November 24, 2020

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Clinical Neurotherapy

Clinical Neurotherapy
Author : David S. Cantor,James R. Evans
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-10-18
Category : Medical
Total pages :448
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Neurotherapy, sometimes called EEG biofeedback and/or neurobiofeedback involves techniques designed to manipulate brain waves through non-invasive means and are used as treatment for a variety of psychological and medical disorders. The disorders covered include ADHD, mood regulation, addiction, pain, sleep disorders, and traumatic brain injury. This book introduces specific techniques, related equipment and necessary training for the clinical practitioner. Sections focus on treatment for specific disorders and which individual techniques can be used to treat the same disorder and examples of application and the evidence base for use are described. An introduction for clinical practitioners and psychologists investigating neurotherapy techniques and application Includes coverage of common disorders such as ADHD, mood regulation, addiction, pain, sleep disorders, and traumatic brain injury Includes evidence base for use Includes training methods for new users

Clinical Neurotherapy

Clinical Neurotherapy
Author : Richard Soutar
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :448
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Quantitative EEG (qEEG) has become an increasingly common method of assessment in the field of neurofeedback. The International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR) has issued a position paper advocating its widespread use within the field, and many entering the field gravitate toward its use because of its empirical value in the assessment and determination of protocols for intervention with neurofeedback. At the same time, the neuroimaging field has also increasingly taken an interest in qEEG and begun to employ it extensively in research alongside fMRI, because of its high temporal resolution and increasing spatial resolution resulting from recent enhancements such as low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) imaging. This growing common use has provided a valuable new information source for the field of neurofeedback that can be applied at the research and clinical levels for an enriched analysis of client disorders. This chapter, on the one hand, is intended as an example of how those already engaged in qEEG might synthesize the emerging neuroimaging research with their own clinical experience, and is also an effort to present this topic in a generally understandable fashion. Those clinicians who are new to the field of neurofeedback or who are considering the use of qEEG at the clinical level are often intimidated by the complexity of the technology, and by the lack of basic guides to its implementation. Psychologists, counselors and medical professionals do not typically receive the technical training to prepare them for this new and powerful technology, which may come to play an important role in their respective professions. This chapter therefore is also meant to examine qEEG in a basic and comprehensive schema to help inform and initially guide such an audience in further exploration of the topic.

Clinical Neurotherapy

Clinical Neurotherapy
Author : D.Corydon Hammond
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :448
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Nonpharmacological methods of therapeutically influencing the brain have become widely used by clinical practitioners, and there is an accumulating body of outcome research. This chapter introduces readers to existing neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) methodologies, as well as different modalities of neurotherapy for brain stimulation. Neurofeedback methods include symptom-based neurofeedback, neurofeedback guided by quantitative electroencephalography data, neurofeedback based on normative database Z-score and LORETA data, the Low Energy Neurofeedback System, slow cortical potentials training, fMRI neurofeedback, hemoencephalography training and infra-low frequency training. Brain stimulation technologies include electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation, vagal nerve stimulation, cranial electrotherapy stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, a pulsed electromagnetic stimulation device, and audiovisual stimulation. Ethical and standard of care issues and considerations for liability protection are then reviewed.

Clinical Neurotherapy

Clinical Neurotherapy
Author : Dagmar Timmers
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :448
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Neuromodulation – or more specifically neurofeedback – as a treatment for ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) has long been practiced, and recent advances in research and equipment have provided information on how these neuromodulation techniques might work. Recent studies show promising effects of neuromodulation as a treatment for ADHD, but there are many differences between the methods used. Because EEG neurofeedback yields the best-documented results, commonly used EEG protocols, such as theta/beta training, SMR and slow cortical potential training, are described and reviewed. qEEG and phenotype-based protocols are compared to more general assumptions about neuromodulation and ADHD. The protocols are also compared and combined into a neuropsychological model of attention, leading to an understanding of how different protocols can lead to similar results in the treatment of ADHD. Furthermore, neuropsychology is discussed with regard to how it may help with understanding how behavior is changed by neuromodulation. Finally, behavior and learning are discussed in relation to neuromodulation.

Clinical Neurotherapy

Clinical Neurotherapy
Author : Estate M. Sokhadze,David L. Trudeau,Rex L. Cannon
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :448
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Substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the most common psychiatric conditions, resulting in serious behavioral impairments and cognition decline. Acute and chronic drug abuse, drug dependency and drug withdrawal result in significant alteration of the electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG biofeedback has been used in the treatment of alcohol and mixed substance abuse in residential inpatient populations. More recent outpatient approaches have used quantitative EEG (qEEG) guided neurofeedback, neurofeedback (NFB) integrated with motivational interviewing and LORETA neurofeedback. A recent review of the state-of-art of qEEG and NFB in SUD and earlier reviews have detailed the efficacy ratings and clinical uses of NFB for SUD. In these reviews NFB is rated “probably efficacious” as an add-on (adjunct) treatment to other therapies, namely 12-step programs and/or cognitive behavioral therapies, or other types of psychotherapies or residential programs. Neurofeedback is not yet validated as a stand-alone therapy for addictive disorders and cannot yet be considered a mainstream therapy for addiction. Many persons with SUD have comorbid conditions that need to be considered in designing a treatment plan that incorporates neurofeedback. These include mental conditions such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder that may require separate neurofeedback treatment for those specific conditions either preceding neurofeedback treatment for addiction, or incorporated into it. This approach may require separate assessments during the course of therapy to determine response and the need to change protocols or seek other treatments, i.e., medication or psychotherapy, to integrate into the treatment plan update.

