January 26, 2021

Download Ebook Free Char And Carbon Materials Derived From Biomass

Char and Carbon Materials Derived from Biomass

Char and Carbon Materials Derived from Biomass
Author : Mejdi Jeguirim,Lionel Limousy
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2019-03-29
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :506
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Char and Carbon Materials Derived from Biomass: Production, Characterization and Applications provides an overview of biomass char production methods (pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, etc.), along with the characterization techniques typically used (Scanning Electronic Microscopy, X-Ray Fluorescence, Nitrogen adsorption, etc.) In addition, the book includes a discussion of the various properties of biomass chars and their suitable recovery processes, concluding with a demonstration of applications. As biomass can be converted to energy, biofuels and bioproducts via thermochemical conversion processes, such as combustion, pyrolysis and gasification, this book is ideal for professionals in energy production and storage fields, as well as professionals in waste treatment, gas treatment, and more. Provides a discussion of sources of biomass feedstocks, such as agricultural, woody plants and food processing residue Discusses the various production processes of biomass chars, including pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization Explores various applications of biomass chars within different industries, including energy and agronomy

Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications Ⅱ

Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications Ⅱ
Author : Lionel Limousy,Mejdi Jeguirim
Publisher : MDPI
Release Date : 2019-10-16
Category : Science
Total pages :342
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Biomass can be converted to energy, biofuels, and bioproducts via thermochemical conversion processes, such as combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Combustion technology is most widely applied on an industrial scale. However, biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes are still in the research and development stage. The major products from these processes are syngas, bio-oil, and char (called also biochar for agronomic application). Among these products, biomass chars have received increasing attention for different applications, such as gasification, co-combustion, catalysts or adsorbents precursors, soil amendment, carbon fuel cells, and supercapacitors. This Special Issue provides an overview of biomass char production methods (pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, etc.), characterization techniques (e.g., scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption and mass spectrometry), their properties, and their suitable recovery processes.

Biorefineries: A Step Towards Renewable and Clean Energy

Biorefineries: A Step Towards Renewable and Clean Energy
Author : Pradeep Verma
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2021
Category :
Total pages :129
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Biomass Based Energy Storage Materials

Biomass Based Energy Storage Materials
Author : Inamuddin,Rajender Boddula,Tauseef Ahmad Rangreez,Abdullah M. Asiri
Publisher : Materials Research Forum LLC
Release Date : 2020-08-15
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :150
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The book presents an in-depth review of biomass-derived materials for energy storage technologies. Biomass is the most renewable and abundant carbon resource and has great potential for sustainable energy production. Topics covered include: Bone Char as a Support Material to Build a Microbial Biocapacitor; Biomass Derived Composites; Lignin- and Bamboo Derived Materials, Cellulose-Derived Electrodes; Water Splitting, Fuel cells, and Supercapacitor Technologies. 465 References. Keywords: Bamboo Stick, Biochar, Bioelectrodes, Biofilm, Biomass, Bone Char, Carbon Nanofiber, Cellulose-Derived Electrodes, Fuel Cells, Green Energy, Microbial Biocapacitor, Biomass Derived Composites, High-Frequency Supercapacitors, Lignin Materials, Bamboo Materials, Lithium-Ion Batteries, Lithium-Sulfur Batteries, Natural Precursors, Porous Carbon, Supercapacitor Technology, Water Splitting.

Innovations in Fuel Cell Technologies

Innovations in Fuel Cell Technologies
Author : Robert Steinberger-Wilckens,Werner Lehnert
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 2010
Category : Science
Total pages :350
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Fuel Cells have evolved from an exotic technology only feasible under the constraints of space flight into a product addressing the `everman' consumer, although at first, in niche markets only. The considerable level of technological readiness that has been reached today finally gives rise to hopes that fuel cells will eventually make it to larger markets within the decade leading up to the year 2020. The potential in fuel cell technologies is tremendous and their commercial success is necessary in tailoring the worldwide energy supply systems towards efficiencies and emission levels that allow a long-term stable and sustainable development for the world economy and the environment. Innovations in Fuel Cell Technologies provides a state-of-the-art review on new fields of research that have high potential and interest for the fuel cell community. The main technology problems are discussed and current gaps to market success identified. The innovations covered in the book deliver new answers to pertinent problems and/or offer new opportunities, be it in operating conditions, application area, extension of lifetime, new fuels, exciting new diagnosis or analysis methods. Key issues discussed are the prospects for miniaturising fuel cells, high-temperature polymer membrane fuel cells and their application as an on-board electricity supply in large vehicles, non-standard fuels like pure carbon and the handling of fuel impurities, degradation issues and accelerated lifetime testing, the prospects of reversing the fuel cell reactions towards producing instead of consuming hydrogen and the pitfalls in bringing a technology from demonstration to technical maturity. Innovations in Fuel Cell Technologies directs the reader's attention to the developments of tomorrow. The chapter serve as an early warning to technology developers of the rewarding prospects on the horizon as well as orientation to students and young researchers in guiding their future studies. Energy lies at the heart of modern society, and it is critical that we make informed choices of the methods by which we convert and manage energy. The RSC Energy and Environment Series is a suite of professional reference books that will provide an up-to-date and critical perspective on the various options available.

