November 26, 2020

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Bird Strike

Bird Strike
Author : Michael N. Kalafatas
Publisher : Brandeis University Press
Release Date : 2015-02-02
Category : History
Total pages :200
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On a warm and golden afternoon, October 4, 1960, a Lockheed Electra jet turboprop carrying 72 souls took off from Logan Airport. Seconds later, the plane slammed into a flock of 10,000 starlings, and abruptly plummeted into Winthrop Harbor. The collision took 62 lives and gave rise to the largest rescue mobilization in Boston's history, which included civilians in addition to police, firefighters, skindivers, and Navy and Coast Guard air-sea rescue teams. Largely because of the quick action and good seamanship of Winthrop citizens, many of them boys in small boats, ten passengers survived what the Civil Aeronautics Board termed "a non-survivable crash." Using firsthand interviews with survivors of the crash, rescuers, divers, aeronautics experts, and ornithologists, as well as a wide range of primary source material, Kalafatas foregrounds the story of the crash and its aftermath to anchor a broader inquiry into developments in the aeronautics industry, the increase in the number of big birds in the skies of North America, and the increasing danger of "bird strikes." Along the way he looks into interesting historical sidelights such as the creation of Logan Airport, the transformation of Boston's industrial base to new technologies, and the nature of journalistic investigations in the early 1960s. The book is a rare instance when an author can simultaneously write about a fascinating historical event and a clear and present danger today. Kalafatas calls for and itemizes solutions that protect both birds and the traveling public.

Bird Strike

Bird Strike
Author : Reza Hedayati,Mojtaba Sadighi
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2015-09-06
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :258
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Bird strikes are one of the most dangerous threats to civil and military flight safety: between 1960 and 2014, they were responsible for the destruction of approximately 150 civil aircraft and the deaths of 271 people. Bird Strike presents a summary of the damage imposed on the aviation industries by their avian counterparts. This book first presents and analyzes the statistics obtained from bird strike databases and offers various methods for minimizing the overall probability of bird-strike events. The next chapters explore how to analyze the ability of aero-engine critical structures to withstand bird-strike events by implementing reliable experimental, theoretical, and numerical methods. Finally, the book investigates the impact of bird strikes on different components of aircrafts, such as the metal fuselage, composite fuselage, engines, wings, and tail, and proposes two new bird models, with explanations of their use. Provides up-to-date information for aviation staff and researchers working on aircraft safety Offers comprehensive investigations on all the statistical, theoretical, experimental, and numerical aspects of bird strike Includes studies carried out on bird strike and provides the reader with the important findings of each paper

Finite Element Modeling of Bird Strikes and Parametric Evaluation Using Design of Experiments (DOE)

Finite Element Modeling of Bird Strikes and Parametric Evaluation Using Design of Experiments (DOE)
Author : Venkata Varaha Raja Naga Prathyush Bheem Reddy
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2010
Category : Aircraft bird strikes
Total pages :98
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"One of the major threats to Aviation industry is the in-flight impact of birds. Aircraft windshields are intensively vulnerable to damage and hence need a certification requirement for a proven level of impact resistance. Bird strike experiments are very expensive and henceforth explicit numerical modeling techniques have grown importance. This compilation mainly relies on the theory of hydrodynamic impact and addresses basic shockwave equations. A smooth particle hydrodynamics based approach is chosen and the numerical simulation is carried out using contact-impact coupling algorithm. The simulation is run using the nonlinear explicit finite element code LSDYNA ver.971, developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. A traditional design of experiments approach, factorial design, has been utilized to facilitate the economical prediction of factors significantly affecting the pressure response in the bird strike analysis. Impact velocity, bird mass, bird aspect ratio, porosity and obliquity of impact are the various parameters investigated in the present work. The results show that main effects velocity and obliquity of impact, and 'porosity x obliquity' interaction effect, are the factors significantly affecting the pressure response in a bird strike analysis"--Abstract, leaf iii.

