December 2, 2020

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The Basics of Cancer Immunotherapy

The Basics of Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Haidong Dong,Svetomir N. Markovic
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-01-05
Category : Medical
Total pages :160
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This book provides patients and their physicians (especially “non-oncologist” health care providers) with a clear and concise introduction to cancer immunotherapy, which, unlike traditional forms of cancer therapy, acts by boosting the patient’s own immune system to fight cancer. The unique features of cancer immunotherapy make its management, monitoring and side-effects different from those of traditional cancer therapy. Especially novel are the side effects of cancer immunotherapy, necessitating greater awareness for both patients and physicians in order to minimize complications of therapy. The patient-friendly, concise, easy-to-understand, and up-to-date knowledge presented in this book will inform patients about the benefits and risks of cancer immunotherapy, and help them and their care providers to understand how immunotherapy would control their unique disease. Researchers and academic professionals in the field of cancer immunotherapy will also find clear and useful information to help them communicate with patients or address unresolved problems. Some key features of the book are: Expertise. All editors and authors are scientists and oncologists specializing in cancer immunotherapy, and are involved in scientific discovery from the early stage of immune-checkpoint inhibitors to today’s daily patient care. Their insights, expertise and experience guarantee the high quality and authority in the science, medicine and practice of cancer immunotherapy. Patient-friendly. This book is written for cancer patients in order to meet their needs when considering immunotherapy. As an educational tool, this book will help the reader balance the risks and benefits based on both science and clinical facts, and therefore to make the best choice in receiving or withdrawing from immunotherapy. Disease Specificity. Cancer is a complicated disease involving multiple stages and pathology. Its response to immunotherapy is individualized and varies depending on cancer types. The authors’ expertise in treating different types of cancers, including melanoma, lung, kidney, bladder, and lymphoma, provides disease-specific insights in applying immunotherapy to each disease.

Vaccines for Cancer Immunotherapy

Vaccines for Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Nima Rezaei,Mahsa Keshavarz-Fathi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-10-17
Category : Medical
Total pages :198
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Therapeutic cancer vaccines represent a type of active cancer immunotherapy. Clinicians, scientists, and researchers working on cancer treatment require evidence-based and up-to-date resources relating to therapeutic cancer vaccines. Vaccines for Cancer Immunotherapy provides a reference for cancer treatment for clinicians and presents a well-organized resource for determining high-potential research areas. The book considers that this promising modality can be made more feasible as a treatment for cancer. Chapters cover cancer immunology, general approaches to cancer immunotherapy, vaccines, tumor antigens, the strategy of allogeneic and autologous cancer vaccines, personalized vaccines, whole-tumor antigen vaccines, protein and peptide vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, genetic vaccines, candidate cancers for vaccination, obstacles to developing therapeutic cancer vaccines, combination therapy, future perspectives and concluding remarks on therapeutic cancer vaccines. Introduces the feasible immunotherapeutic vaccines for patients with different types of cancer Presents the status of past and current vaccines for cancer treatment Considers advantages and disadvantages of different therapeutic cancer vaccines Looks at the combination of vaccines and other modalities, including immunotherapeutic and conventional methods Analyzes obstacles to development of therapeutic cancer vaccines Gives a view on future perspectives in the application of therapeutic cancer vaccines

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : George C. Prendergast,Elizabeth M. Jaffee
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-04-28
Category : Medical
Total pages :428
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There has been major growth in understanding immune suppression mechanisms and its relationship to cancer progression and therapy. This book highlights emerging new principles of immune suppression that drive cancer and it offers radically new ideas about how therapy can be improved by attacking these principles. Following work that firmly establishes immune escape as an essential trait of cancer, recent studies have now defined specific mechanisms of tumoral immune suppression. It also demonstrates how attacking tumors with molecular targeted therapeutics or traditional chemotherapeutic drugs can produce potent anti-tumor effects in preclinical models. This book provides basic, translational, and clinical cancer researchers an indispensable overview of immune escape as a critical trait in cancer and how applying specific combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to attack this trait may radically improve the treatment of advanced disease. * Offers a synthesis of concepts that are useful to cancer immunologists and pharmacologists, who tend to work in disparate fields with little cross-communication * Drs Prendergast and Jaffee are internationally recognized leaders in cancer biology and immunology who have created a unique synthesis of fundamental and applied concepts in this important new area of cancer research * Summarizes the latest insights into how immune escape defines an essential trait of cancer * Includes numerous illustrations including: how molecular-targeted therapeutic drugs or traditional chemotherapy can be combined with immunotherapy to improve anti-tumor efficacy; and how reversing immune suppression by the tumor can cause tumor regression

