December 5, 2020

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Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions
Author : Richard Albright
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2013-01-15
Category : Medical
Total pages :330
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Unexploded military ordnance and toxic chemicals, some dating back to World War I, are a worldwide concern, especially at closed military bases that will be redeveloped for housing or civilian use. In Europe and Asia, many munitions sites are former battlegrounds; in Russia and its former territories, sites are used for storage and waste disposal. Experts estimate that the United States alone could spend between $50 and 250 billion dollars to cleanup these sites, many of which are in high-population density, residential areas. You might live near one such site right now. This book gives detailed instructions for cleaning up military ordnance sites, and lists of explosives, chemical warfare materials and breakdown products that the soil and groundwater must be tested for. Also included are archival studies; remote sensing techniques; geophysical techniques; safety issues; a chemical weapons, explosives and ordnance primer; known and unknown range lists; and a case study of documents written for cleaning up one of the worst examples yet: Spring Valley in the District of Columbia. It disproves myths, common misconceptions and lies, and explains what, how, and where to look for munitions and their residual contamination. * Author is an award winning and world-renowned expert in weapons of mass destruction. * Meets the needs of explosive and ordnance demolition personnel, as well as environmental scientists, insurance agents, and building contractors. * Includes the primary documents written (by the author) for the cleanup of one of the worst sites in the United States (Spring Valley, District of Columbia). * Subject of the book is of worldwide concern with former battlegrounds in Europe and Asia, as well as storage and waste disposal sites in Russia and former Soviet territories. * The only text available with clear and complete instructions on proper cleanup of military ordnance sites including a detailed list of explosives, chemical warfare material and breakdown products.

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions
Author : Richard D. Albright
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2012
Category : Bombing and gunnery ranges
Total pages :129
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Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions
Author : Richard Albright
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2011-12-02
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :328
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Unexploded military ordnance and toxic chemicals, some dating back to the two World Wars, are a global concern, especially when former military bases are redeveloped for housing or other civilian uses. Internationally, there are the added challenges of cleanup of battlegrounds and minefields. Experts estimate that the United States alone could spend between $50–250 billion to clean up these sites, many of which are in areas of high population density, where the demand for land for development is high. This book is unique in providing detailed guidance for cleaning up military ordnance sites – listing explosives, chemical warfare materials and breakdown products which can contaminate soil and groundwater and the tests needed to detect them, as well as cleanup techniques. Also included are remote sensing techniques, geophysical techniques, safety issues, the particular challenges of chemical weapons, etc. The author illustrates these techniques with case studies, including former battlegrounds in Europe and Asia, storage and waste disposal sites in Russia and former Soviet territories, and an extended study of the remediation of the large and complex Spring Valley site in the District of Columbia,. The second edition has been fully revised and updated, and also includes new and expanded sections on: geophysical techniques for discovering buried ordnance underwater sites and remediation techniques use of robotics, including remotely operated vehicles compliance and regulatory issues guidance documents from US Department of Defense and other sources The focus on test procedures, environmental remediation techniques, and learning from past case studies, makes Albright’s book the most comprehensive and practical guide on the market for a topic of international importance. The only book available with clear and complete guidance for the cleanup of military ordnance sites and battlefields. The author illustrates his recommendations with real world cases including Spring Valley, DC, former battlegrounds in Europe and Asia, and storage and waste disposal sites in Russia and other former Soviet states. An essential reference for the test and environmental remediation procedures required to put former military sites back in to civilian use (e.g. housing). 30% revision, with key updates concerning regulatory changes, US Dept of Defense guidance documents, use of robotic vehicles, underwater sites and discovery of buried ordnance.

Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel

Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Review of the Conduct of Operations for Remediation of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel from Burial Sites
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2012-08-21
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :139
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As the result of disposal practices from the early to mid-twentieth century, approximately 250 sites in 40 states, the District of Columbia, and 3 territories are known or suspected to have buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). Much of this CWM is likely to occur in the form of small finds that necessitate the continuation of the Army's capability to transport treatment systems to disposal locations for destruction. Of greatest concern for the future are sites in residential areas and large sites on legacy military installations. The Army mission regarding the remediation of recovered chemical warfare materiel (RCWM) is turning into a program much larger than the existing munition and hazardous substance cleanup programs. The Army asked the Nation Research Council (NRC) to examine this evolving mission in part because this change is significant and becoming even more prominent as the stockpile destruction is nearing completion. One focus in this report is the current and future status of the Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Project (NSCMP), which now plays a central role in the remediation of recovered chemical warfare materiel and which reports to the Chemical Materials Agency. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel also reviews current supporting technologies for cleanup of CWM sites and surveys organizations involved with remediation of suspected CWM disposal sites to determine current practices and coordination. In this report, potential deficiencies in operational areas based on the review of current supporting technologies for cleanup of CWM sites and develop options for targeted research and development efforts to mitigate potential problem areas are identified.

Chemical Weapons Destruction and Explosive Waste

Chemical Weapons Destruction and Explosive Waste
Author : Robert Noyes
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 1996-12-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :250
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Some of the more difficult environmental problems facing the Department of Defense (DOD) include (1) chemical weapons destruction, (2) explosive waste remediation, and (3) unexploded ordnance clearance and extraction. It is conceivable that $50 to $100 billion will be spent by DOD for these three programs, offering unusual opportunities for environmental engineering and related firms. Military installations are similar to small cities in terms of population, industrial activities, and some types of contaminated sites. However, some cover an area larger than a small state. DOD has operated industrial facilities on its installations for several decades that have generated, stored, recycled, or disposed of hazardous wastes. Many of these activities have contaminated the nearby soil and groundwater. To study and clean up contaminated sites, DOD established the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) in 1975. In 1984, the IRP was made part of the Defense Environmental Restoration Program. The Secretary of Defense delegated cleanup responsibility to the Army, Navy, the Air Force, and the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). Cleanup actions are usually accomplished under contract with private firms, which are monitored by the services. Most cleanup actions are funded through the Defense Environmental Restoration Account (DERA) and the Base Realignment and Closure Account. Congress established DERA in 1984 to fund the cleanup of inactive contaminated sites on DOD installations. The technology to clean up the conventional hazardous wastes on DOD sites are the same as those utilized for industrial sites, and well-documented by this publisher. However, there are three DOD programs that require the utilization of somewhat unusual or different technologies that have not been as well documented. These three programs are: 1. Chemical weapons destruction 2. Remediation of explosives contaminated soils and lagoons 3. Unexploded ordnance detection, clearance, and extraction This book discusses the current and potential treatment technologies involved in these three programs.

Chemical Weapons Disposal

Chemical Weapons Disposal
Author : United States. General Accounting Office
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1994
Category : Arsenals
Total pages :32
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Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons

Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 1999-12-24
Category : Science
Total pages :266
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This report examines seven disposal technologies being considered by the U.S. government as alternative methods to the process of incineration for destroying mortars, rockets, land mines, and other weapons that contain chemical warfare agents, such as mustard gas. These weapons are considered especially dangerous because they contain both chemical warfare agent and explosive materials in an assembled package that must be disassembled for destruction. The study identifies the strengths and weaknesses and advantages and disadvantages of each technology and assesses their potential for full-scale implementation.

Environmental Contamination: Lessons Learned from the Cleanup of Formerly Used Defense and Military Munitions Sites

Environmental Contamination: Lessons Learned from the Cleanup of Formerly Used Defense and Military Munitions Sites
Author : Anu Mittal
Publisher : DIANE Publishing Inc.
Release Date : 2010-11
Category :
Total pages :21
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The Army Corps of Engineers is charged with cleaning up 4,700 formerly used defense sites (FUDS) and active sites that were under its jurisdiction when they were initially contaminated. The 661-acre Spring Valley site in Wash., D.C is one such site. The primary threats at the site are buried munitions, elevated arsenic in site soils, and lab. waste; perchlorate was also found onsite. This testimony addresses: (1) the impact that shortcomings in info. and guidance can have on decision-making; (2) the impact that incomplete data can have on cost estimates and schedules; (3) how funding for a site may be influenced by program goals; and (4) how better coordination can increase public confidence in cleanups and facilitate effective decision-making. Illustrations.

