December 1, 2020

Download Ebook Free Chemical Bioavailability In Terrestrial Environment

Chemical Bioavailability in Terrestrial Environments

Chemical Bioavailability in Terrestrial Environments
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-08-31
Category : Science
Total pages :828
GET BOOK

This book begins with an overview of current thinking on bioavailability, its definition, cutting-edge research in speciation and advancement in tools for assessing chemical bioavailability in the terrestrial environment. The second section of the book focuses on the role of chemical speciation in bioavailability. Section three addresses bioavailability and ecotoxicity of contaminants and leads into the next section on bioavailability of nutrients and agrichemicals. Subsequent sections provide an overview of tools currently being used and new cutting-edge techniques to assess contaminant bioavailability. The last section of the book builds on previous sections in relating bioavailability to risk assessment and how this could be used for managing risks associated with contaminated land. Provides the latest information on developing concepts and definitions of bioavailability Includes a discussion of bioavailability and ecotoxicity of contaminants and bioavailability of nutrients and agrichemicals for applications in agriculture Analyzes tools for assessing bioavailability and the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and remediation

6th International Workshop of Chemical Bioavailability in the Terrestrial Environment

6th International Workshop of Chemical Bioavailability in the Terrestrial Environment
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2011-09
Category :
Total pages :96
GET BOOK

Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments

Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments
Author : Domy C. Adriano
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-03-19
Category : Science
Total pages :867
GET BOOK

A comprehensive reference handbook on the important aspects of trace elements in the land environment. Each chapter addresses a particular element and gives a general introduction to their role in the environment, where they come from, and their biogeochemical cycles. In addition to a complete updating of each of the element chapters, this new edition has new chapters devoted to aluminum and iron, soil contamination, remediation and trace elements in aquatic ecosystems. In short, an essential resource for environmental scientists and chemists, regulators and policy makers.

Bioavailability of Organic Chemicals in Soil and Sediment

Bioavailability of Organic Chemicals in Soil and Sediment
Author : Jose Julio Ortega-Calvo
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
GET BOOK

Advances in Agronomy

Advances in Agronomy
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-01-08
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :476
GET BOOK

Advances in Agronomy continues to be recognized as a leading reference and a first-rate source for the latest research in agronomy. As always, the subjects covered are varied and exemplary of the myriad of subject matter dealt with by this long-running serial Maintains the highest impact factor among serial publications in agriculture Presents timely reviews on important agronomy issues Enjoys a long-standing reputation for excellence in the field

Diversity of Ecosystems

Diversity of Ecosystems
Author : Mahamane Ali
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2012-04-27
Category : Science
Total pages :498
GET BOOK

The ecosystems present a great diversity worldwide and use various functionalities according to ecologic regions. In this new context of variability and climatic changes, these ecosystems undergo notable modifications amplified by domestic uses of which it was subjected to. Indeed the ecosystems render diverse services to humanity from their composition and structure but the tolerable levels are unknown. The preservation of these ecosystemic services needs a clear understanding of their complexity. The role of research is not only to characterise the ecosystems but also to clearly define the tolerable usage levels. Their characterisation proves to be important not only for the local populations that use it but also for the conservation of biodiversity. Hence, the measurement, management and protection of ecosystems need innovative and diverse methods. For all these reasons, the aim of this book is to bring out a general view on the function of ecosystems, modelling, sampling strategies, invading species, the response of organisms to modifications, the carbon dynamics, the mathematical models and theories that can be applied in diverse conditions.

Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination

Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination
Author : Maria C. Hernandez Soriano
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2014-03-26
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :920
GET BOOK

Soil is an irreplaceable resource that sustains life on the planet, challenged by food and energy demands of an increasing population. Therefore, soil contamination constitutes a critical issue to be addressed if we are to secure the life quality of present and future generations. Integrated efforts from researchers and policy makers are required to develop sound risk assessment procedures, remediation strategies and sustainable soil management policies. Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination provides a wide depiction of current research in soil contamination and risk assessment, encompassing reviews and case studies on soil pollution by heavy metals and organic pollutants. The book introduces several innovative approaches for soil remediation and risk assessment, including advances in phytoremediation and implementation of metabolomics in soil sciences.

