November 23, 2020

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Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
Author : Stuart H. James,Paul E. Kish,T. Paulette Sutton
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2005-05-26
Category : Law
Total pages :576
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Bloodstain evidence has become a deciding factor in the outcome of many of the world's most notorious criminal cases. As a result, substantiation of this evidence is crucial to those on either side of the courtroom aisle. The challenge is to obtain an authoritative reference that provides the latest information in a comprehensive and effective manner. Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Theory and Practice presents an in-depth investigation of this important subject matter. A multidisciplinary approach is presented throughout the book that uses scene and laboratory examinations in conjunction with forensic pathology, forensic serology, and chemical enhancement techniques. Emphasis is on a thought process based on taxonomic classification of bloodstains that takes into account their physical characteristics of size, shape, and distribution, and the specific mechanisms that produce them. Individual chapters analyze case studies, with two chapters specifically discussing the details of legal issues as they pertain to bloodstain pattern analysis. Information highlighted throughout the book includes an examination of bloodstained clothing and footwear and information on bloodstain interpretation for crime scene reconstruction. Dramatic color images of bloodletting injuries, bloodstains, and crime scenes are also presented to compliment the technical content of this resource. Features § Provides 500 full color photographs - the first bloodstain pattern book presenting dramatic full color images of bloodletting injuries, bloodstains, and crime scenes § Contains appendices with scientific data that includes trigonometric tables and metric equivalents, as well as crime scene and laboratory check lists, and biohazard safety precautions § Discloses court decisions relating to bloodstain pattern analysis and presumptive blood testing § Written by authors with many years of experience in the field, and features chapters contributed by qualified and respected forensic scientists and attorneys

Bloodstain Patterns

Bloodstain Patterns
Author : Anita Y. Wonder
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-01-07
Category : Social Science
Total pages :352
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Bloodstain Patterns: Identification, Interpretation and Application combines material from Blood Dynamics (2001) and Bloodstain Pattern Evidence (2007) with updated case work and scientific advances from medical and hard sciences. The text expands coverage of such areas as arterial damage pattern identification, staging of crime scenes, legal applications and problems from both sides of the bench, and extending teaching and training to those outside criminal justice. With violent offenders more aware of crime scene investigation techniques and attempting to frame others, the text expands outdated basic training programs that are insufficient to identify attempts to confuse the investigation. This book clarifies previous understandings as well as bridges the gap toward future advance courses. Based on the work of Paul Leland Kirk, the book’s focus is on first line investigators’ accuracy in identifying specific bloodstain patterns, correctly interpreting and applying them to casework. Combines and updates material from Blood Dynamics and Bloodstain Pattern Evidence into one comprehensive reference Covers new topics, including arterial damage pattern identification, staging of crime scenes, legal applications, and problems from both sides of the bench More than 300 full color photographs, some with line overlays showing the objective criteria which identify patterns

Bloodstain Patterns

Bloodstain Patterns
Author : Herbert Leon MacDonell
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1993
Category : Medical jurisprudence
Total pages :182
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Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction
Author : Tom Bevel,Ross M. Gardner
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2008-04-08
Category : Law
Total pages :440
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Objective establishment of the truth is the goal of any good crime scene investigator. This demands a consideration of all evidence available using proven scientific methodologies to establish objective snapshots of the crime. The majority of forensic disciplines shed light on thewho of a crime, bloodstain pattern analysis is one of the most imp

Bloodstain Pattern Evidence

Bloodstain Pattern Evidence
Author : Anita Y. Wonder
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-08-29
Category : Social Science
Total pages :400
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In Bloodstain Pattern Evidence, the concepts introduced in the author's first book, Blood Dynamics, are updated and applied to provide essential answers in the resolution of actual crimes. The book is accessible to all levels of investigators, regardless of academic background, and allows readers to develop a fundamental understanding of the underlying scientific principles behind bloodstain pattern evidence. Bloodstain Pattern Evidence builds on the fundamental ideas brought about by an understanding of Non-Newtonian dynamics, and illustrates through case work the practical forensic science applications of these principles to the analysis of bloodstain patterns. Extensive case examples provide practical application of essential pattern analysis principles Extensively illustrated with over 350 photos and line drawings Takes a unique and scientific approach to bloodstain pattern analysis by exploring the fundamentals of fluid behavior

Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation

Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation
Author : Stuart H. James
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-02-06
Category : Law
Total pages :320
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Since 1955 when Dr. Paul Kirk first presented a bloodstain evidence affidavit in State of Ohio v. Samuel Sheppard, expert testimony on bloodstain interpretation has gained wide acceptance in U.S. courts. Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation brings together some of the most respected and noted experts in forensic science, the law, and bloodstain interpretation to provide a comprehensive overview of the discipline. It discusses research, applications, and the current view of bloodstain pattern interpretation within the legal system at the trial and appellate court levels, as well as scientific approaches and developments in the field. Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation will help attorneys who are questioning and cross-examining expert witnesses have a good working knowledge of bloodstain interpretation. Included is a full-color atlas of bloodstains, in conjunction with a glossary of terms and an outline of basic laboratory experiments that are commonly used in the discipline. Among the outstanding contributions in this volume you will find: An excellent chapter by Carol Henderson discusses the legal and ethical aspects of bloodstain pattern evidence in detail. A post-conviction analysis by Marie Elena Saccoccio evaluates how bloodstain evidence can play a role in the appeal process. Misinterpretation and overinterpretation of bloodstain evidence can occur in our courts of law-be prepared to effectively analyze the evidence and the testimony with Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation.

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
Author : Tom Bevel,Ross M. Gardner
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2001-09-26
Category : Law
Total pages :424
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Bloodstain pattern analysis helps establish events associated with violent crimes. It is a critical bridge between forensics and the definition of a precise crime reconstruction. The second edition of this bestselling book is thoroughly updated to employ recent protocols, including the application of scientific method, the use of flow charts, and the inter-relationship of crime scene analysis to criminal profiling. It provides more illustrations, including color photographs, and explains the use of computer programs to create demonstrative evidence for court.

Crime Scene Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Workbook

Crime Scene Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Workbook
Author : N. Leroy Parker
Publisher : Author House
Release Date : 2014-01
Category : Law
Total pages :132
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This workbook is designed to assist the Crime Scene Analyst, Technician or Investigator in documenting bloodstained patterns that are located at the crime scene or on bloodstained items that are submitted for an analysis. It is also designed to assist the Crime Scene Analyst, Technician or Investigator in reconstructing or analyzing a bloodstained crime scene or a bloodstained item for which a bloodstain pattern analysis is requested The documentation could be accomplished with overall, midrange photographs and close-up photographs with 2, 3 or 6 centimeter stick-on tapes that should be placed in the center of each rectangular area. The documentation should also consist of notes and rough sketches with measurements. The close-up photographs of the rectangular areas with the 2, 3 or 6 inches stick-on tapes that were placed in the center of those areas should be taken with a parallel film /camera plane. The stick-on tapes should be labeled according to the surface on which they would be placed. Example: West wall of living room #1 (ww of lr #1) and west wall of living room #2 (ww of lr #2) etc. The number of close-up photographs would be determined by the number of rectangular areas with the stick-on tapes. Example: At least ten (10) close-up photographs should be taken if ten (10) stick-on tapes were placed on the bloodstained surface. The bloodstain pattern reconstruction or analysis should be done by first recognizing and or identifying the many different types of patterns in a bloodstained scene or on a bloody item. The next step should involve the reconstruction of the points or areas of convergence and origin and then a determination of how the other patterns were most likely created. The workbook contains several tasks and assignments that would provide the student with the tools to accomplish the documentation and analysis. The Crime Scene Analyst, Technician or Investigator after successfully completing the workbook / workshop should be aware that: 1.0 Single drops of blood in a crime scene or on an item were influenced by the surface from which the blood fell (the volume); the diameter, the shape, the impact angle, the scalloping of the perimeter and the direction of travel of the dropped blood that impacted the target surface (the volume, the height from which the blood fell, the texture of the target surface on which the blood fell, the angle of the targeted bloodstained surface and the horizontal speed of the source that issued the blood). 2.0 Numerous drops of blood in the same pattern in a crime scene or on an item were influenced by the force or the impact (less than 25 feet per second - dropped blood and cast-off bloodstain); (25 to 100 feet per second - medium velocity bloodstain); (over 100 feet per second - high velocity bloodstain); projected blood (arterial bleeding); transfer of blood from one object to another (contact or transfer bloodstains, imprint bloodstains, smears or swipes and wipes); large volumes of blood (splashed or pooled blood) 3.0 The reconstruction or analysis of the points or areas of origin could be determined by strings, scaled drawings or calculations. The interpretation of the other patterns (non impact) along with the Medical Examiner's autopsy report should allow the crime scene analyst, technician or Investigator to complete a bloodstain pattern analysis report and if possible explain and or testify to the sequence of events that occurred at the crime scene.