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : George C. Prendergast,Elizabeth M. Jaffee
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-06-04
Category : Medical
Total pages :684
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There has been major growth in understanding immune suppression mechanisms and its relationship to cancer progression and therapy. This book highlights emerging new principles of immune suppression that drive cancer, and it offers radically new ideas about how therapy can be improved by attacking these principles. Following work that firmly establishes immune escape as an essential trait of cancer, recent studies have now defined specific mechanisms of tumor immune suppression. It also demonstrates how attacking tumors with molecular targeted therapeutics or traditional chemotherapeutic drugs can produce potent anti-tumor effects in preclinical models. This book provides basic, translational, and clinical cancer researchers with an indispensable overview of immune escape as a critical trait in cancer and how applying specific combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to attack this trait may radically improve the treatment of advanced disease. Offers a synthesis of concepts that are useful to cancer immunologists and pharmacologists, who tend to work in disparate fields with little cross-communication Drs. Prendergast and Jaffee are internationally recognized leaders in cancer biology and immunology who have created a unique synthesis of fundamental and applied concepts in this important new area of cancer research Summarizes the latest insights into how immune escape defines an essential trait of cancer Includes numerous illustrations, including how molecular-targeted therapeutic drugs or traditional chemotherapy can be combined with immunotherapy to improve anti-tumor efficacy and how reversing immune suppression by the tumor can cause tumor regression

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy
Author : Robert C. Rees
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date : 2014-05-20
Category : Medical
Total pages :442
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Patients are beginning to benefit from antibody based, cellular and vaccine approaches that are effective against genetically diverse and therapy-resistance cancers. BCG immunotherapy is now being used as a first line treatment for human bladder cancer and the introduction of prophylactic vaccination against Hepatitis B and HPV cancers is starting to show positive results. Following recent FDA approval for a vaccination against prostate cancer, and optimistic results in clinical trials for a vaccine targeting cancer antigens in lung cancer, cancer immunotherapy is now significantly impacting patient clinical management. Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy provides an up-to-date and comprehensive account of cancer immunity and immunotherapy. It discusses our adaptive and innate immunity to cancer, the mechanisms underpinning our immune response, current approaches to cancer immunotherapy, and how tumour and host responses can circumvent effective anti-cancer immunity. The book examines recent results, publications and current areas of interest including 'immune editing' and the specific issues that are affecting the research and development of vaccines, providing insight into how these problems may be overcome, as viewed by world leaders in the field. Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy will appeal to clinicians working in oncology and cancer immunotherapy, and research scientists including PhD and masters students, post-doctoral researchers and senior investigators.

Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy
Author : Glenn Dranoff
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2011-04-11
Category : Medical
Total pages :306
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The interplay between tumors and their immunologic microenvironment is complex, difficult to decipher, but its understanding is of seminal importance for the development of novel prognostic markers and therapeutic strategies. The present review discusses tumor-immune interactions in several human cancers that illustrate various aspects of this complexity and proposes an integrated scheme of the impact of local immune reactions on clinical outcome. Current active immunotherapy trials have shown durable tumor regressions in a fraction of patients. However, clinical efficacy of current vaccines is limited, possibly because tumors skew the immune system by means of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, inflammatory type 2 T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which prevent the generation of effector cells. To improve the clinical efficacy of cancer vaccines in patients with metastatic disease, we need to design novel and improved strategies that can boost adaptive immunity to cancer, help overcome Tregs and allow the breakdown of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Alberto Mantovani,Maria Rosaria Galdiero,Paola Allavena,Antonio Sica
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-06-04
Category : Medical
Total pages :684
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Tumor development and progression are strongly linked to inflammation and macrophage infiltration is a major component of the inflammatory reactions associated with neoplasia. Plasticity is a hallmark of mononuclear phagocytes, which undergo polarized diverse forms of activation. Metabolic adaptation is a key component of macrophage plasticity and polarization, instrumental to their function in homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and related immature myeloid suppressor cells generally have properties of an M2-like population. TAM produce growth factors, have immunoregulatory and immunosuppressive activity, stimulate angiogenesis and provide tissue remodeling, invasion and metastasis. Thus, TAM are a key component of cancer-promoting inflammatory reactions.

