November 30, 2020

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Brain Stimulation

Brain Stimulation
Author : Irving Reti
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2015-05-11
Category : Medical
Total pages :368
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Brain stimulation technologies are both tools to probe brain function and to provide therapeutic options for patients with neuropsychiatric disease where pharmacological options are not viable. Although the field has been in existence for over seventy years, research interest in brain stimulation has been on the rise particularly in the last two decades. Brain Stimulation: Methodologies and Interventions is an introduction to the field of brain stimulation technology and its applications. The book explores how brain stimulating technologies work in the context of brain pathways that mediate normal and abnormal brain function. Chapters cover neuroanatomy and activitydependent changes in neuronal function triggered by brain stimulation, as well as applications of brain stimulation technologies themselves, including noninvasive procedures that rely on convulsive or seizure therapeutics, and non-convulsive therapies such as magnetic and electrical brain stimulation. Authored by an international group of leaders in the field, Brain Stimulation is a valuable resource for both neuroscience researchers and clinicians. KEY POINTS • Includes introductory chapters on relevant neuroanatomy • Covers both invasive and noninvasive brain stimulation techniques • Explains basic mechanisms and therapeutic applications • Written by an international team of leaders in the field • Illustrated in full color

Transcranial Brain Stimulation

Transcranial Brain Stimulation
Author : Carlo Miniussi,Walter Paulus,Paolo M. Rossini
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2012-12-03
Category : Science
Total pages :465
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Since the discovery of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), these non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques have been used to investigate the state of cortical excitability, and the excitability of the cortico-cortical and corticospinal pathways. In addition, these techniques have been found to induce neuroplasticity—a significant breakthrough in our understanding of the brain at work. Transcranial Brain Stimulation presents a wide range of possible brain stimulation applications and discusses what new information can be gained from using this technique on the dynamics of brain functions, hierarchical organization, and effective connectivity. Implications of recent findings related to the therapeutic application are discussed by an international group of leading experts, who present practical guidance on the use of each technique, and catalog the results of numerous TMS and tES studies on biological and behavioral effects.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation
Author : Kendall H. Lee,Penelope S. Duffy,Allan J. Bieber
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2016-12-08
Category : Medical
Total pages :486
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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a widely used therapy for movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. Its therapeutic success has led to the application of DBS for an increasing spectrum of conditions. However, the fundamental relationships between neural activation, neurochemical transmission, and clinical outcomes during DBS are not well understood. Drawing on the clinical and research expertise of the Mayo Clinic Neural Engineering Laboratories, this book addresses the history of therapeutic electrical stimulation of the brain, its current application and outcomes, and theories about its underlying mechanisms. It reviews research on measures of local stimulation–evoked neurochemical release, imaging research on stimulation-induced neural circuitry activation, and the state of the art on closed-loop feedback devices for stimulation delivery.

Brain Stimulation

Brain Stimulation
Author : Andres M. Lozano,Mark Hallett
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-11-11
Category : Medical
Total pages :784
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The field of brain stimulation is expanding rapidly, with techniques such as DBS, TMS, and tDCS moving from the research community into clinical diagnosis and treatment. Clinical applications include treating disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and even depression. The chapters of Brain Stimulation are written by leading international researchers and clinical specialists include coverage of techniques, modes of action and applications in physiology and therapeutics. The combination of research and clinical coverage will be of interest to neurologists, neurosurgeons, psychiatrists, neuroscientists, and health care workers. A comprehensive introduction and overview of deep brain stimulation (DBS) Coverage of DBS, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) Details the basic science and research utility of DBS and clinical application

Brain Stimulation Therapies for Clinicians, Second Edition

Brain Stimulation Therapies for Clinicians, Second Edition
Author : Edmund S. Higgins, M.D.,Mark S. George, M.D.
Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
Release Date : 2019-08-13
Category : Medical
Total pages :197
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This new edition provides thoroughly updated information on the growing list of electrical stimulation therapies now in use or under study, including electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), cortical stimulation (CS), and transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS), as well as new coverage of promising treatments such as low intensity focused ultrasound pulsation (LIFUP) and temporal interference stimulation (TI).