Visual Characteristics for Sequencing of Overlapping Bloodstain Patterns

Visual Characteristics for Sequencing of Overlapping Bloodstain Patterns
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category :
Total pages :129
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Graphical abstract: Highlights: A method for sequencing overlapping blood stains is proposed. Characteristic visual features are indicative for deposition sequence of transfer and drip stains. Expert decisions improve with knowledge about visual characteristics and their occurrence rates. Abstract: The deposition sequence of overlapping bloodstain patterns can be valuable reconstructive information. A formal method for sequencing overlapping bloodstain patterns has yet to be published. We present a method for sequencing overlapping transfer and drip stains using visual characteristics. A survey was held amongst educated bloodstain pattern analysts to determine whether the newly acquired method will assist them in correctly sequencing these overlapping bloodstain patterns. Results showed a significant improvement of expert decisions: the percentage of overlapping stains correctly sequenced by participants increased from 57 to 79% using the visual characteristics defined in this study. These results suggest that a decision support system can be built, which helps investigators at the crime scene to sequence overlapping bloodstain patterns.

Interpretation of Bloodstain Evidence at Crime Scenes, Second Edition

Interpretation of Bloodstain Evidence at Crime Scenes, Second Edition
Author : William G. Eckert,Stuart H. James
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 1998-07-14
Category : Law
Total pages :352
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As witnessed in landmark criminal cases, the quality and integrity of bloodstain evidence can be a crucial factor in determining a verdict. Since the first edition of Interpretation of Bloodstain Evidence at Crime Scenes was published nearly a decade ago, bloodstain pattern interpretation has continued to grow as a branch of forensic science. Revised and updated to reflect new technology and developments in the field, the second edition is packed with new information and illustrations-including 421 photographs and diagrams of improved quality that will aid in interpretation of evidence. Expanding on a single chapter presented in the bestselling first edition, the second edition details, in four chapters, an introduction to bloodstain interpretation; low-velocity impact and angular considerations; medium and high-velocity impact; and the significance of partially dried, clotted, aged, and physically altered bloodstains in four new chapters. A full chapter on the detection of blood with luminol, featuring high-quality, full-color photographs of luminol reactions, has been added. This new edition also includes 12 new case studies in addition to 8 original case studies from the first edition that have been retained for their interpretative value. Everyone involved in crime scene evaluation and interpretation-law enforcement officers, criminologists, medical examiners, forensic pathologists, medicolegal personnel, and prosecutors and defense attorneys-will benefit from the improved and expanded second edition of this definitive reference.

The Development of an Element-based Method for the Reliable Identification of Bloodstain Patterns

The Development of an Element-based Method for the Reliable Identification of Bloodstain Patterns
Author : Ravishka Marishi Arthur
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2013
Category : Bloodstains
Total pages :386
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The classification of bloodstain patterns forms an important part of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA). Classification requires an analyst to use characteristic features of a bloodstain pattern to place it into definable categories, according to the mechanism which has led to its deposition. Like many other forensic disciplines however, BPA has recently come under the microscope, due to issues regarding the methodology that is employed by an analyst when interpreting a bloodstain pattern. High variability in the appearance of bloodstain patterns coupled with the ambiguity in pattern interpretation has demonstrated that, the root of these problems stem from fundamental flaws in the current methodology. A consequence of this, has been the failure on the part of an analyst to articulate the thought process involved in interpreting the bloodstain pattern. Thus, creating challenges for the jury to understand the basis for any conclusions that have been made. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of developing a novel, element-based approach to the classification of a bloodstain pattern. This methodology will provide a more objective approach by focusing on observable characteristics of individual bloodstains in the pattern and characterising associations between these bloodstains prior to determining the mechanism of formation. The strategy involves going back to the basics of pattern formation and visualising the genesis through the use of high speed video photography. The results of this study have shown strong support for the implementation of an element-based approach to the classification of bloodstain patterns. Unlike current methods, this novel approach utilises simple, descriptive terminology when describing characteristics of a bloodstain. This terminology features as part of an Atlas of Elements which was created as a visual aid for an analyst, during the classification process. Finally, results suggest there are potential associations that occur between groups of defined bloodstains that could provide support for the presence or absence of a particular pattern type. This study presents the long awaited solution for the issues that plague the field of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis.