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : James Allison,Glen Dranoff
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2006-05-19
Category : Medical
Total pages :400
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For some time immunotherapy has been heralded as a breakthrough approach for cancer treatment. Although the potential of this strategy remains solid, the approach needs considerable refinement. Whilst some programmes are looking to increase the understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the stimulation of antitumor immunity, others are trying to find the most appropriate clinical setting that will reveal the role of the immune system in combating cancer. Among the most important discoveries have been tumor-specific antigens. This thematic volume highlights some key issues and discusses where they may move forward. It has been put together by two leading cancer immunotherapists from two eminent institutions that focus on cancer research.

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Margaret K. Callahan,Michael A. Postow,Jedd D. Wolchok
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-06-04
Category : Medical
Total pages :684
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Ipilimumab is the first drug to show a survival benefit for patients with advanced melanoma and was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in March of 2011. Ipilimumab enhances antitumor immunity by enhancing T-cell function by blocking the negative regulatory molecule, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). Unlike traditional cancer therapy, ipilimumab’s effects may be delayed and occur after initial apparent disease progression. A distinct set of side effects have been described, and ongoing efforts continue to characterize immunologic changes associated with patients who benefit from therapy. Efforts to characterize ipilimumab’s clinical activity in malignancies other than melanoma are ongoing.

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Ende Zhao,Lin Wang,Shuang Wei,Ilona Kryczek,Weiping Zou
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-06-04
Category : Medical
Total pages :684
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As a new member of the helper T cell subsets, Th17 cells have triggered more and more interest in exploring their development, regulation, function and therapeutic manipulation in distinct context since they were identified in 2005. This also causes a lot of confusion and debate about the generation and function of Th17 cells, especially their activity in the tumor immunopathology as our understanding grows. However, it is worth asserting that the most confusing part arises from the Th17-associated cytokines including IL-17 and IL-23 rather than the Th17 cells. IL-17 cytokine is not synonymous with Th17-cell subset, although IL-17 is the lineage-signature cytokine for Th17 cells. We will discuss the generation, cytokine profile, genetic control, plasticity and stemness of Th17 cells and address the role of Th17 cells and their associated cytokines in tumor immunity, and further explore the potential immunotherapy by targeting Th17 cells and their cytokines.

The Breakthrough

The Breakthrough
Author : Charles Graeber
Publisher : Twelve
Release Date : 2018-11-13
Category : Health & Fitness
Total pages :320
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New York Times bestselling author Charles Graeber details the astonishing scientific discovery of the code to unleashing the human immune system to fight -- and possibly even cure -- cancer, in this "captivating and heartbreaking" (The Wall Street Journal) book, featuring interviews with 2018 Nobel Prize in Medicine award winners James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo. "Engaging...In Mr. Graeber's hands, the evolution of immuno-oncology is both captivating and heartbreaking. We are immersed in the stories of the brave, desperate patients who try emerging therapies...We can't fail to see ourselves, our friends and our families in these stories." -- The Wall Street Journal For decades, scientists have puzzled over one of medicine's most confounding mysteries: Why doesn't our immune system recognize and fight cancer the way it does other diseases, like the common cold? As it turns out, the answer to that question can be traced to a series of tricks that cancer has developed to turn off normal immune responses-tricks that scientists have only recently discovered and learned to defeat. The result is what many are calling cancer's "penicillin moment," a revolutionary discovery in our understanding of cancer and how to beat it. In The Breakthrough, New York Times bestselling author of The Good Nurse Charles Graeber guides readers through the revolutionary scientific research bringing immunotherapy out of the realm of the miraculous and into the forefront of twenty-first-century medical science. As advances in the fields of cancer research and the human immune system continue to fuel a therapeutic arms race among biotech and pharmaceutical research centers around the world, the next step-harnessing the wealth of new information to create modern and more effective patient therapies-is unfolding at an unprecedented pace, rapidly redefining our relationship with this all-too-human disease. Groundbreaking, riveting, and expertly told, The Breakthrough is the story of the game-changing scientific discoveries that unleash our natural ability to recognize and defeat cancer, as told through the experiences of the patients, physicians, and cancer immunotherapy researchers who are on the front lines. This is the incredible true story of the race to find a cure, a dispatch from the life-changing world of modern oncological science, and a brave new chapter in medical history.

