February 27, 2021

Download Ebook Free Characterization Of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
Author : Amit Bandyopadhyay,Susmita Bose
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-03-12
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :450
GET BOOK

One of the key challenges current biomaterials researchers face is identifying which of the dizzying number of highly specialized characterization tools can be gainfully applied to different materials and biomedical devices. Since this diverse marketplace of tools and techniques can be used for numerous applications, choosing the proper characterization tool is highly important, saving both time and resources. Characterization of Biomaterials is a detailed and multidisciplinary discussion of the physical, chemical, mechanical, surface, in vitro and in vivo characterization tools and techniques of increasing importance to fundamental biomaterials research. Characterization of Biomaterials will serve as a comprehensive resource for biomaterials researchers requiring detailed information on physical, chemical, mechanical, surface, and in vitro or in vivo characterization. The book is designed for materials scientists, bioengineers, biologists, clinicians and biomedical device researchers seeking input on planning on how to test their novel materials, structures or biomedical devices to a specific application. Chapters are developed considering the need for industrial researchers as well as academics. Biomaterials researchers come from a wide variety of disciplines: this book will help them to analyze their materials and devices taking advantage of the multiple experiences on offer. Coverage encompasses a cross-section of the physical sciences, biological sciences, engineering and applied sciences characterization community, providing gainful and cross-cutting insight into this highly multi-disciplinary field. Detailed coverage of important test protocols presents specific examples and standards for applied characterization

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
Author : T.S. Sampath Kumar
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-03-12
Category : Science
Total pages :450
GET BOOK

The physicochemical properties of biomaterials exert a major influence over their interaction with cells and subsequently play an important role on the materials' in vivo performance . Physical characteristics involve internal microstructural features, shape and size of particles, porosity, density, and surface area. Characterization in terms of the chemistry involves determination of the chemical composition and distribution of the elements within the biomaterial. The last decade has seen several innovations in the armory of tools to image and analyze materials, as well as advancement in the collection and processing of those results. In this chapter, the most commonly used methods, which are available for the microstructural characterization of biomaterials, are explained with suitable examples. This chapter starts with microstructural characterization using different types of microscopic techniques including optical and electron microscopy. These techniques can provide information from atomic-scale to microscale to macroscale information. Specific examples are also used for specialized microscopic techniques such as scanning probe microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Some discussions were also used in -related surface characterization using microscopic techniques. Followed by microscopic techniques, phase analysis techniques are discussed based on X-ray diffraction. Short discussion is also placed on infrared (IR)-based spectroscopic characterization for chemical analysis. Further discussion on IR spectroscopy can be found in for surface analysis. The last part of this chapter deals with size, shape, porosity, surface area and surface energy characterization. Particle size analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS) is discussed in detail followed by IR spectroscopic analysis. Contact angle measurement for surface energy, mercury intrusion porosimetry for analysis of pore structures and gas adsorption measurements for surface area analysis are presented in detail with relevant examples. Throughout this chapter, specific discussions are focused on examples based on applications as well as advantages, disadvantages, and challenges.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
Author : Ryan K. Roeder
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-03-12
Category : Science
Total pages :450
GET BOOK