Sustainable Carbon Materials from Hydrothermal Processes

Sustainable Carbon Materials from Hydrothermal Processes
Author : Maria-Magdalena Titirici
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2013-06-10
Category : Science
Total pages :376
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The production of low cost and environmentally friendly highperforming carbon materials is crucial for a sustainable future.Sustainable Carbon Materials from Hydrothermal Processesdescribes a sustainable and alternative technique to produce carbonfrom biomass in water at low temperatures, a process known asHydrothermal Carbonization (HTC). Sustainable Carbon Materials from Hydrothermal Processespresents an overview of this new and rapidly developing field,discussing various synthetic approaches, characterization of thefinal products, and modern fields of application for of sustainablecarbon materials. Topics covered include: • Green carbon materials • Porous hydrothermal carbons • HTC for the production of valuable carbon hybridmaterials • Functionalization of hydrothermal carbonmaterials • Characterization of HTC materials • Applications of HTC in modern nanotechnology: Energystorage, electrocatalysis in fuel cells, photocatalysis, gasstorage, water purification, sensors, bioapplications • Environmental applications of HTC technology: Biocharproduction, carbon sequestration, and waste conversion • Scale-up in HTC Sustainable Carbon Materials from Hydrothermal Processeswill serve as a comprehensive guide for students and newcomers inthe field, as well as providing a valuable source of informationfor researchers and investors looking for alternative technologiesto convert biomass into useful products.

The Complete Book on Biomass Based Products (Biochemicals, Biofuels, Activated Carbon)

The Complete Book on Biomass Based Products (Biochemicals, Biofuels, Activated Carbon)
Author : NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers
Publisher : ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.
Release Date : 2015-02-15
Category :
Total pages :385
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Biomass use is growing globally. Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. It most often refers to plants or plant-based materials which are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass. Biomass (organic matter that can be converted into energy) may include food crops, crops for energy, crop residues, wood waste and byproducts, and animal manure. It is one of the most plentiful and well-utilized sources of renewable energy in the world. Broadly speaking, it is organic material produced by the photosynthesis of light. The chemical materials (organic compounds of carbons) are stored and can then be used to generate energy. The most common biomass used for energy is wood from trees. Wood has been used by humans for producing energy for heating and cooking for a very long time. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods. Biomass gasification is the conversion of solid fuels like wood and agricultural residues into a combustible gas mixture. The gasification system basically consists of a gasifier unit, a purification system and energy converters- burner or engine. This book offers comprehensive coverage of the design and analysis of biomass gasification, the key technology enabling the production of biofuels from all viable sources like sugar beet and sweet sorghum. It aims at creating an understanding of the nature of biomass resources for energy and fuels, the variety of processes that are available for conversion of the wastes into energy or fuels. The book discusses the overview of the Biomass Energy along with their Properties, Composition, Benefits, Characteristics and Manufacturing Process of Biomass based products. Also it contains suppliers contact details of plant & machinery with their photographs. The content includes biomass renewable energy, prospective renewable resources for bio-based processes, biochemical from biomass, biomass based chemicals, biofuel production from biomass crops, biomass gasification, reuse of bio-genic iron oxides and woody biomass fly ash in cement based materials and agricultural areas, biofuel briquettes from biomass, biomass based activated carbon, environmental aspects. It will be a standard reference book for Professionals, Decision-makers, Engineers, those studying and researching in this important area and others interested in the field of biomass based products. Professionals in academia and industry will appreciate this comprehensive and practical reference book, due to its multidisciplinary nature.