One Bird Strike and You're Out

One Bird Strike and You're Out
Author : Jerry LeMieux
Publisher : Xlibris Corporation
Release Date : 2009-11
Category : Science
Total pages :400
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Dr. Jerry LeMieux has over thirty-five years and 10,000 hours of aviation experience. He has flown military fighter aircraft and is a major airline pilot. He was responsible for solving national aviation issues as an Executive Safety Chairman for the Airline Pilots Association (ALPA). He is currently developing both ground- and airborne-based radar collision avoidance systems for Unmanned Air Systems. He has been on the staff and faculty at MIT, Boston University, Daniel Webster College, and Embry Riddle Aeronautical University where he taught courses in electrical and aeronautical engineering and advanced mathematics. He has published technical papers on radar design and has been a Chairman and Technical Paper Selection Committee Member for the National and International Radar Conferences, a Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, in addition to being a member of several professional organizations. While piloting a fighter aircraft, he has personally experienced an aircraft bird strike that resulted in significant loss of thrust in a jet engine. He recently filed a patent for a ground-based radar system that sends bird targets to the cockpit to prevent aircraft bird strikes. The technology is available today to permanently solve this worldwide problem.

Bird Strike in Aviation

Bird Strike in Aviation
Author : Ahmed F. El-Sayed
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2019-05-29
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :368
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Groundbreaking Handbook Offers Detailed Research and Valuable Methodology to Address Dangerous and Costly Aviation Hazard Though annual damages from bird and bat collisions with aircraft have been estimated at $400 million in the United States and up to $1.2 billion in commercial aviation worldwide and despite numerous conferences and councils dedicated to the issue, very little has been published on this expensive and sometimes-lethal flying risk. Bird Strike in Aviation seeks to fill this gap, providing a comprehensive guide to preventing and minimizing damage caused by bird strike on aircraft. Based on a thorough and comprehensive examination of the subject, Dr. El-Sayed offers different approaches to reducing bird strikes, including detailed coverage of the three categories necessary for such reduction, namely, awareness/education, bird management (active and passive control), and aircraft design. In addition, the text discusses the importance of cooperation between airplanes, airports and air traffic authorities as well as testing methods necessary for certification of both aircraft frame and engine. Other notable features include: Statistics and analyses for bird strikes with both civil and military helicopters as well as military fixed wing aircrafts, including annual costs, critical flight altitudes, critical parts of aircraft, distance from air base and specifics of date and timing Thorough review and analysis all fatal bird strike accidents and most non-fatal accidents since 1905, the first book to provide such a reference The use of numerical methods in analyzing historic data (ex. probability functions, finite element methods for analyzing impact on aircraft structure, experimental measurement technique for displacement, vibration, component distortion, etc.) Instruction on identification of bird species (using visual, microscopic, and DNA evidence) and details of bird migration to aid air traffic control in avoiding scenarios likely to result in collision With its wealth of statistical data, innovative research, and practical suggestions, Bird Strike in Aviation will prove a vital resource for researchers, engineers and graduate students in aerospace engineering/manufacturing or ornithology, as well as for military and civilian pilots and flight crew or professionals in aviation authorities and air traffic control.

Bird Strike Capabilities of Transparent Aircraft Windshield Materials

Bird Strike Capabilities of Transparent Aircraft Windshield Materials
Author : A O. Inglese,Air Force Materials Laboratory (U.S.),United States. National Technical Information Service,Goodyear Aerospace Corporation. Arizona Division
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1975
Category :
Total pages :198
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Windshield Bird Strike Structure Design Criteria

Windshield Bird Strike Structure Design Criteria
Author : James H. Lawrence,Murl J. Coker
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1973
Category : Aeronautics
Total pages :253
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12TH Meeting, Bird Strike Committee Europe, BSCE - Paris