Review of International Technologies for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel

Review of International Technologies for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Review and Evaluation of International Technologies for the Destruction of Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2006-11-02
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :128
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The Chemical Weapons Convention requires, among other things, that the signatories to the convention--which includes the United States--destroy by April 29, 2007, or as soon possible thereafter, any chemical warfare materiel that has been recovered from sites where it has been buried once discovered. For several years the United States and several other countries have been developing and using technologies to dispose of this non-stockpile materiel. To determine whether international efforts have resulted in technologies that would benefit the U.S. program, the U.S. Army asked the NRC to evaluate and compare such technologies to those now used by the United States. This book presents a discussion of factors used in the evaluations, summaries of evaluations of several promising international technologies for processing munitions and for agent-only processing, and summaries of other technologies that are less likely to be of benefit to the U.S. program at this time.

Death of the Chesapeake

Death of the Chesapeake
Author : Richard Albright
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2013-05-29
Category : History
Total pages :232
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In essence this book deals with an area that contributes significantly to the pollution and degradation of Chesapeake Bay, but has been completely overlooked in many of the efforts to restore the Bay, specifically, the federal military pollution sources. The book also recognizes for the first time, that efforts to restore the Bay have failed because of violation of a fundamental precept of environmental cleanup; that is, to sample the site and see what is there. The Bay itself has never been sampled. Thus this book presents a view of the environmental condition of Chesapeake Bay that is totally unique. It covers a part of the history of the Bay that is not widely known, including how the Bay was formed. It presents a mixture of science, military history, and novel solutions to the Bay's degradation. In so doing, the author examines the military use of the Bay and reveals the extent of munitions dumpsites containing nitrogen and phosphorus as well as chemical warfare material, and how this is effecting the environment. The book concludes with the author's own clean-up plan that, if implemented, would go a long way to restoring health to Bay. The book is supplemented with many photographs and maps.

Cleaning Illinois

Cleaning Illinois
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1989
Category : Hazardous wastes
Total pages :61
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Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents

Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents
Author : Ramesh C. Gupta
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2009-04-02
Category : Medical
Total pages :1168
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This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves researchers time in quickly accessing the very latest definitive details on toxicity of specific agents used in chemical warfare as opposed to searching through thousands of journal articles. Will include the most agent-specific information on the market Includes detailed coverage of the most exhaustive list of agents possibly used as chemical warfare agents in one source. Section 4: Agents That Can Be Used as Weapons of Mass Destruction ? 25 chapters long. Other books on the market only include a sample selection of specific agents. Offering all possible agents detailed under one cover makes this appealing to a wider audience and saves researchers time The Forward will be written by Dr. Tetsuo Satoh, Chiba University, Japan. He is one of the most respected, recognizable authorities on chemical warfare agents which will set the authoritative tone for the book Covers risk to humans, animals and the environment equally. Researchers involved in assessing the risks involved with a possible chemical warfare attack and those who are developing response plans to such attacks must look at not only the risks to human health but to our wildlife and environment as well. The holistic approach taken in this book ensures that the researchers have ready access to the details no matter which aspect of the effects of CWA's they might be concerned with

Alternatives for the Demilitarization of Conventional Munitions

Alternatives for the Demilitarization of Conventional Munitions
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Alternatives for the Demilitarization of Conventional Munitions
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2019-01-11
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :132
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The U.S. military has a stockpile of approximately 400,000 tons of excess, obsolete, or unserviceable munitions. About 60,000 tons are added to the stockpile each year. Munitions include projectiles, bombs, rockets, landmines, and missiles. Open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) of these munitions has been a common disposal practice for decades, although it has decreased significantly since 2011. OB/OD is relatively quick, procedurally straightforward, and inexpensive. However, the downside of OB and OD is that they release contaminants from the operation directly into the environment. Over time, a number of technology alternatives to OB/OD have become available and more are in research and development. Alternative technologies generally involve some type of contained destruction of the energetic materials, including contained burning or contained detonation as well as contained methods that forego combustion or detonation. Alternatives for the Demilitarization of Conventional Munitions reviews the current conventional munitions demilitarization stockpile and analyzes existing and emerging disposal, treatment, and reuse technologies. This report identifies and evaluates any barriers to full-scale deployment of alternatives to OB/OD or non-closed loop incineration/combustion, and provides recommendations to overcome such barriers.