November 27, 2020

Download Ebook Free Climate Change, Air Pollution And Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Science
Total pages :648
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There are significant pressures from climate change and air pollution that forests currently face. This book aims to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest ecosystems to mitigate and adapt to climate change in a polluted environment. It reconciles process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modeling through comprehensive forest ecosystem research. Furthermore, it introduces "forest super sites for research for integrating soil, plant and atmospheric sciences and monitoring. It also provides mechanistic and policy-oriented modeling with scientifically sound risk indications regarding atmospheric changes and ecosystem services. Identifies current knowledge gaps and emerging research needs Highlights novel methodologies and integrated research concepts Assesses ecological meaning of investigations and prioritizing research need

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Ludger Grünhage,Rainer Matyssek,Gerhard Wieser,Karl-Heinz Häberle,Michael Leuchner,Annette Menzel,Jochen Dieler,Hans Pretzsch,Winfried Grimmeisen,Lothar Zimmermann,Stephan Raspe,Matthias Schröder
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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Rising tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations pose a critical threat to forest ecosystems. A stomatal flux-based risk evaluation methodology at leaf level was established recently in the context of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. This study demonstrates improvement and validation of the stomatal flux–effect approach for European beech and Norway spruce with results from the 8-year free-air O3 enrichment experiment at Kranzberg Forest (Germany). Based on the recommended O3/water vapour diffusivity ratio of 0.663, provisional corrected flux–effect functions for beech and spruce were deduced. Comparison of observed and modelled loss in annual growth under twice-ambient O3 exposure relative to whole-stem productivity under ambient O3 seems to confirm the Convention’s leaf-level stomatal flux approach and the associated response function for Norway spruce up to twice-ambient O3 exposure. For European beech, it must be emphasized that the Convention’s methodology may underestimate the risk for loss in whole-stem productivity.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Lauri Laakso,Johan Paul Beukes,Pieter Gideon Van Zyl,Jacobus J. Pienaar,Miroslav Josipovic,Andrew Venter,Kerneels Jaars,Ville Vakkari,Casper Labuschagne,Kgaugelo Chiloane,Juha-Pekka Tuovinen
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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The tropospheric ozone concentrations over southern Africa are relatively high due to large precursor emissions from biomass burning, vegetation and anthropogenic sources and the intensity of solar radiation. In this study, we summarize ozone concentration data from both literature and new measurements. Further, we present data on the accumulated vegetation exposure to ozone in terms of the AOT40 index, which is calculated for the sites with hourly ozone and radiation data, with an aim to assess the potential for adverse effects on vegetation. As the seasonal variation of ozone concentrations is large, we discuss the effect of growing season onset on the stomatal gas exchange and the related potential for vegetation impacts. Finally, future research needs are discussed.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Thomas Knoke,Andreas Hahn
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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We analyse options to adapt forest and agricultural ecosystems to the adverse consequences of climatic change. We provide an overview of global change as it relates to the forest and agriculture sectors and conclude that forests should be analysed and their management optimised, together with their neighbouring agricultural ecosystems, if we are to be successful in meeting the challenges of future land-use conflicts. These challenges include balancing the need to satisfy increasing food and resource demands (provisioning services) while still providing indispensable regulating services such as climate and water protection. For the forestry sector, we identify various options to adapt ecosystems to climatic change, such as appropriate choice of tree species, mixed and uneven-aged forests, thinnings and adapted rotation length. We see, however, great potential in comprehensive land-use portfolios containing mixed, and thus diversified, alternatives—with patches of croplands, pastures and forests—to achieve a more sustainable intensification of land-use concepts. Such concepts would reduce the vulnerability of land-use systems to the effects of climatic change. Natural forests, whose continued existence must be secured by conservation payments, are a necessary component used to store carbon, to protect the water balance and to preserve biodiversity. In future, comprehensive land-use models are necessary to make demonstrable and to optimise the ecological and economic consequences of various land-use concepts.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Pavel Cudlín,Josef Seják,Jan Pokorný,Jana Albrechtová,Olaf Bastian,Michal Marek
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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Forests provide many supporting, regulating and cultural services. Extensive environmental changes have resulted in a substantial loss or degradation of forest ecosystem services (ES). Unclear interactions of climate-change phenomena make it difficult to estimate forest ES. Research on interactive effects of climate change and air pollution has become a central issue in forest science during the past decade. Climate change in interaction with air pollution brings novel combinations of severity and timing of multiple stresses, which may significantly affect many forest ES. The aims of the present chapter are to identify basic concepts of evaluating ES with a focus on forest ES, to provide physiological and ecological bases for their evaluation, and to discuss the interactive effects of climate change and air pollution on forest ES based on selected tree physiological functions. Climate regulation mediated by deforestation-induced changes in the hydrological cycle is discussed. Adaptive governance and communication to the public promotes sustainable forest–multi-stakeholder collaboration. A case study is presented evaluating selected ES in a forest–agricultural landscape in the Czech Republic on the basis of monitored energy, water and material flows estimation. From this study, it is apparent that future research must include multi-factorial anthropogenic and natural interactions of climatic changes and air pollution in conjunction with sustainable forest ES provisions. Sustainable forest management is an essential tool for reducing the vulnerability of forests to environmental change.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Teis Nørgaard Mikkelsen,Nicholas Clarke,Alina Danielewska,Richard Fischer
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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Consequences of climate change in combination with air pollution for ecosystem services are multiple but hard to predict. To meet future challenges, a way forward is development of supersites in forest research. This chapter will elucidate the development of existing European forest monitoring and research infrastructures, describe harmonisation of databases and knowledge about climate change and air pollution impact on forest ecosystems and present knowledge gap statements from fifty experts affiliated with the COST FP0903 Action. The statements are structured within the following subjects: The carbon cycle in forests (LULUCF accounting), forest health and vitality, forest biodiversity, extent of forest resources, availability of wood and forest biomass, protective functions of forests and socio-economic information about the forest sector. This will provide a base of knowledge with regard to supersites in forest ecosystem monitoring and research.