12TH Meeting, Bird Strike Committee Europe, BSCE - Paris
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1977
Category :
Total pages :230
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The Bird Strike Committee Europe consists of civil and military participants from Europe with a common interest in the bird strike problem. Attendance is open to participants from other parts of the wond. Annual Meeting Proceedings include Chairman's Report, Working Group Reports and Papers Presented: TABLE OF CONTENTS: Birdstnke Risk Forecast. Dr. J. Hild (Germany) Bird Strikes during 1975 to European Registered Civil Aircraft. J. Thorpe (UK) Establishment of Bird Control Units at 6 Dutch Air Bases. L.S. Buurma (Netherlands) Birds Killed by Aircraft in the United Kingdom 1966-76. J.B.A. Rochard and N. Horton (UK) Some Statistic Data on Birds Strike to Aircraft and Helicopters over the TerrItory of the Soviet Union. A.l. Rogachev and O.K. Trunov (USSR) Bird Strikes in German Air Force 1968-1976. Dr. J. Hild (Germany) Attempts to Control the Breeding Population of the HerrIng Gull (Larus argentatus) near Copenhagen Airport. H. Lind (Denmark) Development of the Theoretical Constmct of Synergised Aluminum Ammonium Sulphate for the Control of Birds at Airports. R.J. Stone Treatment for Repelling Birds at Ben Gurion (LOD) Intemational Airport. (Israel) The Influence of Weather Vanables on the Density of Noctumal Migration in Spring. S.A. Gauthreaux (USA) Weather-dependence of height, Density and Direction of Migration in Switzerland. B. Bruderer (Switzerland) Autumn Radar Study of the Coastal Migration in Western Holland. L.S. Buurman (Netherlands) Surveys of Bird Concentration Areas as a Tool in Aviation Safety Work with an Example from Sweden. J. Karisson (Sweden) Bird Strike problems at Ben-Gurlon International Airport (LOD). S. Suaretz (Israel) Plane as a Deterrent an Attractant. V.E. Jacoby (USSR).

Bird Strike: An Experimental, Theoretical and Numerical Investigation

Bird Strike: An Experimental, Theoretical and Numerical Investigation
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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An Avian Target Processing Algorithm to Mitigate Bird Strike Risk in Aviation

An Avian Target Processing Algorithm to Mitigate Bird Strike Risk in Aviation
Author : Anthony J. Milluzzi
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019
Category : Aeronautics
Total pages :129
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Bird strikes represent a serious economic and safety risk to aircraft operations, especially near airports where aircraft are in critical stages of flight with little room for error. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) continues to research ways of mitigating the risk to aircraft posed by bird targets which include surveillance of birds with specialized radar systems. This thesis presents an algorithm that can utilize data from an avian radar, Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) aircraft positioning data, and other sources to determine which birds constitute a significant risk to aircraft. It is envisioned that this algorithm could be added into a system which then alerts air traffic control (ATC) and/or pilots through communication protocols such as ADS-B and the ATC ground network. For this thesis, avian radar and ADS-B data was analyzed and tested through the prototype algorithm with a simulated aircraft track to illustrate example scenarios of this algorithm working. Additionally, multiple scenarios with a single simulated bird and simulated aircraft track were tested to verify operation of the algorithm when a known collision occurs.