The design of biomedical devices almost always involves some form of mechanical characterization of biomaterials. This chapter provides a broad overview of experimental methods and important considerations for mechanical characterization of biomaterials, with special attention to the practical needs of engineers and scientists who encounter a need to characterize the mechanical properties of a biomaterial but may not know where to begin or what the key considerations should be. Many details are necessarily omitted from this broad overview, but numerous references are provided for greater technical depth on a particular topic, standardized methodologies, and exemplary studies. Fundamental concepts are introduced, beginning with stress and strain versus force and displacement. The mechanical properties measured from a stress–strain curve, different types of stress–strain curves, and corresponding constitutive models are reviewed, including differences in material classes and anisotropy. Three primary methods of analysis for fracture mechanics are introduced, including stress concentrations, energy criteria for crack initiation and propagation (fracture toughness), and statistical methods for the probability of fracture. The mechanical characterization of biomaterials begins with selection and preparation of standardized test specimens, which are critical to obtaining accurate and reproducible measurements of material properties. Practical considerations are outlined for selection and preparation of the specimen size, geometry, surface finish, and precracking. The mechanical characterization of biomaterial test specimens always involves the application and measurement of load and deformation. Practical considerations are outlined for the selection and use of load frames, load cells, load fixtures, extensometers, and strain gauges. A number of common loading modes are introduced and compared: uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, biaxial tension, torsion, diametral compression, three-point bending, four-point bending, and in-plane shear (including biomaterial-tissue interfacial shear strength). Strain-rate sensitivity or time-dependent behavior can profoundly influence stress–strain behavior and thus measured mechanical properties. The effects of high strain rates may be characterized by impact testing using a pendulum, drop tower, or split Hopkinson pressure bar. The effects of low strain rates may be characterized by creep deformation or creep rupture tests. The time-dependent behavior of viscoelastic materials is introduced, including creep, stress relaxation, common constitutive models, and practical considerations for testing. The frequency of loading, or cyclic loading, is another aspect of time-dependent behavior, which is critical for mechanical characterization of biomaterials, leading to fatigue deformation and failure or viscoelastic creep and stress relaxation. Practical considerations are described for selecting the waveform, frequency, cyclic stress/strain levels, loading mode, and test duration. Common methods are introduced for fatigue lifetime testing (including S-N curves, notch factors, and fatigue damage), fatigue crack propagation, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Nondestructive tests are particularly useful for sampling small volumes of a biomaterial (e.g., implant retrieval or biopsy) or characterizing spatial heterogeneity in mechanical properties. Various indentation tests and indenter geometries are introduced and compared, including classic hardness (Brinell and Rockwell), microhardness (Knoop and Vickers), and instrumented nanoindentation (Berkovich, cube corner, etc.). Methods and limitations are described for characterizing the reduced modulus, viscoelasticity, and fracture toughness using indentation. Ultrasonic wave-propagation methods are also introduced with an emphasis on methods for characterizing anisotropic elastic constants. Biomaterials are typically subjected to various sterilization methods prior to service and an aqueous physiological environment in service. Therefore, the effects of temperature, pressure, various aqueous media (water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), media, foetal bovine serum (FBS), lipids, etc.), and irradiation on mechanical characterization of biomaterials are considered, including the degradation of mechanical properties by various mechanisms involving water uptake, hydrolysis, and oxidation. Finally, methods and guidelines are provided for data acquisition from transducers and data analysis, including an introduction to some basic statistical methods.

Characterization of Polymeric Biomaterials

Characterization of Polymeric Biomaterials
Author : Maria Cristina Tanzi,Silvia Farè
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2017-06-20
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :500
GET BOOK

Characterization of Polymeric Biomaterials presents a comprehensive introduction on the topic before discussing the morphology and surface characterization of biomedical polymers. The structural, mechanical, and biological characterization is described in detail, followed by invaluable case studies of polymer biomaterial implants. With comprehensive coverage of both theoretical and experimental information, this title will provide scientists with an essential guide on the topic of these materials which are regularly used for clinical applications, such as implants and drug delivery devices. However, a range of novel polymers and the development and modification of existing medical polymers means that there is an ongoing need to satisfy particular design requirements. This book explains the critical and fundamentals methods to characterize polymer materials for biomedical applications. Presents a self-contained reference on the characterization of polymeric biomaterials Provides comprehensive information on how to characterize biomedical polymers in order to improve design and synthesis Includes useful case studies that demonstrate the characterization of biomaterial implants

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
Author : Nehal I. Abu-Lail,Haluk Beyenal
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-03-12
Category : Science
Total pages :450
GET BOOK

Bacterial adhesion to biomaterials is generally accepted to be the first step in the development of biomaterial-centred bacterial infections (BCBIs). A better understanding of how bacteria interact with biomaterials is essential to the development of surgical intervention strategies that can be used to reduce BCBIs and coatings capable of preventing bacterial adhesion to their surfaces. Bacterial adhesion to a surface is a multi-step process during which single bacterial cells first initiate attachment to the biomaterial, followed by biofilm formation. The first part of this chapter is devoted to an exploration of how the initial bacterial adhesion to biomaterials can be quantified while the second part focuses on how biofilms can be imaged and how such images can be processed to quantify biofilm structure. We have paid special attention to guiding future biomaterials scientists on the best practices currently used in quantifying bacterial interactions with biomaterials at the nano- and macroscales.

