June 12, 2021

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Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Rainer Matyssek,P. Cudlin,T. N. Mikkelsen,N. Clarke,J-P. Tuovinen
Publisher : Elsevier Science Limited
Release Date : 2013-11-01
Category : Nature
Total pages :622
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There are significant pressures from climate change and air pollution that forests currently face. This book aims to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest ecosystems to mitigate and adapt to climate change in a polluted environment. It reconciles process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modeling through comprehensive forest ecosystem research. Furthermore, it introduces "forest super sites for research" for integrating soil, plant and atmospheric sciences and monitoring. It also provides mechanistic and policy-oriented modeling with scientifically sound risk indications regarding atmospheric changes and ecosystem services. Identifies current knowledge gaps and emerging research needs Highlights novel methodologies and integrated research concepts Assesses ecological meaning of investigations and prioritizing research need

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Rainer Matyssek,Nicholas Clarke,Pavel Cudlin,Teis Nørgaard Mikkelsen,Juha-Pekka Tuovinen,Gerhard Wieser,Elena Paoletti
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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This chapter outlines the aims and scope of the book. An introduction is given to the current status of knowledge which is presented on the topic of the book. Arguments are presented for writing the book, in view of continued, long-term and process-based research needed for mitigating ecological and socio-economic risks to forests under global change. The book will conclude on suggestions for decision making and reasons for continued funding of related research.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Rainer Matyssek,Thomas Knoke,Nicholas Clarke,Pavel Cudlin,Teis Nørgaard Mikkelsen,Juha-Pekka Tuovinen,Gerhard Wieser,Elena Paoletti
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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Conclusions from the individual chapters are integrated into a synopsis, covering achievements and perspectives, and linking challenges for natural and social sciences, provisioning ecosystem services (ESs) under environmental change. The required research and policy making are facilitated by novel understanding of ecosystem functioning and internal factorial interactions with the atmosphere. A basis is provided through methodological progress for establishing forest research ‘supersites’ within global research networks, possessing capacities for creating generic mechanistic knowledge of ecological relevance. On such grounds, provisioning versus regulating ESs must accommodate diversification in the joint production of agricultural and forestry goods, backed by integrative bioeconomic land-use modelling. Advancement requires forest ecosystem-level unification of air pollution and climate change research while strengthening communication between experimentalists, monitoring experts, modellers, policy makers and stakeholders towards tool development for reliable risk assessment. A critical and appreciative view of forest functions and services is demanded in relation to the (post-)Kyoto debate.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Elena Paoletti,Wim de Vries,Teis Nørgaard Mikkelsen,Andreas Ibrom,K.S. Larsen,Juha-Pekka Tuovinen,Yussuf Serengil,I. Yurtseven,Gerhard Wieser,Rainer Matyssek
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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Untangling the complex effects that different air pollution and climate change factors cause to forest ecosystems is challenging. Supersites, that is, comprehensive measurement sites where research and monitoring of the whole soil–plant–atmosphere system can be carried out, are suggested as a refinement of the current monitoring and research efforts in Europe. This chapter identifies and discusses key measurements to be carried out at such supersites, with a focus on four topical subjects: the carbon, nitrogen, ozone and water budgets. This kind of holistic approach is vital to a realistic translation of the ongoing changes in climate and air quality into research on the impacts on forest ecosystems. Such an integrated effort requires a considerable use of resources at highly instrumented measurement sites and can only be achieved by building on existing infrastructures.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Pavel Cudlín,Josef Seják,Jan Pokorný,Jana Albrechtová,Olaf Bastian,Michal Marek
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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Forests provide many supporting, regulating and cultural services. Extensive environmental changes have resulted in a substantial loss or degradation of forest ecosystem services (ES). Unclear interactions of climate-change phenomena make it difficult to estimate forest ES. Research on interactive effects of climate change and air pollution has become a central issue in forest science during the past decade. Climate change in interaction with air pollution brings novel combinations of severity and timing of multiple stresses, which may significantly affect many forest ES. The aims of the present chapter are to identify basic concepts of evaluating ES with a focus on forest ES, to provide physiological and ecological bases for their evaluation, and to discuss the interactive effects of climate change and air pollution on forest ES based on selected tree physiological functions. Climate regulation mediated by deforestation-induced changes in the hydrological cycle is discussed. Adaptive governance and communication to the public promotes sustainable forest–multi-stakeholder collaboration. A case study is presented evaluating selected ES in a forest–agricultural landscape in the Czech Republic on the basis of monitored energy, water and material flows estimation. From this study, it is apparent that future research must include multi-factorial anthropogenic and natural interactions of climatic changes and air pollution in conjunction with sustainable forest ES provisions. Sustainable forest management is an essential tool for reducing the vulnerability of forests to environmental change.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Andrzej Bytnerowicz,Mark Fenn,Steven McNulty,Fengming Yuan,Afshin Pourmokhtarian,Charles Driscoll,Tom Meixner