Brain Stimulation in Psychiatry

Brain Stimulation in Psychiatry
Author : Charles H. Kellner
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2012-05-31
Category : Medical
Total pages :158
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An authoritative, concise, how-to guide to the various brain stimulation treatments used in psychiatry.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation
Author : Shilpa Chitnis,Pravin Khemani,Michael S. Okun
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date : 2020
Category : Medical
Total pages :256
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"Tremor is an involuntary movement characterized by a rhythmic oscillation about a fixed point or trajectory. It can be classified based on its clinical features or underlying cause. Tremor was the first approved indication for DBS in the U.S. We now have almost three decades of experience of tremor treatment with DBS. Essential tremor (ET) is the most frequent movement disorder occurring at a frequency of about 5 times that of PD. ET commonly has an autosomal dominant transmission pattern with incomplete penetrance, therefore sporadic cases are not at all uncommon. In ET, most patients suffer from tremor of the hands and arms; approximately 40% suffer from head and 20% from voice tremor. The majority of candidates for functional neurosurgery belong to the ET subgroup which is commonly characterized by severe action or postural tremor that impairs function and quality of life to the extent that the risks, costs and inconvenience of DBS treatment are justified. Unilateral procedures (targeting the thalamus contralateral to the dominant and/or most affected hand) are commonly performed, though bilateral procedures should be considered when limb tremor is severe bilaterally, or when head, voice, or trunk tremors cause significant disability"--

Deep Brain Stimulation Programming

Deep Brain Stimulation Programming
Author : Erwin B. Montgomery, Jr.
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2016-09-22
Category :
Total pages :256
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Deep brain stimulation programming (DBS) continues to grow as an effective therapy for a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, helping patients reach optimal control of their disorder. With the technique finding so much success, the next question is how to make the complexities of post-operative programming cost-effective, especially when traditional medications and treatments can no longer do the job. The second edition of Deep Brain Stimulation Programming is fully revised and up-to-date with the latest technologies and focuses on post-operative programing, which no other text does. This book provides programmers with a foundation of the brain as an electrical device, focusing on the mechanisms by which neurons respond to electrical stimulation, how to control the stimulation and the regional anatomy, and the many variations that influence a patient's response to DBS. Dr. Montgomery explores new techniques of programming; including those based on stimulation frequency, closed-loop DBS, and the roles of oscillators in DBS; and new technological advances that make pre-existing theories of pathophysiology obsolete. Key Features of the Second Edition Include . Highlights post-operative deep brain stimulation; . Includes the most recent discoveries in deep brain stimulation programming; . Highly illustrated with figures for absorption of key programming and techniques; . Provides an appendix of additional resources available through the Greenville Neuromodulation Center. "

Brain Stimulation

Brain Stimulation
Author : Filippo Agnesi,Matthew D. Johnson,Jerrold L. Vitek
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-11
Category : Medical
Total pages :784
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Chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widely accepted surgical treatment for medication-refractory movement disorders and is under evaluation for a variety of neurological disorders. In order to create opportunities to improve treatment efficacy, streamline parameter selection, and foster new potential applications, it is important to have a clear and comprehensive understanding of how DBS works. Although early hypothesis proposed that high-frequency electrical stimulation inhibited neuronal activity proximal to the active electrode, recent studies have suggested that the output of the stimulated nuclei is paradoxically activated by DBS. Such regular, time-locked output is thought to override the transmission of pathological bursting and oscillatory activity through the stimulated nuclei, as well as inducing synaptic plasticity and network reorganization. This chapter reviews electrophysiological experiments, biochemical analyses, computer modeling and imaging studies positing that, although general principles exist, the therapeutic mechanism(s) of action depend both on the site of stimulation and on the disorder being treated.

Twenty Things to Know about Deep Brain Stimulation

Twenty Things to Know about Deep Brain Stimulation
Author : Erwin B. Montgomery, Jr.
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date : 2015-01-30
Category : Medical
Total pages :296
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Twenty Things to Know About Deep Brain Stimulation is an extensive and in-depth critical analysis of the field of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) from what many may consider a revolutionary perspective. This book demonstrates the unique nature and incredible promise of DBS and shows how it is unparalleled as a therapeutic intervention. Dr. Montgomery provides an epistemic analysis of the presuppositions, assumptions and fallacies underlying current clinical understanding of DBS as well as the physiology and pathophysiology affected by DBS. Reviews of the safety and efficacy for a number of conditions, patient selections and issues in the post-operative management are also included. Given the revolutionary potential and the complexity of DBS in an ever changing healthcare delivery context, the ethics of DBS are discussed in detail.

Deep Brain Stimulation - What are you getting yourself in for?