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges
Author : Rainer Matyssek,Nicholas Clarke,Pavel Cudlin,Teis Nørgaard Mikkelsen,Juha-Pekka Tuovinen,Gerhard Wieser,Elena Paoletti
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :648
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This chapter outlines the aims and scope of the book. An introduction is given to the current status of knowledge which is presented on the topic of the book. Arguments are presented for writing the book, in view of continued, long-term and process-based research needed for mitigating ecological and socio-economic risks to forests under global change. The book will conclude on suggestions for decision making and reasons for continued funding of related research.

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Improving Air Quality

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Improving Air Quality
Author : Larry E. Erickson,Gary Brase
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2019-11-18
Category : Law
Total pages :164
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The world’s atmosphere is a common resource. Air quality, along with energy, transportation, and climate change have significant impacts on our lives and this book helps readers understand the changes happening at the nexus of these areas, as they relate to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality. Discussing the transitions to electric vehicles, solar and wind energy for electricity generation, battery developments, smart grids and electric power management, and progress in the electrification of agricultural technology, it also provides the latest information in the context of the United Nations sustainable development goals and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. Features: Includes content on how to improve urban air quality in large cities and urban environments. Effectively addresses the nexus of energy, transportation, air quality, climate change and health. Discusses innovative concepts at the nexus of renewable energy, smart grid, electric vehicles, and electric power management. Describes recent progress in meeting the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and the benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Written for a wide audience by world experts in sustainability. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emission and Improving Air Quality: Two Interrelated Global Challenges, is an invaluable book for professionals and academics at the center of changes relating to solar and wind energy, electric vehicles, and charging infrastructure, including government officials, community leaders, researchers, students, and interested citizens. It is also an excellent text for classes that address sustainability, particularly for those focused on transportation and energy.