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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A review of the current status of air pollution and climate change (CC) in the United States from a perspective of their impacts on forest ecosystems is provided. Ambient ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition have important and widespread ecological impacts in U.S. forests. Effects of sulphurous (S) air pollutants and other trace pollutants have significant ecological importance only at much smaller geographic scales. Complex interactive effects of air pollution and CC for selected future CC scenarios are reviewed. In addition, simulations of past, present, and future hydrologic, nutrient, and growth changes caused by interactive effects of air pollution and CC are described for two U.S. forest ecosystems. Impacts of O3, N deposition, and CC on growth and hydrology of mixed conifer forests in the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California were projected with the DayCent model. Effects of N deposition, CO2 fertilization, N deposition, and CC on northern hardwood forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire were simulated with the PnET-BGC model. Projected changes in these forests can influence the provision of ecosystem services such as C sequestration and water supply. The extent of these effects will vary depending on the future intensity and extent of CC, air pollutant emission levels, the distribution of air pollution, and other factors such as drought, pest outbreaks, fire, etc. Our chapter ends with research and management recommendations intended to increase our ability to cope with uncertainties related to the future interactive effects of multiple air pollutants, atmospheric deposition, CC, and other biotic and abiotic stressors.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Vivek Pandey,Elina Oksanen,Nandita Singh,Chhemendra Sharma
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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The air pollution and greenhouse gas emission problem has been exacerbated in India due to large population increase and rapid economic growth. The Indo-Gangetic Plains of Northern India, one of the most fertile regions of the world, has become one of the most polluted regions. The region has emerged as a ‘hot spot’ for air pollution, especially ozone (O3), threatening food-grain production. The air quality data show large parts of India suffering from high pollution load. Unfortunately, O3 monitoring is still in its infancy. There are reports of O3-caused yield and biomass losses in crops ranging between 10% and 51%, offsetting a significant portion of the Gross Domestic Productivity growth rate. There are no O3 experiments conducted with Indian tree species, but the crop losses suggest that O3 may have a deleterious impact also in long-lived trees in the Indian area. There is a critical need to study how O3will impact trees and forest ecosystems.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Maria Nijnik,David Miller
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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Contemporary societies expect a range of services (including of carbon sequestration) to be supplied from forest ecosystems. Their growing societal importance is clearly reflected in policies. The conceptual framework for the states that people are integral parts of ecosystems and that a dynamic interaction exists between them and other parts of ecosystems. This approach encompasses social, economic and environmental interactions, and the dynamics and cross scale issues that have multiple outcomes. However, forest multifunctionality is a challenge since the combination of multiple ecosystem services may be very different and dependent on a high number of factors. Stakeholder priorities with respect to individual ecosystem services may be variable, as may be a range of stakeholders. Reflexive, participatory and multilevel governance, in a continuous process of its adjustment, needs therefore to be developed to enable forestry decision-makers to consider existing opinions and behavioural patterns of the diverse stakeholders who drive the forestry change and respond to it. In such a retrospective, numerous questions have arisen, among which the integration of carbon sequestration into multifunctional forestry is among priorities. Carbon forestry enables society to buy time for development of low carbon and decarbonisation technologies; while its integration into multifunctional land use offers innovation, employment and new markets, with locally and regionally oriented value chains. This particularly concerns remote areas where forestry could foster socio-economic development and combine it with the enhancement of nature and rural landscape. However, the question: how to multiply synergies and balance trade-offs merits attention. Fostering resilience of forestry systems to climate change necessitates the establishment of an appropriate framework, because, although multipurpose afforestation may result in lower rates of carbon sequestration, it is expected to be more attractive to people as it will provide additional benefits and will promote sustainable development.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Rainer Matyssek,Gerhard Wieser,Frank Fleischmann,Ludger Grünhage
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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Empirical evidence underlines enhanced ground-level O3 regimes as components of global change, although interaction responses of forest trees and ecosystems have only recently been addressed by research. One case study is the tree-level Kranzberg Forest Experiment, having been resumed for envisioning “next-generation” ecosystem-level O3 research. Quantifying enhanced O3 impact is highlighted as part of a multi-factorial, abiotic–biotic interaction network of experiments and monitoring sites, which challenge the required quantitative predictability of the plasticity, and hence, extent and risk in system response, given the significance of forests as global determinants of carbon storage and sequestration. Here, we outline such integrated research concepts, cross-linking experimentation, monitoring and modelling to scale up O3 responses from internal tree processes towards zonobiomic spatio-temporal scales. The availability of conceptual and methodological means as pre-requisites is emphasized. The relevance of respective research for providing spin-offs within socio-economic contexts related to biogenic energy production and CO2 emission trading is examined.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Alessandra R. Kozovits,Mercedes M.C. Bustamante