Models and Methods for Bird Strike Load Predictions

Models and Methods for Bird Strike Load Predictions
Author : Lakshmi S. Nizampatnam
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2007
Category : Electronic dissertations
Total pages :154
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Typical bird shapes used in numerical bird strike analyses include a number of primitive geometries, such as the right circular cylinder, hemi-spherical cylinder, sphere and ellipsoid. There are also some simplifying assumptions made regarding the modeling of the bird material. Yet, the open literature on the subject includes no comparative study to systematically investigate the effect of the projectile shape or bird model material on the accuracy of impact loads analyses. This research filled this gap by showing how various primitive projectile shapes, a more complex bird-like shape, and several homogeneous and heterogeneous material models affect the calculated impact loads. Comparisons to actual bird impact test data were provided, wherever possible, to validate these results. The bird strike event is characterized by three important phases: shock compression, shock decay, and the establishment of a steady state condition. In addition to reproducing the entire pressure-time history, a rational numerical simulation of bird strike analysis should accurately replicate both the Hugoniot shock pressure and the steady state stagnation pressure. Since the bird is generally represented as a soft body material to model its hydrodynamic behavior, an accurate representation of the bird0́9s equation of state is critical to predicting correct impact loads. In this research, the study of various homogeneous and heterogeneous bird materials depended on the use of accurate equation of state models for each material. Initially, two equations of state 0́3 representing the shock compression phase and the steady state compression phase 0́3 were studied. This approach follows that of previous research; but, the full 3-D numerical simulation requires a single equation of state to represent the entire impact event. Therefore, an equation of state that combined these two models was derived. Its validity was confirmed by comparing the analytical results from this equation of state with the results from experimental tests. In addition, the effect of porosity in combination with this equation of state was investigated. Additionally, the effects of oblique impact and target flexibility on the bird impact loads were investigated using the traditional, homogeneous bird torso model. Both of these factors acted to lower the Hugoniot shock pressures. The exploration of multi-material bird models in this work began with the study of two different materials, randomly distributed throughout a simple, hemispherical-ended cylindrical bird model. This was followed by introducing high and low density regions in this bird torso model to include the effects of bones and lungs, respectively. Finally, this work studied a more complete, geometrically accurate bird model that included physical shapes and material properties to represent the head, neck, bone structure, lungs, and wings, in addition to the torso. The effect of these multi-material bird models on both the Hugoniot pressure and the steady state pressure is presented in this work.

Bird Strike Analysis on Rotor Blades of an Aircraft Engine Using a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Model Developed for a Large 8-pound Bird

Bird Strike Analysis on Rotor Blades of an Aircraft Engine Using a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Model Developed for a Large 8-pound Bird
Author : Tajamul Hussain Syed
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category : Electronic dissertations
Total pages :49
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Bird strikes are a major risk to an aircraft especially during the take-off and landing stages. It may result in significant loss of human life and property damages worth millions annually in the US alone. This research is aimed at development of a computer-based modelling and analysis of a large 8-lb bird on an aircraft engine, and comparing the results with those from impact analysis of a smaller 4-lb bird. As the current Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) are based on the utilization of smaller 4-lb bird only, this research helps in examining whether the use of s small bird is appropriate, or consideration should also be given to larger bird impact testing. In this study, the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique is used to model the 4-lb bird. This model is validated by simulating its impact it on different aluminium plates. Various parameters such as deformation, Von Misses stresses, forces and impulse are recorded and compared with the experimental values. Similarly, the large 8-lb bird model is created, and it is numerically impacted on the same metal plate, and the results are compared with the ones from small 4-lb bird impact model. Detailed geometry on an aircraft jet engine is then modelled in CATIA V5, while meshing is done in the Hypermesh. The bird models (4-lb and 8-lb) are impacted on the rotor blades of an aircraft engine using the LS-Dyna, according to the FAR 33.76 regulation. Results obtained in these simulations are compared, and failure damage of the engine is quantified. The study shows that damage caused by a large 8-lb bird model could be significantly larger than that of a smaller 4-lb bird model. Thus, this study proposes that the use of large 8-lb should be considered in FAR regulations for aircraft components including engine certifications.

Bird Strike Indicator Field Deployment at the Audubon National Wildlife Refuge in North Dakota, Phase Two

Bird Strike Indicator Field Deployment at the Audubon National Wildlife Refuge in North Dakota, Phase Two
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2008
Category : Accelerometers
Total pages :63
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Manual on the Icao Bird Strike Information System (IBIS).

Manual on the Icao Bird Strike Information System (IBIS).
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1982
Category : Aircraft accidents
Total pages :33
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The Ecology of Transportation: Managing Mobility for the Environment

The Ecology of Transportation: Managing Mobility for the Environment
Author : John Davenport,Julia L. Davenport
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2006-06-30
Category : Science
Total pages :393
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This volume reviews the ecological effects of road, rail, marine and air transport. The focus ranges from identification of threats and repair of damaging effects to design of future transport systems that minimize environmental degradation. The scope of coverage extends from small ecosystems to the planet as a whole. Experts from a variety of disciplines address the topic, expressing views across the spectrum from deep pessimism to cautious optimism.