November 26, 2020

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Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor
Author : Ken Ishii,Choon Kit Tang
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-10-30
Category : Science
Total pages :368
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Biological DNA Sensor defines the meaning of DNA sensing pathways and demonstrates the importance of the innate immune responses induced by double stranded DNA (dsDNA) through its influencing functions in disease pathology and immune activity of adjuvants for vaccines. Though discussed in specific subsections of existing books, dsDNA and its immunogenic properties has never received the complete treatment given in this book. Biological DNA Sensor approaches the impact of dsDNA's immunogenicity on disease and vaccinology holistically. It paints a complete and concise picture on the topic so you can understand this area of study and make more informed choices for your respective research needs. Chapters are authored by researchers who are renowned for their research focus, ensuring that this book provides the most complete views on the topics. Multi-authored by a distinguished panel of world-class experts Ideal source of information for those wanting to learn about DNA sensing Provides in-depth explanations of DNA sensing pathways and the innate immune system, bridging the gap between them

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor
Author : Choon Kit Tang,Cevayir Coban,Shizuo Akira,Ken J. Ishii
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-30
Category : Medical
Total pages :368
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In this chapter, we reflect on our early understanding of the immunogenic properties of dsDNA and give a chronological account of the journey we have taken to discover the individual cellular DNA sensors which have played important roles in mediating DNA induced inflammation.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor
Author : Glen N. Barber
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-30
Category : Medical
Total pages :368
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Invading microbes are detected by cellular sensors, the consequences of which result in the production of potent anti-pathogen proteins such as type I interferon (IFN) as well as other cytokines capable of stimulating the adaptive immune response. Examples comprise the RIG-I-like helicase (RLH) and the Toll-like receptor (TLR) families which recognize non-self-pathogen derived molecules (PAMPs) including bacterial lipopolysaccharides as well as nucleic acids. In addition, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) associated transmembrane protein referred to as STING (for stimulator of interferon genes) was established as being essential for triggering the production of innate immune proteins in response to the sensing of cytosolic DNA. Such DNA can be ‘self’-DNA produced from necrotic or apoptotic cells, or the actual genomes of DNA pathogens that become exposed following infection. Moreover, while STING appears essential for controlling innate signaling events triggered by DNA microbes, chronic STING activation also appears to be responsible for certain inflammatory diseases manifested by ‘self’-DNA. Thus, understanding STING function may lead to the design of new compounds that may facilitate vaccine development or conversely that may provide new therapies for the treatment of inflammatory disease.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor
Author : Jan Naujoks,Bastian Opitz
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-30
Category : Medical
Total pages :368
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The detection of bacterial pathogens by the innate immune system is mediated by various pattern recognition receptors that sense microbial molecules such as cell wall components, virulence factors or nucleic acids. Bacterial DNA is recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) at endosomal compartments and by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, polymerase III/RIG-I, AIM2-like receptors (ALRs), DNA helicases as well as other incompletely characterized proteins in the host cell cytosol. Depending on the receptor and specific engagement of the adapter molecules MyD88, STING, MAVS or ASC, sensing of bacterial DNA triggers expression of NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory genes, type I IFN responses, and/or inflammasome activation. Whereas inflammatory gene expression and inflammasome activation are required for an effective host defense to most bacterial infections, type I IFNs appear to play a regulatory role and can be beneficial or detrimental for the host. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge about the mechanisms of DNA sensing and its function in bacterial infections.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor
Author : Cevayir Coban,Miyuki Tozuka,Nao Jounai,Kouji Kobiyama,Fumihiko Takeshita,Choon Kit Tang,Ken J. Ishii
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-30
Category : Medical
Total pages :368
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Ideal vaccines are expected to give lifetime protection from infectious diseases, and if possible, from allergic diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. DNA vaccination was introduced two decades ago as a simple plasmid inoculation method with a capability of inducing both cellular and humoral immune responses. Recent studies have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms by which the double-stranded structure of DNA vaccine induces the activation of type-I interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune responses via STING/TBK1 complex, similar to cytosolic double stranded DNA (dsDNA) recognition of immune cells. In this chapter, DNA vaccines and the current knowledge on their mechanism of action will be introduced. The possibilities of using this knowledge for improving immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in humans will then be discussed.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor
Author : Rebecca Schmidt,Laurel L. Lenz
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-30
Category : Medical
Total pages :368
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Cyclic dinucleotides (c-di-NMPs), such as c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP were first discovered in bacteria, where they play important roles as second messenger molecules that regulate bacterial cellular functions. In addition, these and other c-di-NMPs exert potent biological effects on mammalian cells, such as the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, immune cell activation, and the triggering of type I interferon production. Here, we introduce the biology of c-di-NMPs in bacterial systems and review the current state of the literature on their biological effects in mammalian cells. Emphasis is placed on evaluating the evidence that c-di-NMPs have potent immune stimulatory effects on cultured mouse and human cells and can act as adjuvants and immune stimulants in animal models. In addition, we highlight areas where further experimentation could hasten the development of c-di-NMPs as adjuvants in potent and safe systemic and mucosal vaccines.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor
Author : Sivapriya Kailasan Vanaja,Vijay A.K. Rathinam,Katherine A. Fitzgerald
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-30
Category : Medical
Total pages :368
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The innate immune response serves as the first line of defense against microbial infections by detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns through germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors. Proteins of the PYHIN family have gained substantial research focus in recent years as central mediators of innate immune responses induced by cytosolic microbial DNA. Sensing of DNA by PYHINs typically leads to activation of inflammasomes and/or type I interferon responses that are crucial for host defense against invading pathogens. Certain members of the family are also involved in the development of autoimmune diseases as well as transcriptional regulation. Although the generation of knockout mice strains has unraveled the essential role of PYHIN proteins such as AIM2 in the development of antimicrobial innate immune responses, the exact biological role of several other PYHIN family members remains to be understood. This chapter reviews the important discoveries on PYHIN proteins and their role in microbial defense, autoimmunity and transcriptional regulation.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor
Author : Søren R. Paludan,Andrew G. Bowie
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-30
Category : Medical
Total pages :368
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Microbial and host DNA are potent stimulators of innate immune responses and have been implicated in both host defense and autoimmune diseases. To date more than 10 immunological sensors of DNA have been proposed, and we are now beginning to understand the functions and mechanism of action of these proposed DNA sensors in host defense and diseases. Much of the current knowledge on DNA sensing has been obtained through studies with herpesviruses. Hence, in this chapter, we review and critically assess the literature on innate DNA recognition from the perspective of herpesviruses sensing. Finally, we extend the discussion beyond herpesviruses, and propose important questions that need to be addressed in the emerging field of innate immune activation by DNA.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor
Author : Surya Pandey,Taro Kawai
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-30
Category : Medical
Total pages :368
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DNA sensors initiate innate immune responses upon recognition of microbial and self-derived DNA in the intracellular compartments or cytoplasm. These sensors include TLR9, AIM2 like receptors and many other recently identified cytosolic DNA sensors. The otherwise protective nature of host defense by these receptors can turn hostile when they recognize self-DNA through various mechanisms and aberrantly activate DNA sensing pathways leading to unregulated or inappropriate type I IFN production and consequent autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. In this chapter, we highlight the current findings that shed light on the complex initiator and effector mechanisms that contribute to autoimmune disease pathology, including DNA sensing receptors, self and non-self discrimination, type I IFN system, mechanisms of enhanced self-DNA access to TLR9 and defective host DNA clearance.

Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies

Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies
Author : Krzysztof Iniewski
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2012-02-16
Category : Medical
Total pages :412
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Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies presents contributions from top experts who explore the development and implementation of sensors for various applications used in medicine and biology. Edited by a pioneer in the area of advanced semiconductor materials, the book is divided into two sections. The first part covers sensors for biological applications. Topics include: Advanced sensing and communication in the biological world DNA-derivative architectures for long-wavelength bio-sensing Label-free silicon photonics Quartz crystal microbalance-based biosensors Lab-on-chip technologies for cell-sensing applications Enzyme biosensors Future directions for breath sensors Solid-state gas sensors for clinical diagnosis The second part of the book deals with sensors for medical applications. This section addresses: Bio-sensing and human behavior measurements Sweat rate wearable sensors Various aspects of medical imaging The future of medical imaging Spatial and spectral resolution aspects of semiconductor detectors in medical imaging CMOS SSPM detectors CdTe detectors and their applications to gamma-ray imaging Positron emission tomography (PET) Composed of contributions from some of the world’s foremost experts in their respective fields, this book covers a wide range of subjects. It explores everything from sensors and communication systems found in nature to the latest advances in manmade sensors. The end result is a useful collection of stimulating insights into the many exciting applications of sensor technologies in everyday life.