Surface Characterization of Biomaterials

Surface Characterization of Biomaterials
Author : Buddy D. Ratner
Publisher : Elsevier Science Limited
Release Date : 1988-01-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :334
GET BOOK

Surface Characterization of Biomaterials is the first book to define the scope of contemporary research in this area by presenting articles from almost all the groups worldwide who are utilizing both new and traditional methods to explore the surfaces of biomaterials. The book contains introductory, tutorial articles on important methods, perspective articles clarifying why these methods are important to biomaterials science, and sixteen research articles illustrating how these tools are being used by most of the leaders in this field. The techniques featured include ESCA, static SIMS, contact angle methods, scanning electron stimulated desorption microscopy, Fourier transform infrared methods, and transmission electron microscopy. The classes of materials described include polymers, ceramics and metals. Surface modification of many of these materials is discussed. The biological problems addressed include blood compatibility, cell adhesion, osteointegration, and protein adsorption. The book will be welcomed by researchers and manufacturers interested in biomaterials. Experts in the field will find an overview of contemporary research.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
Author : Susmita Bose,Amit Bandyopadhyay
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-03-12
Category : Science
Total pages :450
GET BOOK

This brief introductory chapter provides a broad overview of materials, biomaterials and the need to understand different techniques to characterize biomaterials. From this chapter, the reader can gain a perspective on how the rest of the topics in different chapters are divided to fully comprehend this inherently multidisciplinary field. Application of appropriate characterization tools can not only save time to fully evaluate different biomaterials, it can also make commercial biomedical devices safer. In the long run, safer biomedical devices can only reduce the pain and suffering of mankind, a dream that resonates with every biomedical researcher.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
Author : M. Jaffe,T. Arinzeh
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing Limited
Release Date : 2016-06
Category :
Total pages :129
GET BOOK

Biomaterials and medical devices must be rigorously tested in the laboratory before they can be implanted. Testing requires the right analytical techniques. Characterization of biomaterials reviews the latest methods for analyzing the structure, properties and behaviour of biomaterials. Beginning with an introduction to microscopy techniques for analyzing the phase nature and morphology of biomaterials, Characterization of biomaterials goes on to discuss scattering techniques for structural analysis, quantitative assays for measuring cell adhesion, motility and differentiation, and the evaluation of cell infiltration and tissue formation using bioreactors. Further topics considered include studying molecular-scale protein-surface interactions in biomaterials, analysis of the cellular genome and abnormalities, and the use of microarrays to measure cellular changes induced by biomaterials. Finally, the book concludes by outlining standards and methods for assessing the safety and biocompatibility of biomaterials. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Characterization of biomaterials is an authoritative reference tool for all those involved in the development, production and application of biomaterials. Reviews the latest methods for analyzing the structure, properties and behaviour of biomaterials Discusses scattering techniques for structural analysis, quantitative assays for measuring cell adhesion, and motility and differentiation Examines the evaluation of cell infiltration and tissue formation using bioreactors

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials
Author : Imran Khan,Malcolm Naylor,Gautam Gupta
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-03-12
Category : Science
Total pages :450
GET BOOK

Preclinical testing is a critical part of the orthopaedic device design process and is required to demonstrate efficacy, safety and adherence to the requirements of essential regulations. The following chapter provides an overview of the key regulatory and technical requirements associated with mechanical and tribological testing of orthopaedic devices and the characterization of metallic coatings applied to such devices for improved biological fixation. Mechanical testing is typically carried out according to regional or international standards that define the type of device to be tested, its laboratory-based performance requirements and reference criteria that a product must meet. The most widely used tests for orthopaedic devices are static or fatigue tests. These may be conducted under compression, bending, shear or torsion, depending on the in vivo loading conditions that they are trying to replicate. Bearing wear simulator test methods have evolved over several decades from simpler tests such as pin-on-plate to more realistic tests that replicate the forces and motions experienced during walking or other gait cycles and, importantly, allow the testing of actual components. Current wear simulator test standards for hip and knee joints are reviewed and methods of characterizing wear debris and measuring friction are discussed. Metallic coatings on orthopaedic devices can be employed to improve the fixation of the implant to the host bone. This chapter discusses methods to characterize critical properties of metallic coatings for orthopaedic devices and also identifies the acceptance standards set by regulatory bodies for these kinds of coatings.

Introduction to Biomaterials

Introduction to Biomaterials
Author : J. L. Ong,Mark R. Appleford,Gopinath Mani
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2013-11-07
Category : Medical
Total pages :419
GET BOOK

A succinct introduction to the field of biomaterials engineering, packed with practical insights.