Waste Treatment and Disposal

Waste Treatment and Disposal
Author : Paul T. Williams
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2013-04-30
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :424
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Following on from the successful first edition of Waste Treatment & Disposal, this second edition has been completely updated, and provides comprehensive coverage of waste process engineering and disposal methodologies. Concentrating on the range of technologies available for household and commercial waste, it also presents readers with relevant legislative background material as boxed features. NEW to this edition: Increased coverage of re-use and recycling Updating of the usage of different waste treatment technologies Increased coverage of new and emerging technologies for waste treatment and disposal A broader global perspective with a focus on comparative international material on waste treatment uptake and waste management policies

Energy from Biomass and Wastes IV

Energy from Biomass and Wastes IV
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1980
Category : Biomass energy
Total pages :834
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Biochar from Biomass and Waste

Biochar from Biomass and Waste
Author : Yong Sik Ok,Daniel C.W. Tsang,Nanthi Bolan,Jeffrey M. Novak
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2018-11-02
Category : Science
Total pages :462
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Biochar from Biomass and Waste: Fundamentals and Applications provides the fundamentals of biochar, such as its basic concepts, production technology and characterization methods, also including comprehensive examples for readers. This book includes information on state-of-art biochar application technologies in the fields of agriculture, energy and environmental sciences with step-by-step case studies. Biochar has received worldwide interests in the past decade because it encompasses high priority research areas, including bioenergy production, global warming mitigation and sustainable agriculture. Offers comprehensive coverage of biochar production, characterization and modification methods Provides global case studies covering a wide range of application fields, including environmental, agricultural, syngas and bio-oil Covers the sustainability and future of biochar

Porosity

Porosity
Author : Taher Ghrib
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2018-04-26
Category : Science
Total pages :246
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This book discusses multiways in the porous materials. It involves materials with a large number of holes, and it highlights the synthesis, structure, and surface properties of porous materials closely related to more applications, such as support, catalyst, energy storage, chemical reactions, and optical applications. It studies the effect of the filling materials, the thermal treatments, and the porous density in the improvement of physical properties, electrical and energy efficiency, and the generation of new materials. Some synthetic process will be discussed with the effect of some parameters on the final characteristics of the prepared porous structures.

Energy Systems and Environment

Energy Systems and Environment
Author : Pavel Tsvetkov
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2018-09-12
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :230
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This book looks at environmental aspects of energy technologies, from common traditional sources in use, new sources, and emerging sources and technologies. The objective of this book is to serve as a one-stop comprehensive information resource on energy and environment topics, from energy science to energy engineering to energy politics. Starting with science and technology topics we link them to economics and politics showcasing interconnections between energy sources, energy utilization, energy conversion, and sustainability under the common theme of energy and environment. The book achieves its objective by offering and integrating deeply technical and socioeconomics papers together on energy and environment topics.

Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source for the Future

Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source for the Future
Author : Wiebren de Jong,J. Ruud van Ommen
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2014-10-03
Category : Science
Total pages :600
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Focusing on the conversion of biomass into gas or liquid fuels the book covers physical pre-treatment technologies, thermal, chemical and biochemical conversion technologies • Details the latest biomass characterization techniques • Explains the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes • Discusses the development of integrated biorefineries, which are similar to petroleum refineries in concept, covering such topics as reactor configurations and downstream processing • Describes how to mitigate the environmental risks when using biomass as fuel • Includes many problems, small projects, sample calculations and industrial application examples

Porous Carbon Materials from Sustainable Precursors

Porous Carbon Materials from Sustainable Precursors
Author : Robin J White
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 2015-02-11
Category : Science
Total pages :433
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Porous carbon materials are at the heart of many applications, including renewable energy storage and generation, due to their superior physical properties and availability. The environmentally-friendly production of these materials is crucial for a sustainable future. This book focuses on the transformation of sustainable precursors into functional, porous carbonaceous materials via the two most significant approaches: Starbon® and Hydrothermal Carbonisation. Covering cutting-edge research and emerging areas, chapters cover applications of porous carbon materials in catalysis and separation science as well as in energy science. Moreover, the challenges of characterization of these materials and their commercialization are explained by worldwide experts. The content will be accessible and valuable to post-graduate students and senior researchers alike and it will serve as a significant reference for academics and industrialists working in the areas of materials science, catalysis and separation science.