Air Pollution and Global Warming

Air Pollution and Global Warming
Author : Mark Z. Jacobson
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2012-04-23
Category : Nature
Total pages :375
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New edition of introductory textbook, ideal for students taking a course on air pollution and global warming, whatever their background. Comprehensive introduction to the history and science of the major air pollution and climate problems facing the world today, as well as energy and policy solutions to those problems.

Air Pollution and Climate Change

Air Pollution and Climate Change
Author : Alan Wellburn
Publisher : Longman Trade/Caroline House
Release Date : 1994
Category : Science
Total pages :268
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Fully revised and updated, now available in paperback, surveys the problem of air pollution and climate change, with colour plates to illustrate the effects of air pollution on the environment. The text concentrates on the mechanisms of action of air pollutants and acid rain from biological tissues to a global scale.

America's Climate Choices

America's Climate Choices
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on America's Climate Choices
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2011-06-11
Category : Science
Total pages :134
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Climate change is occurring. It is very likely caused by the emission of greenhouse gases from human activities, and poses significant risks for a range of human and natural systems. And these emissions continue to increase, which will result in further change and greater risks. America's Climate Choices makes the case that the environmental, economic, and humanitarian risks posed by climate change indicate a pressing need for substantial action now to limit the magnitude of climate change and to prepare for adapting to its impacts. Although there is some uncertainty about future risk, acting now will reduce the risks posed by climate change and the pressure to make larger, more rapid, and potentially more expensive reductions later. Most actions taken to reduce vulnerability to climate change impacts are common sense investments that will offer protection against natural climate variations and extreme events. In addition, crucial investment decisions made now about equipment and infrastructure can "lock in" commitments to greenhouse gas emissions for decades to come. Finally, while it may be possible to scale back or reverse many responses to climate change, it is difficult or impossible to "undo" climate change, once manifested. Current efforts of local, state, and private-sector actors are important, but not likely to yield progress comparable to what could be achieved with the addition of strong federal policies that establish coherent national goals and incentives, and that promote strong U.S. engagement in international-level response efforts. The inherent complexities and uncertainties of climate change are best met by applying an iterative risk management framework and making efforts to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions; prepare for adapting to impacts; invest in scientific research, technology development, and information systems; and facilitate engagement between scientific and technical experts and the many types of stakeholders making America's climate choices.

Global Environmental Challenges of the Twenty-first Century

Global Environmental Challenges of the Twenty-first Century
Author : David E. Lorey
Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield
Release Date : 2003
Category : Social Science
Total pages :312
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The most serious environmental problems of the twenty-first century have the potential to alter the course of life on this planet. Global warming, toxic waste, water and air pollution, acid rain, and shrinking energy supplies are frightening challenges that may threaten our future if we do not face up to them. Global Environmental Challenges provides important information and gives us hope about the environment. This book first helps us to grasp these difficulties, then shows us the choices we can make. How long to leave a light on, whether to take the car, the train, or bicycle to work, whether to recycle or throw away, whether to vote to curb continued suburban sprawl-all of these decisions can make a difference. This collection of some of the best essays and articles on the environment comes from a variety of sources, including journals, magazines, websites of ecological/conservation organizations, and other publications. Five major sections investigate the interaction of population growth, consumption, and environment; the emerging crisis in freshwater around the globe; global climate and atmosphere (including global warming); biodiversity loss; and the concept of sustainable development-using natural resources to place future human development on a sustainable path. The final section on sustainable development reveals how we can take action. As individuals, we can make a difference readily and easily without making huge personal sacrifices. As societies, we can work together in a global community of interest to sustain the earth. This valuable resource offers readers a better understanding of our environmental problems and presents solutions to improving the health of the planet.

