms move. In medicine, the primary problems are biofilms associated with implants: infections are increasingly difficult to treat with traditional antibiotics and removal of the implant often becomes essential, frequently leading to higher morbidity and mortality. This will be the first book dedicated to medical biofilms. It will cover much recent information on the problems of biofilms, how to detect them and how to control their presence.

Biofilm Eradication and Prevention

Biofilm Eradication and Prevention
Author : Tamilvanan Shunmugaperumal
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2010-12-28
Category : Science
Total pages :440
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Biofilm Eradication and Preventions presents the basics of biofilm formation on medical devices, diseases related to this formation, and approaches pharmaceutical researchers need to take to limit this problem. Split into three parts, the first deals with the development and characterization of biofilm on the surfaces of implanted or inserted medical devices. Questions as to why biofilms form over medical device surfaces and what triggers biofilm formation are addressed. In the second section, the author discusses biofilm-mediated chronic infections occurred in various organs (eyes, mouth, wounds) and pharmaceutical and drug delivery knowledge gained from research in these area. The third part explores pharmaceutical approaches like lipid-and polymer-based drug delivery carriers for eradicating biofilm on device-related infections. In addition, this section also explores the topic of novel small molecule (like iron and its complexes/metal chelators) and a quorum-sensing inhibitors to control medical biofilm formation.

The Role of Biofilms in Device-Related Infections

The Role of Biofilms in Device-Related Infections
Author : Mark Shirtliff,Jeff G. Leid
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2008-12-19
Category : Medical
Total pages :272
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Approximately 60% of all hospital-associated infections, over one million cases per year, are due to biofilms that have formed on indwelling medical devices. Device-related biofilm infections increase hospital stays and add over one billion dollars/year to U.S. hospitalization costs. Since the use and the types of indwelling medical devices commonly used in modern healthcare are continuously expanding, especially with an aging population, the incidence of biofilm infections will also continue to rise. The central problem with microbial biofilm infections of foreign bodies is their propensity to resist clearance by the host immune system and all antimicrobial agents tested to date. In fact, compared to their free floating, planktonic counterparts, microbes within a biofilm are 50 – 500 times more resistant to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, achieving therapeutic and non-lethal dosing regimens within the human host is impossible. The end result is a conversion from an acute infection to one that is persistent, chronic, and recurrent, most often requiring device removal in order to eliminate the infection. This text will describe the major types of device-related infections, and will explain the host, pathogen, and the unique properties of their interactions in order to gain a better understanding of these recalcitrant infections.

Biofilm and Materials Science

Biofilm and Materials Science
Author : Hideyuki Kanematsu,Dana M Barry
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2015-04-09
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :196
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This book explains the formation of biofilm on materials surfaces in an industrial setting. The authors describe new developments in understanding of biofilm formation, detection, and control from the viewpoint of materials science and engineering. The book details the range of issues caused by biofilm formation and the variety of affected industries.

Biofilm formation by staphylococci and streptococci: Structural, functional and regulatory aspects and implications for pathogenesis

Biofilm formation by staphylococci and streptococci: Structural, functional and regulatory aspects and implications for pathogenesis
Author : Joan A. Geoghegan, Pietro Speziale
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2015-06-25
Category :
Total pages :129
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Members of the genus Staphylococcus and Streptococcus are the causative agnets of many human and animal diseases. Over the past decade the complete sequencing of many staphylococcal and streptococcal genomes has promoted a significant advance in our knowledge of these important pathogens. The pathogenicity of these bacteria is due to the expression of a large variety of virulence factors. Such determinants, which are cell wall-associated and secreted proteins, include adhesins that confer to the pathogen the ability to attach to extracellular matrix/plasma and host cell surfaces, proteins that contribute to host cell invasion and intracellular survival and soluble factors that decrease phagocytosis and modulate the immune response. Furthermore, these Gram-positive cocci in many natural environments (heart valve, lung, oral cavity, throat) and infections on implanted devices live in matrix-encased groups known as biofilms. Biofilms are specialized bacterial communities with high order organization analogous to that of a tissue in multicellular organism that adhere to abiotic or biological substrata and produce an exopolymeric matrix composed of polysaccarides, proteins, DNA or combination thereof. Bacteria within a biofilm persist in adverse conditions, show resistance to killing by antibiotics and to host immune defences and are difficult to eradicate and treat clinically. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of biofilm development will allow us to effectively combat staphylococcal/streptococcal biofilm-based infections. This Research Topic will focus on the molecular components involved in biofilm formation by staphylococci and streptococci, the role they play in the development, maturation and dispersal of biofilm and on the regulatory aspects of such complex processes. The implication for the pathogenesis of infective diseases and potential therapeutic strategies against biofilm-based infections will be also discussed. The articles will highlight both the recent advances and future challenges inherent in this rapidly evolving area.

Microbial Biofilms in Healthcare

Microbial Biofilms in Healthcare
Author : Karen Vickery
Publisher : MDPI
Release Date : 2020-03-16
Category : Medical
Total pages :166
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Biofilms are ubiquitous and their presence in industry can lead to production losses. However, nowhere do biofilms impact human health and welfare as much as those that are found contaminating the healthcare environment, surgical instruments, equipment, and medical implantable devices. Approximately 70% of healthcare-associated infections are due to biofilm formation, resulting in increased patient morbidity and mortality. Biofilms formed on medical implants are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment, which leaves implant removal as the principal treatment option. In this book, we investigate the role of biofilms in breast and dental implant disease and cancer. We include in vitro models for investigating treatment of chronic wounds and disinfectant action against Candida sp. Also included are papers on the most recent strategies for treating biofilm infection ranging from antibiotics incorporated into bone void fillers to antimicrobial peptides and quorum sensing.