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
Author : Sonya Ching-Ying Siu
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2012
Category :
Total pages :129
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Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) provides significant evidentiary value in crime scene interpretation and reconstruction, but many aspects of BPA are controversial due to the heavy reliance on qualitative and subjective interpretation. For example, the differentiation between so-called "medium" and "high" velocity impact spatter patterns - legacy terminology typically associated with blunt instrument and gunshot impacts, respectively - has traditionally relied on visual assessment of the average drop size in the pattern. Because this methodology is subjective and susceptible to context bias, most BPA organizations recommend against even attempting to describe the velocity that creates a spatter pattern, despite the clear forensic value of such determinations in crime scene interpretation. In this work, we develop a quantitative methodology using digital image analysis techniques to differentiate medium and high velocity impact spatter patterns in an objective manner. Bloodstain spatter patterns were created under controlled conditions by impacting either blunt instruments or bullets into blood-soaked sponges. The impact velocities were determined using high-speed video, and the resulting spatter patterns were digitally imaged at high resolution then analyzed using custom image analysis algorithms. Our analysis of 72 unique spatter patterns, comprising more than 490,000 individual droplets, indicates that the mean drop size in a gunshot spatter pattern is at most 30% smaller than the mean drop size in blunt instrument patterns. In contrast, we demonstrate that the spatially-dependent size distribution of droplets - i.e. drop sizes as a function of position in the pattern - significantly differs between bullet and blunt instrument patterns, with a spatially-dependent metric as much as 400% larger for bullet impacts. Our findings suggest that quantitative metrics involving the spatial distribution of droplets within a spatter pattern can be useful for objective differentiation between blunt instrument and gunshot spatter patterns.

Practical Crime Scene Processing and Investigation, Second Edition

Practical Crime Scene Processing and Investigation, Second Edition
Author : Ross M. Gardner,Donna Krouskup
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release Date : 2016-04-19
Category : Law
Total pages :498
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All too often, the weakest link in the chain of criminal justice is the crime scene investigation. Improper collection of evidence blocks the finding of truth. Now in its second edition, Practical Crime Scene Processing and Investigation presents practical, proven methods to be used at any crime scene to ensure that evidence is admissible and persuasive. Accompanied by more than 300 color photographs, topics discussed include: Understanding the nature of physical evidence, including fingerprint, biological, trace, hair and fiber, and other forms of evidence Actions of the responding officer, from documenting and securing the initial information to providing emergency care Assessing the scene, including search considerations and dealing with chemical and bioterror hazards Crime scene photography, sketching, mapping, and notes and reports Light technology and preserving fingerprint and impression evidence Shooting scene documentation and reconstruction Bloodstain pattern analysis and the body as a crime scene Special scene considerations, including fire, buried bodies, and entomological evidence The role of crime scene analysis and reconstruction, with step-by-step procedures Two appendices provide additional information on crime scene equipment and risk management, and each chapter is enhanced by a succinct summary, suggested readings, and a series of questions to test assimilation of the material. Using this book in your investigations will help you find out what happened and who is responsible.

Forensic Biomechanics

Forensic Biomechanics
Author : Jules Kieser,Michael Taylor,Debra Carr
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2012-09-20
Category : Medical
Total pages :176
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Biomechanics is the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, and it is one of the most exciting and fastest growing research areas. In forensic science, it is biomechanics that explains trauma to the body at a crime scene or the fracture of fibers and textiles, and helps interpret blood spatter. Forensic Biomechanics is a comprehensive overview of the role of biomechanics in forensics. Well-illustrated with real-life case studies, and using a multidisciplinary approach, this unique book is an invaluable reference for practicing forensic scientists, lawyers, and researchers.

Status and Needs of Forensic Science Service Providers: A Report to Congress

Status and Needs of Forensic Science Service Providers: A Report to Congress
Author : Anonim
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release Date : 2006
Category : Crime laboratories
Total pages :33
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