Renewable Carbon from Lignin Biomass and Its Electrode and Catalyst Applications in Batteries, Supercapacitors, and Fuel Cells

Renewable Carbon from Lignin Biomass and Its Electrode and Catalyst Applications in Batteries, Supercapacitors, and Fuel Cells
Author : Muslum Demir
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category : Lignin
Total pages :129
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Over the last century, almost all of the carbon materials developed for the energy industry are derived from fossil fuels. The growing global concerns about energy needs, fossil fuels consumption, and the related environmental issues have motived scientists to find new, green and sustainable energy resources such as the wind, solar and biomass energy. Essentially, biomass-derived materials can be utilized in energy storage and conversion devices such as Li-ion batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors. Among the biomass resources, lignin is a high volume byproduct from the pulp and paper industry and is currently burned to generate electricity and steam. The pulp and paper industry has been searching for high value-added uses of lignin to improve its overall process economics. The importance of manufacturing valuable materials from lignin is, discussed in Chapter 2, demonstrating the need for a facile, green and scalable approach to synthesize bio-char and porous carbon for use in Li-ion batteries. From this context, lignin is first carbonized in water at 300 °C and 103 bar to produce bio-char, which is then graphitized using a metal nitrate catalyst at 900-1100 °C in an inert gas at 1 bar. Graphitization effectiveness of three different catalysts, iron, cobalt and manganese nitrates was examined. The obtained materials were analyzed for morphology, thermal stability, surface properties, and electrical conductivity. Both annealing temperature and the catalyst affects the degree of graphitization. High-quality graphitization is obtained by using Mn(NO3)2 at 900 °C or Co(NO3)2 catalysts at 1100 °C. Research on various energy storage materials for supercapacitors has grown rapidly in the recent years. Various advanced materials have been shown as a promising candidate for future's high-energy supercapacitor electrodes. For a material in a supercapacitor electrode to be considered, it must show promising results for its specific power and energy density, electrical conductivity, surface properties, durability, surface area and pore-size distribution in order to design and develop high-performance supercapacitor devices. The industrial applications of supercapacitors have not been satisfied due to the low energy density (the commercially available supercapacitors have between 5 to 10 times less energy density than that of batteries) and moderate charge-discharge rate of supercapacitor electrode. Thus, chapter 3 was aimed to design and synthesize nitrogen-doped carbon materials that show the characteristic of high-energy and high-power density supercapacitor electrodes with a long cycle life. With this aim, organosol lignin was successfully converted into N-doped carbon materials using a two-step conversion process. The nitrogen content in the carbon was up to 5.6 wt.%. The synthesize materials exhibit high surface area up to 2957 m2/g with micro/meso porosity and a sheet-like structure. The N-doped carbon produced at 850 0C exhibited a high capacitance value of 440 F g−1 at a 1 mV s−1 scan rate and demonstrated excellent cyclic stability over 30,000 cycles in 1 M KOH. In addition, the NC-850 delivers a high energy density of 15.3 W h kg−1 and power density of 55.1 W kg−1at 1 mV s−1. Therefore, this study suggests that N-doped carbon materials synthesized from a pulp and paper byproduct, lignin, are promising environmentally-sustainable candidates for supercapacitor applications. Challenges for commercialization of fuel cells include high operation cost, inadequate operational stability, and poisoning by H2O2. To address the challenge, costly Pt-based catalysts are needed in order to facilitate the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode and the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) at the anode. In chapter 4, alternative metal-free ORR catalyst materials derived from lignin are studied in order to simultaneously enhance the catalytic activity, lessen the Pt dependency and reduce the excessive costs associated. Calcium sulfonate lignin was successfully converted into sulfur self-doped carbons via in-situ hydrothermal carbonization and followed by post-annealing treatment. The sulfur content in the as-prepared porous carbons is up to 3.2 wt.%. The resulting materials displayed high surface areas (up to 660 m2g−1) with micro/meso porosity and graphitic/amorphous carbon structure. The as-prepared sulfur self-doped electrode materials (SC-850) were tested as a potential cathodic material for ORR. The number of electrons transferred per molecule was measured to be ~ 3.4 at 0.8 V, which approaches the optimum 4 electron pathway. Additionally, S-doped materials were also applied as a supercapacitor electrode material. The SC-850 electrode exhibited a high specific and volumetric capacitance values of 225 F g−1 and 300 F cm−3 at a scan rate of 0.5 A g−1. The SC-850 electrode also exhibited consistent response over 10,000 cycles at harsh conditions. It was shown that the metal-free SC-850 is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors and ORR applications. All of the studies presented in this dissertation involve the development and application of carbon-based materials derived from lignin and its application towards the Li-ion batteries, supercapacitor, and fuel cell. Insight into the applicability of lignin-derived carbon materials towards electrochemical applications is made readily available, supplemented by detailed physical, chemical and electrochemical characterization, to examine the specific factors influencing the Li-ion batteries, supercapacitor, and electrocatalysis of fuel cell activity.