Handbook of Soil Acidity

Handbook of Soil Acidity
Author : Zdenko Rengel
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2003-01-17
Category : Science
Total pages :512
GET BOOK

This handbook offers effective strategies to modify and adjust crop production processes to decrease the toxicity of soil contaminants, balance soil pH, improve root growth and nutrient uptake, and increase agricultural yield. The Handbook of Soil Acidity provides methods to, measure soil acidity, determine the major causes of soil acidification, c

Dynamics and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in the Rootzone

Dynamics and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in the Rootzone
Author : H. Magdi Selim
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2011-03-15
Category : Science
Total pages :313
GET BOOK

Concerns regarding heavy metal contamination in terrestrial ecosystems have prompted increasing efforts on limiting their bioavailability in the root zone. The complexity of the hydrologic system gives rise to the need for understanding the fate and transport of trace elements in the soil-water-plant environment. Dynamics and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in the Rootzone provides a multidisciplinary approach with emphasis on geohydrology, plant and soil science, and environmental chemistry. The primary focus of this book is on different approaches that describe the dynamics of heavy metals in the soil system. These approaches are key to providing direct information on the concentration of heavy metals and hence on their transport, toxicity, and bioavailability. The book includes chapters covering equilibrium and kinetic models of heavy metal interactions as well as non-equilibrium transport models. It also discusses chemical processes controlling soil solution concentrations and modeling of heavy metals adsorption. Addressing the biological component of heavy metal dynamics, this work examines rhizosphere microorganisms and phytoremediation. Colloid-associated transport, which can result in groundwater contamination, is discussed in relation to reclaimed mine sites. The authors also present an overview of recent advancements in the biogeochemistry of trace elements and their environmental implications. Additional chapters include examination of various natural environments including runoff waters at the watershed scale, heavy metal transformation in wetlands, dynamics of trace metals in frequently flooded soils, and effects on crops in biosolid-amended soils. Reliable assessment of potential risks resulting from the transport of trace elements in the soil environment requires the examination of complex chemical and biological interactions due to the heterogeneous nature of soils. This text describes the current state of the art in this field and explores innovative experimental and theoretical/modeling approaches that will enhance this knowledge. The book provides a coherent presentation of recent advances in techniques, modeling, and dynamics and bioavailability of heavy metals in the root zone.

Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments

Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Water Science and Technology Board,Committee on Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2003-05-03
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :432
GET BOOK

Bioavailability refers to the extent to which humans and ecological receptors are exposed to contaminants in soil or sediment. The concept of bioavailability has recently piqued the interest of the hazardous waste industry as an important consideration in deciding how much waste to clean up. The rationale is that if contaminants in soil and sediment are not bioavailable, then more contaminant mass can be left in place without creating additional risk. A new NRC report notes that the potential for the consideration of bioavailability to influence decision-making is greatest where certain chemical, environmental, and regulatory factors align. The current use of bioavailability in risk assessment and hazardous waste cleanup regulations is demystified, and acceptable tools and models for bioavailability assessment are discussed and ranked according to seven criteria. Finally, the intimate link between bioavailability and bioremediation is explored. The report concludes with suggestions for moving bioavailability forward in the regulatory arena for both soil and sediment cleanup.

Bioavailability of Metals in Terrestrial Ecosystems

Bioavailability of Metals in Terrestrial Ecosystems
Author : Herbert Ellis Allen
Publisher : S E T A C Foundation for
Release Date : 2001
Category : Science
Total pages :158
GET BOOK

Terrestrial ecosystems: an overview. Speciation of metals in soils. Bioavailability of metals to terrestrial plants. Bioavailability of metals to soil microbes. Bioavailability of metals to soil invertebrates. Recommendations for regulatory programs and research.

A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives

A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on the Design and Evaluation of Safer Chemical Substitutions: A Framework to Inform Government and Industry Decisions
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2014-10-29
Category : Science
Total pages :280
GET BOOK