Marine Biomaterials

Marine Biomaterials
Author : Se-Kwon Kim
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2013-04-11
Category : Medical
Total pages :840
GET BOOK

Oceans are an abundant source of diverse biomaterials with potential for an array of uses. Marine Biomaterials: Characterization, Isolation and Applications brings together the wide range of research in this important area, including the latest developments and applications, from preliminary research to clinical trials. The book is divided into four parts, with chapters written by experts from around the world. Biomaterials described come from a variety of marine sources, such as fish, algae, microorganisms, crustaceans, and mollusks. Part I covers the isolation and characterization of marine biomaterials—bioceramics, biopolymers, fatty acids, toxins and pigments, nanoparticles, and adhesive materials. It also describes problems that may be encountered in the process as well as possible solutions. Part II looks at biological activities of marine biomaterials, including polysaccharides, biotoxins, and peptides. Chapters examine health benefits of the biomaterials, such as antiviral activity, antidiabetic properties, anticoagulant and anti-allergic effects, and more. Part III discusses biomedical applications of marine biomaterials, including nanocomposites, and describes applications of various materials in tissue engineering and drug delivery. Part IV explores commercialization of marine-derived biomaterials—marine polysaccharides and marine enzymes—and examines industry perspectives and applications. This book covers the key aspects of available marine biomaterials for biological and biomedical applications, and presents techniques that can be used for future isolation of novel materials from marine sources.

Characterization and Development of Biosystems and Biomaterials

Characterization and Development of Biosystems and Biomaterials
Author : Andreas Öchsner,Lucas F. M. da Silva,Holm Altenbach
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :254
GET BOOK

This collection of recent activities provides researchers and scientists with the latest trends in characterization and developments of biosystems and biomaterials. Well known experts present their research in materials for drug delivery, dental implants and filling materials, biocompatible membranes, bioactive surface coatings and bio-compatible and eco-sustainable building materials. In The book covers also topics like microorganisms, the human eye, the musculoskeletal system and human body parts.

Nano- and Biomaterials

Nano- and Biomaterials
Author : Zhypargul Abdullaeva
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2017-10-23
Category : Science
Total pages :304
GET BOOK

A comprehensive introduction to nano- and biomaterials shining light on the different research disciplines from various perspectives. The straightforward and well-structured concept is designed to cater for entrants as well as experienced researchers in the field of nanotechnology. The initial chapters introduce nanomaterials, their classification and synthesis techniques, while subsequent chapters discuss the various characterization tools as well as mechanical properties and their applications in biotechnological and biomedical fields. Further understanding of the topic is supported by case studies used for practical purposes. The book concludes with a look at future technology advances. With its explanation of a wide variety of materials, this is an essential reference for chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biomedical engineers.

Characterisation and Design of Tissue Scaffolds

Characterisation and Design of Tissue Scaffolds
Author : Paul Tomlins
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2015-10-30
Category : Science
Total pages :294
GET BOOK

Characterisation and Design of Tissue Scaffolds offers scientists a useful guide on the characterization of tissue scaffolds, detailing what needs to be measured and why, how such measurements can be made, and addressing industrially important issues. Part one provides readers with information on the fundamental considerations in the characterization of tissue scaffolds, while other sections detail how to prepare tissue scaffolds, discuss techniques in characterization, and present practical considerations for manufacturers. Summarizes concepts and current practice in the characterization and design of tissue scaffolds Discusses design and preparation of scaffolds Details how to prepare tissue scaffolds, discusses techniques in characterization, and presents practical considerations for manufacturers

Biomaterials from Nature for Advanced Devices and Therapies

Biomaterials from Nature for Advanced Devices and Therapies
Author : Nuno M. Neves
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2016-10-24
Category : Medical
Total pages :704
GET BOOK

In-depth information on natural biomaterials and their applications for translational medicine! Undiluted expertise: edited by world-leading experts with contributions from top-notch international scientists, collating experience and cutting-edge knowledge on natural biomaterials from all over the world A must-have on the shelf in every biomaterials lab: graduate and PhD students beginning their career in biomaterials science and experienced researchers and practitioners alike will turn to this comprehensive reference in their daily work Link to clinical practice: chapters on translational research make readers aware of what needs to be considered when a biomaterial leaves the lab to be routinely used