Climate Change and Air Pollution

Climate Change and Air Pollution
Author : Rais Akhtar,Cosimo Palagiano
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-10-05
Category : Science
Total pages :430
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This book discusses regional and international climate-change, air- pollution and human-health scenarios. The research, from both industrialized and developing countries, focuses on region-specific perspectives of climate change impacts on air pollution. After analyzing the variations of climate data over recent decades, the authors consider the different effects of climate change on air pollution and health. As stressed by the IPCC, “pollen, smoke and ozone levels are likely to increase in a warming world, affecting the health of residents of major cities. Rising temperatures will worsen air quality through a combination of more ozone in cities, bigger wild fires and worse pollen outbreaks,” according to a major UN climate report. The report follows the World Health Organization in finding that air pollution is the world’s greatest environmental health risk, killing 7 million people in 2014 (compared to 0.4 million deaths due to malaria). Deteriorating air quality will most affect the elderly, children, people with chronic ill-health and expectant mothers. Another report suggests that more than 5.5 million people die prematurely each year due to air pollution with over half of those deaths occurring in China and India. A study on the air pollution in the USA,suggests that more than half of US population lives in areas with potentially dangerous air pollution, and about six out of 10 of the top cities for air pollution in the USA are located in the state of California. In the face of future climate change, scientists have urged stronger emission controls to avoid worsening air pollution and the associated exacerbation of health problems, especially in more populated regions of the world. It is hoped that the implementation of the Paris Climate Agreement will help minimize air pollution. Additionally the authors consider the various measures that different countries and groups of countries, like the European Union, have adopted to mitigate the problems arising from climate change and to safeguard the health of population. The book examines the increasing incidence of diseases largely caused by climate change. The countries/regions covered in this study include the USA, Northern Europe (U.K).,Southern Europe ( Italy), Canada, Australia, East Asia, Russia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, South Africa, Mexico, Brazil, Caribbean countries, and Argentina.

Health of People, Health of Planet and Our Responsibility

Health of People, Health of Planet and Our Responsibility
Author : Wael Al-Delaimy,Veerabhadran Ramanathan,Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2019-01-01
Category : Climate change
Total pages :417
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This open access book not only describes the challenges of climate disruption, but also presents solutions. The challenges described include air pollution, climate change, extreme weather, and related health impacts that range from heat stress, vector-borne diseases, food and water insecurity and chronic diseases to malnutrition and mental well-being. The influence of humans on climate change has been established through extensive published evidence and reports. However, the connections between climate change, the health of the planet and the impact on human health have not received the same level of attention. Therefore, the global focus on the public health impacts of climate change is a relatively recent area of interest. This focus is timely since scientists have concluded that changes in climate have led to new weather extremes such as floods, storms, heat waves, droughts and fires, in turn leading to more than 600,000 deaths and the displacement of nearly 4 billion people in the last 20 years. Previous work on the health impacts of climate change was limited mostly to epidemiologic approaches and outcomes and focused less on multidisciplinary, multi-faceted collaborations between physical scientists, public health researchers and policy makers. Further, there was little attention paid to faith-based and ethical approaches to the problem. The solutions and actions we explore in this book engage diverse sectors of civil society, faith leadership, and political leadership, all oriented by ethics, advocacy, and policy with a special focus on poor and vulnerable populations. The book highlights areas we think will resonate broadly with the public, faith leaders, researchers and students across disciplines including the humanities, and policy makers.

Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century

Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,National Academy of Engineering,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Water Science and Technology Board,Ocean Studies Board,NAE Office of Programs,Board on Life Sciences,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on the Grand Challenges and Opportunites in Environmental Engineering for the Twenty-First Century
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2019-03-08
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :124
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Environmental engineers support the well-being of people and the planet in areas where the two intersect. Over the decades the field has improved countless lives through innovative systems for delivering water, treating waste, and preventing and remediating pollution in air, water, and soil. These achievements are a testament to the multidisciplinary, pragmatic, systems-oriented approach that characterizes environmental engineering. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges outlines the crucial role for environmental engineers in this period of dramatic growth and change. The report identifies five pressing challenges of the 21st century that environmental engineers are uniquely poised to help advance: sustainably supply food, water, and energy; curb climate change and adapt to its impacts; design a future without pollution and waste; create efficient, healthy, resilient cities; and foster informed decisions and actions.