Historically, regulations governing chemical use have often focused on widely used chemicals and acute human health effects of exposure to them, as well as their potential to cause cancer and other adverse health effects. As scientific knowledge has expanded there has been an increased awareness of the mechanisms through which chemicals may exert harmful effects on human health, as well as their effects on other species and ecosystems. Identification of high-priority chemicals and other chemicals of concern has prompted a growing number of state and local governments, as well as major companies, to take steps beyond existing hazardous chemical federal legislation. Interest in approaches and policies that ensure that any new substances substituted for chemicals of concern are assessed as carefully and thoroughly as possible has also burgeoned. The overarching goal of these approaches is to avoid regrettable substitutions, which occur when a toxic chemical is replaced by another chemical that later proved unsuitable because of persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, or other concerns. Chemical alternative assessments are tools designed to facilitate consideration of these factors to assist stakeholders in identifying chemicals that may have the greatest likelihood of harm to human and ecological health, and to provide guidance on how the industry may develop and adopt safer alternatives. A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives develops and demonstrates a decision framework for evaluating potentially safer substitute chemicals as primarily determined by human health and ecological risks. This new framework is informed by previous efforts by regulatory agencies, academic institutions, and others to develop alternative assessment frameworks that could be operationalized. In addition to hazard assessments, the framework incorporates steps for life-cycle thinking - which considers possible impacts of a chemical at all stages including production, use, and disposal - as well as steps for performance and economic assessments. The report also highlights how modern information sources such as computational modeling can supplement traditional toxicology data in the assessment process. This new framework allows the evaluation of the full range of benefits and shortcomings of substitutes, and examination of tradeoffs between these risks and factors such as product functionality, product efficacy, process safety, and resource use. Through case studies, this report demonstrates how different users in contrasting decision contexts with diverse priorities can apply the framework. This report will be an essential resource to the chemical industry, environmentalists, ecologists, and state and local governments.

Radionuclides in the Environment

Radionuclides in the Environment
Author : Clemens Walther,Dharmendra K. Gupta
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2015-10-30
Category : Science
Total pages :273
GET BOOK

This book provides extensive and comprehensive information to researchers and academicians who are interested in radionuclide contamination, its sources and environmental impact. It is also useful for graduate and undergraduate students specializing in radioactive-waste disposal and its impact on natural as well as manmade environments. A number of sites are affected by large legacies of waste from the mining and processing of radioactive minerals. Over recent decades, several hundred radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) of natural elements have been produced artificially, including 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I. Several other anthropogenic radioactive elements have also been produced in large quantities, for example technetium, neptunium, plutonium and americium, although plutonium does occur naturally in trace amounts in uranium ores. The deposition of radionuclides on vegetation and soil, as well as the uptake from polluted aquifers (root uptake or irrigation) are the initial point for their transfer into the terrestrial environment and into food chains. There are two principal deposition processes for the removal of pollutants from the atmosphere: dry deposition is the direct transfer through absorption of gases and particles by natural surfaces, such as vegetation, whereas showery or wet deposition is the transport of a substance from the atmosphere to the ground by snow, hail or rain. Once deposited on any vegetation, radionuclides are removed from plants by the airstre am and rain, either through percolation or by cuticular scratch. The increase in biomass during plant growth does not cause a loss of activity, but it does lead to a decrease in activity concentration due to effective dilution. There is also systemic transport (translocation) of radionuclides within the plant subsequent to foliar uptake, leading the transfer of chemical components to other parts of the plant that have not been contaminated directly.

Trace Metals in the Environment and Living Organisms

Trace Metals in the Environment and Living Organisms
Author : Philip S. Rainbow
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2018-08-23
Category : Nature
Total pages :770
GET BOOK

Without trace metals there would be no life, yet trace metals can eliminate life. Where, why and so what?

Environmental Soil Chemistry

Environmental Soil Chemistry
Author : Donald L. Sparks
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :267
GET BOOK

As the author states in his Preface, this book is written at a time when scientific and lay communities recognize that knowledge of environmental chemistry is fundamental in understanding and predicting the fate of pollutants in soils and waters, and in making sound decisions about remediation of contaminated soils. Environmental Soil Chemistry presents the fundamental concepts of soil science and applies them to environmentally significant reactions in soil. Clearly and concisely written for undergraduate and beginning graduate students of soil science, the book is likewise accessible to all students and professionals of environmental engineering and science. Chapters cover background information useful to students new to the discipline, including the chemistry of inorganic and organic soil components, soilacidity and salinity, and ion exchange and redox phenomena. However, discussion also extends to sorption/desorption, oxidation-reduction of metals and organic chemicals, rates of pollutant reactions as well as technologies for remediating contaminated soils. Supplementary reading lists, sample problems, and extensive tables and figures make this textbook accessible to readers. Key Features * Provides students with both sound contemporary training in the basics of soil chemistry and applications to real-world environmental concerns * Timely and comprehensive discussion of important concepts including: * Sorption/desorption * Oxidation-reduction of metals and organics * Effects of acidic deposition and salinity on contaminant reactions * Boxed sections focus on sample problems and explanations of key terms and parameters * Extensive tables on elemental composition of soils, rocks and sediments, pesticide classes, inorganic minerals, and methods of decontaminating soils * Clearly written for all students and professionals in environmental science and environmental engineering as well as soil science