Medical Implications of Biofilms

Medical Implications of Biofilms
Author : Michael Wilson,Deirdre Devine
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2003-09-01
Category : Science
Total pages :129
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Human tissues often support large, complex microbial communities growing as biofilms that can cause a variety of infections. As a result of an increased use of implanted medical devices, the incidence of these biofilm-associated diseases is increasing: the non-shedding surfaces of these devices provide ideal substrata for colonisation by biofilm-forming microbes. The consequences of this mode of growth are far-reaching. As microbes in biofilms exhibit increased tolerance towards antimicrobial agents and decreased susceptibility to host defence systems, biofilm-associated diseases are becoming increasingly difficult to treat. Not surprisingly, therefore, interest in biofilms has increased dramatically. The application of microscopic and molecular techniques has revolutionised our understanding of biofilm structure, composition, organisation, and activities, resulting in important advances in the prevention and treatment of biofilm-related diseases. The purpose of this book, which was first published in 2003, is to bring these advances to the attention of clinicians and medical researchers.

Antimicrobial Coatings and Modifications on Medical Devices

Antimicrobial Coatings and Modifications on Medical Devices
Author : Zheng Zhang,Victoria E. Wagner
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-05-24
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :273
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Based on a fundamental understanding of the interaction between bacteria and materials, this timely volume emphasizes the latest research in the antimicrobial interfacial design and provides an invaluable blueprint for improving antimicrobial performance on devices and products. Antimicrobial Coatings and Modifications targets reduction of microbial accumulation on biomedical and industrial materials through changing interfacial characteristics. Applying a viable antimicrobial coating or modification to resist alarming threats is a highly demanding requirement for many medical and engineering applications. Many contemporary books in the area of antimicrobial solution focus on applying antimicrobial agents or materials that can kill bacteria. The volume pays more attention to eliminating bacterial contamination and biofilm formation through surface characteristics with minimized bacterial resistance and environmental impact.

Biofilm Eradication and Prevention

Biofilm Eradication and Prevention
Author : Tamilvanan Shunmugaperumal
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2010-12-28
Category : Science
Total pages :440
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Biofilm Eradication and Preventions presents the basics of biofilm formation on medical devices, diseases related to this formation, and approaches pharmaceutical researchers need to take to limit this problem. Split into three parts, the first deals with the development and characterization of biofilm on the surfaces of implanted or inserted medical devices. Questions as to why biofilms form over medical device surfaces and what triggers biofilm formation are addressed. In the second section, the author discusses biofilm-mediated chronic infections occurred in various organs (eyes, mouth, wounds) and pharmaceutical and drug delivery knowledge gained from research in these area. The third part explores pharmaceutical approaches like lipid-and polymer-based drug delivery carriers for eradicating biofilm on device-related infections. In addition, this section also explores the topic of novel small molecule (like iron and its complexes/metal chelators) and a quorum-sensing inhibitors to control medical biofilm formation.

Biofilm Infections

Biofilm Infections
Author : Thomas Bjarnsholt,Peter Østrup Jensen,Claus Moser,Niels Høiby
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-10-11
Category : Science
Total pages :314
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This book will cover both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections such as diagnostics and treatment regimes. A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that that less than 0.1% of the total microbial biomass lives in the planktonic mode of growth. The term was coined in 1978 by Costerton et al. who defined the term biofilm for the first time.In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognised that the biofilmmode of growth was relevant to microbiology. Lately many articles have been published on the clinical implications of bacterial biofilms. Both original articles and reviews concerning the biofilm problem are available.

Biomaterials Associated Infection

Biomaterials Associated Infection
Author : Fintan Moriarty,Sebastian A.J. Zaat,Henk J. Busscher
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-09-29
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :566
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Biomaterials associated infection (BAI) is one of the most common complications associated with implantation of any biomaterial regardless of form or function. These infections usually involve bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on the biomaterial itself, rendering the infection impervious to antimicrobials and host defenses. In addition, it is becoming increasingly clear that infection of the surrounding tissues also plays an important role in BAI, and that the infection may be influenced by the composition and design of the implanted biomaterial. In this book, worldwide leaders in the field address this critical problem in the translation of biomaterials research into clinical practice. The book begins with an emphasis on the latest research in the pathogenesis of BAI from microbiological, immunological, and materials science perspectives. The current state of the art in antimicrobial activation of biomaterials through surface modification and the incorporation of antimicrobial agents is then discussed. In the concluding chapters, successful translation of a selection of antimicrobial technologies from preclinical research into clinical use is described alongside a discussion of the utility of these devices and perspectives for future development. This book is essential reading for researchers and clinicians who are interested in understanding the fundamentals of BAI, the latest in antimicrobial materials research, and the state of the art in clinically available antimicrobial containing medical devices.

Biofilm-based Healthcare-associated Infections

Biofilm-based Healthcare-associated Infections
Author : Gianfranco Donelli
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-11-10
Category : Medical
Total pages :195
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The aim of this book is to provide readers with a wide overview of the main healthcare-associated infections caused by bacteria and fungi able to grow as biofilm. The recently acquired knowledge on the pivotal role played by biofilm-growing microorganisms in healthcare-related infections has given a new dynamic to detection, prevention and treatment of these infections in patients admitted to both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities. Clinicians, hygienists and microbiologists will be updated by leading scientists on the state-of-art of biofilm-based infections and on the most innovative strategies for prevention and treatment of these infections, often caused by emerging multidrug-resistant biofilm-growing microorganisms.