Ovarian Cancer Immunotherapy

Ovarian Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Samir A. Farghaly
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2018-08-31
Category : Medical
Total pages :352
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Ovarian Cancer Immunotherapy provides a broad overview of several aspects of basic sciences, and clinical and therapeutic aspects of immunotherapy for ovarian cancer, as well as state-of-the-art information on molecular genetics and biology. Chapters are written by a team of expert contributors from around the world and explore topics such as antibody therapeutics for ovarian carcinoma, emerging serum biomarkers, ovarian cancer immunity, adoptive cell immunotherapy, the biology of dendritic cells, the role of growth factors, and more. Readers will also gain a better understanding of the molecular and cellular events that underlie ovarian cancer immunology. This book is an ideal resource for clinicians, basic medical scientists, graduate basic medical science students, and medical students caring for patients with ovarian cancer, including attending surgeons and physicians, and clinical fellows and residents in the disciplines of gynecologic oncology, medical oncology, and surgical oncology.

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Tyler J. Curiel
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-11-07
Category : Medical
Total pages :486
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This work will provide a historical perspective on tumor immunotherapy, discuss fundamental mechanisms of failed tumor rejection, look at passive strategies to boost anti-tumor immunity, as well as have an in-depth look at active strategies to boost anti-tumor immunity.

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Eva Sahakian,Karrune Woan,Alejandro Villagra,Eduardo M. Sotomayor
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-06-04
Category : Medical
Total pages :684
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) have been largely known for their ability to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells, effects that have translated into clinically significant antitumor activity against certain malignancies. In addition, there is now increasing evidence that HDIs are also endowed with immunoregulatory properties. Interestingly, while some reports have highlighted the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds, others have shown pro-inflammatory effects triggered by HDIs in in vitro and in vivo studies. Known targets for HDIs are histone deacetylases (HDACs), enzymes that are recruited to gene promoters where they regulate transcription through histone modifications. Some HDACs, however, can also deacetylate nonhistone proteins, indicating that the role of HDACs in cell biology goes beyond their initial described effects on histones and encompasses now more complex regulatory functions. This complexity, along with the fact that most of the HDI currently in use are pan-HDI (multiple HDAC targets), might explain the divergent immunoregulatory effects of these compounds. Given this conundrum, in this chapter we have summarized the current understanding of the expression/function of specific HDACs in immune cells, knowledge that is providing important insights into their role in immunobiology and also paving the way for the development of more selective and potentially less toxic epigenetic-based approaches to effectively harness antitumor immune responses.

Cancer Immunotherapy at the Crossroads

Cancer Immunotherapy at the Crossroads
Author : James H. Finke,Ronald M. Bukowski
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2003-11-24
Category : Medical
Total pages :386
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Leading investigators and clinicians detail the different mechanisms used by tumors to escape and impair the immune system and then spell out possible clinical strategies to prevent or reverse tumor-induced immune dysfunction. The authors review the mechanisms of immune dysfunction and evasion mechanisms in histologically diverse human tumors, focusing on tumor-induced molecular defects in T cells and antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and tumors), that may serve as biomarkers for patient prognosis. They discuss the means by which these immune functions may be protected or restored in order to more effectively support the process of tumor rejection in situ. Cutting-edge techniques are outlined with the capacity to monitor the strength and quality of patients' immune responses using immunocytometry, MHC-peptide tetramers combined with apoptosis assay, ELISPOT assay, and detection of MHC-TAA peptide complexes on tumor cells.