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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Over recent decades, climate changes, especially revealed through alteration in rainfall patterns, with apparent intensification of the dry season, have been documented throughout Latin America. At the same time, this region of the globe has displayed strong economic growth along with profound changes in land use and emission of air pollutants. Long-term studies have shown that functional groups of plants from tropical and sub-tropical rainforests and savannas, the largest and most diverse biomes in the region, present different sensitivities to climate change, increasing CO2 and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, for example, resulting in evident changes in community structure and dynamics. In general, these factors have led to a reduction in plant diversity. Ozone, though less studied in the region, has been monitored in the major urban centres, and its relation to land use change, as through biomass burning, has become evident. The main results of plant responses to pollutants and climate change are presented.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Dieter Ernst
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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This chapter focuses on the ozone-affected transcriptional responses of juvenile and mature trees under controlled greenhouse and free-air exposure systems. Transcriptional changes are compared to proteomic and metabolite analyses, and short-term changes (acute exposure) to long-term effects (chronic exposure). Free-air exposure systems designed to scale up molecular studies of ozone responses in mature trees at the ecosystem level are reviewed. New technologies, for example, high-throughput methods that integrate genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, contribute to a deeper insight into the physiological processes of forest trees that affect climate change. Therefore, integrated ‘omic’ analyses are important to understand tree responses to abiotic stress and/or global change at the biological system level.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Juha-Pekka Tuovinen,Hannele Hakola,Per Erik Karlsson,David Simpson
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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The air pollution load to northern European forests is changing as a result of emission reductions. Climate change modifies this load, either directly via atmospheric processes or indirectly by affecting emission patterns. We estimate the risk of harmful effects due to tropospheric ozone and nitrogen deposition in present and future conditions. Our modelling results show that critical levels are exceeded in northern Europe for both ozone and nitrogen. Emission reductions will reduce the vegetation stress, but climate change is likely to have an opposite effect. While tropospheric ozone is reduced, its phytotoxic dose increases due to atmospheric warming. The amplified warming in the Arctic may significantly enhance shipping emissions. The effect of these increases extends to the boreal region. In addition, we review recent literature on the interactions between climate change and air quality, and discuss the assessment of pollution risks and carbon stocks and related synergies in emission control.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Takayoshi Koike,Makoto Watanabe,Yasutomo Hoshika,Mitsutoshi Kitao,Hideyuki Matsumura,R. Funada,Takeshi Izuta
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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Air pollution, especially ozone, in East and Southeast Asia is considered to be more serious than in Europe and North America. An increase in ozone concentration may lead to adverse effects on forest trees in East and Southeast Asia where we have high species richness. Although some information on the effects of ozone on plantation tree species in East Asia is available, the situation of most countries in Southeast Asia is not clarified. In Japan, advanced methodologies such as the stomatal flux-based approach, use of a free-air ozone fumigation system and stand level studies have started recently. To maintain ecosystem services of forests such as carbon sink and conservation of biodiversity, there is a need to develop our understanding of the effect of ozone on vegetation in East and Southeast Asia. To this end, international cooperative research is important.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Stan Cieslik,Juha-Pekka Tuovinen,Manuela Baumgarten,Rainer Matyssek,Patricia Brito,Gerhard Wieser
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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Climate change is expected to affect the exchange of gases between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this review, we focus on a few related topics, including the emission of greenhouse gases from the forest floor, and vegetation fires and their impact on air quality and soil CO2 efflux. In particular, we summarise the current state of knowledge on O3 deposition in forest ecosystems, both for stomatal uptake and non-stomatal sinks. Based on such summaries, we discuss interactions between forests, atmospheric composition and climate, and finally outline directions for multi- and interdisciplinary research required for mechanistically understanding such interrelationships.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Pierre Dizengremel,Yves Jolivet,Andrée Tuzet,Annamaria Ranieri,Didier Le Thiec
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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Ozone is a phytotoxic air pollutant, impairing photosynthesis and reducing plant growth. The predicted increase in tropospheric ozone concentration could lead to an increased vulnerability of forests, mitigating carbon sink strength of vegetation under the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. To improve European risk indices, currently based on atmospheric O3 concentration (i.e. O3 exposure), it is necessary to assess the phytotoxic ozone dose, reflecting the balance between stomatal ozone uptake and detoxification capacity of foliar cells. Advancing knowledge on plant response mechanisms would allow for integrating a sub-model into global ozone impact prediction models towards consolidating process-based indices for risk assessment. Crucial parameters are (i) stomatal characteristics, (ii) constitutive detoxification potential, (iii) capacity for antioxidant regeneration and (iv) cellular redox power. The combination of ozone with other impacting factors (drought, high temperature and CO2) will be discussed in view of the challenge of scaling tree-level ozone responses to the forest ecosystem level under conditions of climate change.