Sensors for Chemical and Biological Applications

Sensors for Chemical and Biological Applications
Author : Manoj Kumar Ram,Venkat R. Bhethanabotla
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-10-03
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :390
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In recent years, sensor research has undergone a quiet revolution that will have a significant impact on a broad range of applications in areas such as health care, the environment, energy, food safety, national security, and manufacturing. Sensors for Chemical and Biological Applications discusses in detail the potential of chemical and biological sensors and examines how they are meeting the challenges of chem-bio terrorism by monitoring through enhanced specificity, fast response times, and the ability to determine multiple hazardous substances. Exploring the nanotechnology approach, and carrying this theme throughout the book, the chapters cover the sensing principles for, chemical, electrical, chromatographic, magnetic, biological, fluidic, optical, and ultrasonic and mass sensing systems. They address issues associated with cost, synthesis, and testing of new low cost materials with high sensitivity, selectivity, robustness, and speed for defined sensor applications. The book extensively discusses the detailed analysis of future impact of chemical and biological sensors in day-to-day life. Successful development of improved chemical sensor and biosensor systems and manufacturing procedures will not only increase the breadth and depth of the sensor industry, but will spill over into the design and manufacture of other types of sensors and devices that use nanofabrication and microfabrication techniques. This reference not only supplies versatile, hands-on tools useful in a broad array of disciplines, but also lays the interdisciplinary groundwork required for the achievement of sentient processing.

Biological Imaging and Sensing

Biological Imaging and Sensing
Author : Toshiyuki Furukawa
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2004-04-07
Category : Medical
Total pages :298
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Topics discussed in this book include: cell imaging, multiphoton microscopy for biomedical studies, molecular imaging, infrared imaging, biomedical magnetic imaging, and microscopy with laser-trapped particles. The book also deals with nanosurgery with light, the effects of ultrasound on tissue, diagnostics, near- and far-infrared transmission of biomedical information, and cell sensors.

Biomolecular Sensors

Biomolecular Sensors
Author : Electra Gizeli,Christopher R. Lowe
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2002-05-16
Category : Medical
Total pages :336
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The development of devices that incorporate biological assemblies is impacting analytical and biomedical research. Today, scientists can monitor vital biological interactions-such as the binding of DNA to proteins-in real time, deriving unique information necessary to understanding biochemical pathways and thus aiding the design of drugs to regulat

Electrochemical Sensors Technology

Electrochemical Sensors Technology
Author : Mohammed Rahman,Abdullah Mohammed Asiri
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2017-05-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :170
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This book Electrochemical Sensors Technology mostly reviews the modem methods and significant electrochemical and electroanalytical applications of chemical sensors and biosensors. Chapters of this book are invited and contributed from the experts throughout the world from prominent researchers and scientists in the field of sensors and in the field of electro- and biochemistry. Each chapter provides technical and methodological details beyond the level found in typical journal articles or reviews and explores the application of chemical sensors, environmental sensors, and biosensors to a significant problem in biomedical and environmental science, also providing a prospectus for the future. This book compiles with the expert knowledge of many specialists in the construction and use of chemical sensors and biosensors including chemical sensors, biological sensors, DNA sensors, immunosensors, gaseous sensors, ionic sensors, bioassay sensors, lab-on-chips, devices, portable sensors, microchips, nanosensors, implantable microsensors, and so on in the field of fundamental and applied electrochemistry. Highlights and importance are laid on real or practical problems, ranging from chemical application to biomedical monitoring, from in vitro to in vivo, and from single cell to animal to human measurement. This offers a unique opportunity of exchanging and combining the scientist or researcher in electrochemical sensors in largely chemistry, biological engineering, electronic engineering, and biomedical and physiological fields.

Inorganic Nanoprobes for Biological Sensing and Imaging

Inorganic Nanoprobes for Biological Sensing and Imaging
Author : Hedi Mattoussi,Jinwoo Cheon
Publisher : Artech House
Release Date : 2009
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :302
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This groundbreaking resource offers you an up-to-date account of the pioneering activity pushing new boundaries in the emerging area of inorganic nanoprobes and their use in biology and medicine. Written and edited by leading experts in the field, this unique book places particular emphasis nanoprobes made of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots or QDs) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). You find an insightful discussion on the synthesis, characterization, and analysis of the unique properties of luminescent QDs and MNPs.