November 24, 2020

Download Ebook Free Challenges And Innovations In Ocean In Situ Sensors

Challenges and Innovations in Ocean In Situ Sensors

Challenges and Innovations in Ocean In Situ Sensors
Author : Eric Delory,Jay Pearlman
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2018-09-21
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :408
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Challenges and Innovations in Ocean In-Situ Sensors: Measuring Inner Ocean Processes and Health in the Digital Age highlights collaborations of industry and academia in identifying the key challenges and solutions related to ocean observations. A new generation of sensors is presented that addresses the need for higher reliability (e.g. against biofouling), better integration on platforms in terms of size and communication, and data flow across domains (in-situ, space, etc.). Several developments are showcased using a broad diversity of measuring techniques and technologies. Chapters address different sensors and approaches for measurements, including applications, quality monitoring and initiatives that will guide the need for monitoring. Integrates information across key marine and maritime sectors and supports regional policy requirements on monitoring programs Offers tactics for enabling early detection and more effective monitoring of the marine environment and implementation of appropriate management actions Presents new technologies driving the next generation of sensors, allowing readers to understand new capabilities for monitoring and opportunities for another generation of sensors Includes a global vision for ocean monitoring that fosters a new perspective on the direction of ocean measurements

Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate

Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2018-01-20
Category : Science
Total pages :150
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The ocean is an integral component of the Earth's climate system. It covers about 70% of the Earth's surface and acts as its primary reservoir of heat and carbon, absorbing over 90% of the surplus heat and about 30% of the carbon dioxide associated with human activities, and receiving close to 100% of fresh water lost from land ice. With the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, notably carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion, the Earth's climate is now changing more rapidly than at any time since the advent of human societies. Society will increasingly face complex decisions about how to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change such as droughts, sea-level rise, ocean acidification, species loss, changes to growing seasons, and stronger and possibly more frequent storms. Observations play a foundational role in documenting the state and variability of components of the climate system and facilitating climate prediction and scenario development. Regular and consistent collection of ocean observations over decades to centuries would monitor the Earth's main reservoirs of heat, carbon dioxide, and water and provides a critical record of long-term change and variability over multiple time scales. Sustained high-quality observations are also needed to test and improve climate models, which provide insights into the future climate system. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate considers processes for identifying priority ocean observations that will improve understanding of the Earth's climate processes, and the challenges associated with sustaining these observations over long timeframes.

Innovations in WASH Impact Measures

Innovations in WASH Impact Measures
Author : Evan Thomas,Luis Alberto Andrés,Christian Borja-Vega,Germán Sturzenegger
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release Date : 2018-02-02
Category : Nature
Total pages :120
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The new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) at its core. A dedicated Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 6) declares a commitment to "ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all." Monitoring progress toward this goal will be challenging: direct measures of water and sanitation service quality and use are either expensive or elusive. However, reliance on household surveys poses limitations and likely overstated progress during the Millennium Development Goal period. In Innovations in WASH Impact Measures: Water and Sanitation Measurement Technologies and Practices to Inform the Sustainable Development Goals, we review the landscape of proven and emerging technologies, methods, and approaches that can support and improve on the WASH indicators proposed for SDG target 6.1, "by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all," and target 6.2, "by 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations." Although some of these technologies and methods are readily available, other promising approaches require further field evaluation and cost reductions. Emergent technologies, methods, and data-sharing platforms are increasingly aligned with program impact monitoring. Improved monitoring of water and sanitation interventions may allow more cost-effective and measurable results. In many cases, technologies and methods allow more complete and impartial data in time to allow program improvements. Of the myriad monitoring and evaluation methods, each has its own advantages and limitations. Surveys, ethnographies, and direct observation give context to more continuous and objective electronic sensor data. Overall, combined methodologies can provide a more comprehensive and instructive depiction of WASH usage and help the international development community measure our progress toward reaching the SDG WASH goals.

Advances in Conceptual Modeling – Applications and Challenges

Advances in Conceptual Modeling – Applications and Challenges
Author : Juan Trujillo,Gillian Dobbie,Hannu Kangassalo,Sven Hartmann,Markus Kirchberg,Matti Rossi,Iris Reinhartz-Berger,Esteban Zimányi,Flavius Frasincar
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2010-10-25
Category : Computers
Total pages :296
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of workshops, held at the 29th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling, ER 2010, in Vancouver, Canada, in November 2010. The 31 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 82 submissions. The papers are organized in sections on the workshops Semantic and Conceptual Issues in GIS (SeCoGIS); Conceptual Modeling of Life Sciences Applications (CMLSA); Conceptual Modelling of Services (CMS); Active Conceptual Modeling of Learning (ACM-L); Web Information Systems Modeling (WISM); Domain Engineering ([email protected]); and Foundations and Practices of UML (FP-UML).

Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle

Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle
Author : Venkataraman Lakshmi
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2014-10-31
Category : Science
Total pages :576
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Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle isan outcome of the AGU Chapman Conference held in February2012. This is a comprehensive volume that examines the use ofavailable remote sensing satellite data as well as data fromfuture missions that can be used to expand our knowledge inquantifying the spatial and temporal variations in the terrestrialwater cycle. Volume highlights include: - An in-depth discussion of the global watercycle - Approaches to various problems in climate, weather,hydrology, and agriculture - Applications of satellite remote sensing in measuringprecipitation, surface water, snow, soilmoisture, groundwater, modeling, and dataassimilation - A description of the use of satellite data for accuratelyestimating and monitoring the components of the hydrologicalcycle - Discussion of the measurement of multiple geophysical variablesand properties over different landscapes on a temporal and aregional scale Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle is a valuableresource for students and research professionals in thehydrology, ecology, atmospheric sciences, geography, andgeological sciences communities.

Remote Sensing of the Cryosphere

Remote Sensing of the Cryosphere
Author : Marco Tedesco
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2014-11-20
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :432
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The cryosphere, that region of the world where water istemporarily or permanently frozen, plays a crucial role on ourplanet. Recent developments in remote sensing techniques, and theacquisition of new data sets, have resulted in significant advancesin our understanding of all components of the cryosphere and itsprocesses. This book, based on contributions from 40 leading experts,offers a comprehensive and authoritative overview of the methods,techniques and recent advances in applications of remote sensing ofthe cryosphere. Examples of the topics covered include: • snow extent, depth, grain-size and impurities • surface and subsurface melting • glaciers • accumulation over the Greenland and Antarctica icesheets • ice thickness and velocities • gravimetric measurements from space • sea, lake and river ice • frozen ground and permafrost • fieldwork activities • recent and future cryosphere-oriented missions andexperiments All figures are in color and provide an excellent visualaccompaniment to the technical and scientific aspect of thebook. Readership: Senior undergraduates, Masters and PhDStudents, PostDocs and Researchers in cryosphere science and remotesensing. Remote Sensing of the Cryosphere is the significant firstvolume in the new Cryosphere Science Series. This newseries comprises volumes that are at the cutting edge of newresearch, or provide focussed interdisciplinary reviews of keyaspects of the science.

Water Security

Water Security
Author : The World Economic Forum Water Initiative
Publisher : Island Press
Release Date : 2012-02-24
Category : Nature
Total pages :272
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The world is on the brink of the greatest crisis it has ever faced: a spiraling lack of fresh water. Groundwater is drying up, even as water demands for food production, for energy, and for manufacturing are surging. Water is already emerging as a headline geopolitical issue—and worsening water security will soon have dire consequences in many parts of the global economic system. Directed by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon at the 2008 Davos Annual Meeting, the World Economic Forum assembled the world’s foremost group of public, private, non-governmental-organization and academic experts to examine the water crisis issue from all perspectives. The result of their work is this forecast—a stark, non-technical overview of where we will be by 2025 if we take a business-as-usual approach to (mis)managing our water resources. The findings are shocking. Perhaps equally stunning are the potential solutions and the recommendations that the group presents. All are included in this landmark publication. Water Security contains compelling commentary from leading decision-makers, past and present. The commentary is supported by analysis from leading academics of how the world economy will be affected if world leaders cannot agree on solutions. The book suggests how business and politics need to manage the energy-food-water-climate axis as leaders negotiate the details of the climate regime that replace Kyoto Protocols.

Ocean Challenge

Ocean Challenge
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2005
Category : Oceanography
Total pages :129
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Topics in Oceanography

Topics in Oceanography
Author : Enrico Zambianchi
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2013-07-10
Category : Science
Total pages :166
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Oceanography is the par excellence interdisciplinary science thanks to its peculiar setting within a fluid environment that makes connections extremely efficient. The oceans connections are well mirrored in the chapters of this book that share a quite explicit multidisciplinary and multi-environmental character. The book provides chapters on very different topics under very different settings, some with a focused angle, others with a broader approach, yet all sharing the idea that we need to understand the small pieces in order to put together the big picture for a much larger mechanism, the functioning of the ocean as a whole.

Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on an Ocean Infrastructure Strategy for U.S. Ocean Research in 2030
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2011-07-24
Category : Science
Total pages :98
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The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean in its exclusive economic zone, a size exceeding the combined land area of the 50 states. This expansive marine area represents a prime national domain for activities such as maritime transportation, national security, energy and mineral extraction, fisheries and aquaculture, and tourism and recreation. However, it also carries with it the threat of damaging and outbreaks of waterborne pathogens. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that ocean activities and processes have direct human implications both nationally and worldwide, understanding of the ocean system is still incomplete, and ocean research infrastructure is needed to support both fundamental research and societal priorities. Given current struggles to maintain, operate, and upgrade major infrastructure elements while maintaining a robust research portfolio, a strategic plan is needed for future investments to ensure that new facilities provide the greatest value, least redundancy, and highest efficiency in terms of operation and flexibility to incorporate new technological advances. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030 identifies major research questions anticipated to be at the forefront of ocean science in 2030 based on national and international assessments, input from the worldwide scientific community, and ongoing research planning activities. This report defines categories of infrastructure that should be included in planning for the nation's ocean research infrastructure of 2030 and that will be required to answer the major research questions of the future. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030 provides advice on the criteria and processes that could be used to set priorities for the development of new ocean infrastructure or replacement of existing facilities. In addition, this report recommends ways in which the federal agencies can maximize the value of investments in ocean infrastructure.

Remote Sensing of Coastal Aquatic Environments

Remote Sensing of Coastal Aquatic Environments
Author : Richard L. Miller,Carlos E. Del Castillo,Brent A. McKee
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2007-03-06
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :347
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This book provides extensive insight on remote sensing of coastal waters from aircraft and space-based platforms. The primary focus of the book is optical remote sensing using passive instruments, to measure and analyze the coastal aquatic environment. The authors have gathered information from a variety of sources, to help non-specialists grasp new techniques and technology, to quickly produce useful data

Oceanography and Naval Special Warfare

Oceanography and Naval Special Warfare
Author : Anonim
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 1997
Category : Science
Total pages :86
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Based on discussions among more than one hundred scientists, managers, and fighters during the fifth in a series of symposia, summarizes the SEAL teams' mission and methods, the importance of environmental data in planning and executing naval special oper

Oceans '02 MTS

Oceans '02 MTS
Author : Oceans
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2002
Category : Marine resources
Total pages :129
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Emerging Environmental Technologies

Emerging Environmental Technologies
Author : Vishal Shah
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2009-12-02
Category : Science
Total pages :247
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Within the span of last couple of years, the increasing human interference with v- ious natural ecosystems and higher discharge of pollutants has presented numerous challenges to the society related to preserving the nature for a better tomorrow. The challenges also mount pressure on the scienti?c community to invent technologies that would provide solutions to the problems that are man made and also decrease the negative consequences that we are facing because of our own actions. This edited book attempts to present eight technological innovations that have shown potential to provide answers to a few challenges. Like the previous collection, the described innovations in the current volume also cover a range of areas including water and soil pollution, bio-sensors and energy. However, it is to be realized that no combination of technology can be enough to make a sizeable difference. As I said in my last collection, technological advances have to be integrated with a change in social behavior. The philosophy of sustainable development has to be the principle of future planning and growth. In this collection, I am pleased to include an article on noise pollution. Noise is a pollutant of our own behavior and can only be solved by a behavioral change. The change that is either voluntary or enforced by laws. As an environmental scientist noise is not normally a pollutant that would come in mind as a leading pollutant.

Integrating Multiscale Observations of U.S. Waters

Integrating Multiscale Observations of U.S. Waters
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Water Science and Technology Board,Committee on Integrated Observations for Hydrologic and Related Sciences
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2008-05-16
Category : Science
Total pages :210
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Water is essential to life for humans and their food crops, and for ecosystems. Effective water management requires tracking the inflow, outflow, quantity and quality of ground-water and surface water, much like balancing a bank account. Currently, networks of ground-based instruments measure these in individual locations, while airborne and satellite sensors measure them over larger areas. Recent technological innovations offer unprecedented possibilities to integrate space, air, and land observations to advance water science and guide management decisions. This book concludes that in order to realize the potential of integrated data, agencies, universities, and the private sector must work together to develop new kinds of sensors, test them in field studies, and help users to apply this information to real problems.