Deep Brain Stimulation - What are you getting yourself in for?
Author : Todd Murfitt
Publisher : Lulu.com
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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Brain Stimulation and Behavioral Change

Brain Stimulation and Behavioral Change
Author : Claudio Lucchiari,Nicholas J. Kelley,Maria E. Vanutelli,Roberta Ferrucci
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2019-05-15
Category :
Total pages :129
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The eBook entitled “Brain Stimulation and Behavioral Change” is a collection of articles about the use of transcranial electric stimulation (tES) to change behaviors and face pathological conditions, to enhance cognition and to explore cerebral functions using safe and non-invasive brain modulation techniques. The tESs include transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternate current stimulation (tACS), and, due to the way it induces changes in the brain, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). The use of tES has recently exploded. Certainly, one reason for this explosion of research is that it is a cheap way to change behavior. However, on the other hand, we still know very little about the neural mechanisms that underlie tES. The present eBook includes both original studies and reviews. It covers a wide scope of arguments, including studies aimed at testing the potential ability of tES in mitigating physical and psychiatric symptoms, and to support neurological rehabilitation, enhancing reading abilities, motor abilities, and creativity. Furthermore, some contributions about the role of tES in discovering and mapping the neuro-functional correlates of higher cognitive functions are also included. The common background of the contributions included in the eBook lies in the idea that we need sound scientific evidence about how to move these techniques from labs to real-life contexts. Addressing these issues and understanding the real potentialities of tES in clinical and non-clinical applications require a significant cross-fertilization between disciplines. We hope this eBook will be able to boost the discussion on this vital topic.

Brain Stimulation

Brain Stimulation
Author : Marie Vidailhet,Marie-France Jutras,Emmanuel Roze,David Grabli
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-11
Category : Medical
Total pages :784
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The few reported controlled studies show that bilateral stimulation of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) is a safe and effective long-term treatment for hyperkinetic disorders. However, the recently published data on deep brain stimulation (DBS) applied to different targets or patients (especially those with secondary dystonia) are mainly uncontrolled case reports, precluding a clear determination of its efficacy, and providing little guidance as to the choice of a “good” target in a “good” patient. This chapter reviews the literature on DBS in primary dystonia, paying particular attention to the risk:benefit ratio in focal and segmental dystonias (cervical dystonia, cranial dystonia) and to the predictive factors for a good outcome. The chapter also highlights recent data on the marked benefits of the technique in myoclonus dystonia (in which pallidal, as opposed to thalamic, stimulation is more effective) and in tardive dystonia–dyskinesia. Although, the decision to treat appears relatively straightforward in patients with primary dystonia, myoclonus–dystonia, and tardive dystonia who have a normal findings on magnetic resonance imaging and normal cognitive function, there are still no reliable tools to help predict the timescale of postoperative benefit. This chapter provides a comprehensive analysis of the use of the treatment in various types of secondary dystonia, with little to moderate benefit in most cases, based on single cases or small series. Beyond the reduction in the severity of dystonia, the global motor and functional outcome is difficult to determine owing to the paucity of adequate evaluation tools. Because of the large interpatient variability, different targets may be effective depending on the symptoms in each individual.

Brain Stimulation

Brain Stimulation
Author : Filippo Brighina,Giuseppe Cosentino,Brigida Fierro
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-11
Category : Medical
Total pages :784
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Migraine is a very prevalent disease with great individual disability and socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research effort in recent years, the etiopathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, much importance has been given to mechanisms underlying the cortical excitability that has been suggested to be dysfunctional in migraine. In recent years, noninvasive brain stimulation techniques based on magnetic fields (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) and on direct electrical currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) have been shown to be safe and effective tools to explore the issue of cortical excitability, activation, and plasticity in migraine. Moreover, TMS, repetitive TMS (rTMS), and tDCS, thanks to their ability to interfere with and/or modulate cortical activity inducing plastic, persistent effects, have been also explored as potential therapeutic approaches, opening an interesting perspective for noninvasive neurostimulation for both symptomatic and preventive treatment of migraine and other types of headache. In this chapter we critically review evidence regarding the role of noninvasive brain stimulation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, delineating the advantages and limits of these techniques together with potential development and future application.

Brain Stimulation

Brain Stimulation
Author : Anna-katharine Brem,Kathy Ran,Alvaro Pascual-leone
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-11
Category : Medical
Total pages :784
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Learning and memory functions are crucial in the interaction of an individual with the environment and involve the interplay of large, distributed brain networks. Recent advances in technologies to explore neurobiological correlates of neuropsychological paradigms have increased our knowledge about human learning and memory. In this chapter we first review and define memory and learning processes from a neuropsychological perspective. Then we provide some illustrations of how noninvasive brain stimulation can play a major role in the investigation of memory functions, as it can be used to identify cause–effect relationships and chronometric properties of neural processes underlying cognitive steps. In clinical medicine, transcranial magnetic stimulation may be used as a diagnostic tool to understand memory and learning deficits in various patient populations. Furthermore, noninvasive brain stimulation is also being applied to enhance cognitive functions, offering exciting translational therapeutic opportunities in neurology and psychiatry.