Clinical Neurotherapy

Clinical Neurotherapy
Author : Gerald Gluck
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :448
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The purpose of this chapter is to examine hidden factors affecting neurofeedback treatment. It proposes a sociotechnical systems field theory of the neurofeedback treatment setting to help the therapist think about these factors beyond the specifics of this article. A typology of therapist styles in this model is proposed – Buddy, Technocrat, Integrated Practitioner and Withdrawn – to help the therapist identify his or her impact on the field of treatment. Case vignettes are presented as illustrations, along with one case with qEEG data. Genetics, illicit and prescribed drugs, patient variables, therapist variables, historical factors, suggestions for clinical hygiene and guides for treatment are presented.

Clinical Neurotherapy

Clinical Neurotherapy
Author : Thomas F. Collura
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :448
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Past and possible future trends and major developments in neurotherapy are reviewed and put into context. Neurotherapy has comprised several broad areas that can be divided into volitional and nonvolitional interventions. One common element of these approaches is the goal of altering (“modulating”) neuronal activity, in the pursuit of improved efficiency and effectiveness. A wide range of techniques has evolved that are generally used either sequentially or in combination. Integrated methods that incorporate multiple approaches are becoming increasingly important and clinically relevant. The future of neurotherapy will be influenced by a range of factors that will include scientific and clinical developments, economic realities and sociocultural influences. In addition, a unified approach with a cohesive theoretical underpinning has not yet been achieved. Progress in neurotherapy will require progress in all of these areas to secure its proper role in the fields of medicine, psychiatry, psychology and mental health. A singular purpose and a unified design approach can lead to improved levels of usability and efficacy.

Clinical Neurotherapy

Clinical Neurotherapy
Author : Jacques Duff
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :448
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Many studies have highlighted the fact that our modern diet of processed foods, containing additives, colorings and preservatives, is far removed from those of our evolutionary ancestors and is a major contributing factor to modern diseases. This chapter reviews literature that indicates that most Americans and Australians are not getting the recommended daily intake of key nutrients for optimum general and mental health. The role of omega-3 essential fatty acids, zinc, magnesium, B vitamins and other enzyme cofactors is reviewed in the context of the symptomatology of ADHD. Specific mechanisms are described to illustrate that these nutrients are necessary for serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine metabolism, and how deficits can promote ADHD. The message to practitioners is that whereas neurotherapy can help the brain to allocate resources appropriately and improve brain function, nutrient supplementation can help provide the optimum biological substrate that facilitates and enhances the changes that neurotherapy can bring about.

Clinical Neurotherapy

Clinical Neurotherapy
Author : John K. Nash
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :448
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This chapter provides a brief introduction to neurofeedback as practiced by the author, followed by a rather detailed description of vision therapy, which he has found to be an excellent supplement, especially with many cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and traumatic brain injury. The chapter provides basic information about the problems created by impaired control of binocular eye movement, and the use of orthoptic vision therapy to correct functional visual problems such as poor convergence and divergence. Poor binocular control creates problems such as headaches, slowed and inaccurate reading and poor depth perception. Poor depth perception in turn leads to poor sports performance and a self-perception of being “clumsy.” Combining challenging and activating tasks, including active listening and vision therapy methods, with neurofeedback during a course of neurotherapy is also addressed, as is how and when to refer to a developmental/behavioral vision specialist (orthoptist).

Clinical Neurotherapy

Clinical Neurotherapy
Author : Teresa Bailey
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :448
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Developmental disorders cover vast, often overlapping diagnostic territories. Originating in childhood, many of these disorders continue to produce symptoms and functional difficulties throughout the individual’s life. Some developmental disorders have strong genetic components; others are of unknown etiology. Two of the most important are disorders of attention and seizure disorders, which are covered in separate chapters. This chapter focuses on autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, dyslexia, disorders of bowel and bladder elimination control, and sleep. As research progresses, the necessity of full-cap simultaneous EEG acquisition under both resting and activation conditions, with detailed analysis of co-modulation and coherence is becoming clearer. There is no need for overadherence to rigid frequency band definitions. The role of underlying network dysfunctions, not just individual sites, continues to emerge.

Clinical Neurotherapy

Clinical Neurotherapy
Author : M.B. Sterman,Lynda M. Thompson
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :448
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This review provides an updated overview of both basic and clinical research literature, neurophysiological rationale and current methods of practice pertaining to clinical neurofeedback. While considering general issues of physiology, epilepsy and learning principles, it focuses on the treatment of epilepsy with sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) training, arguably the best established clinical application of EEG operant conditioning. The basic research literature provides ample data to support a very detailed model of the neural generation of SMR, as well as the most likely candidate mechanism underlying its efficacy in clinical treatment. Further, although more controlled clinical trials would be desirable, a respectable literature supports the clinical utility of this alternative treatment for epilepsy. The skilled application of clinical neurofeedback with epilepsy requires a solid understanding of the disorder, as well as the neurophysiology underlying EEG oscillations and operant learning principles. The best clinical practice includes a systematic quantitative mapping of multi-electrode EEG measures against a normative database before and after treatment to assess outcomes, as well as documented measurement of progress towards EEG normalization during training.

Clinical Neurotherapy

Clinical Neurotherapy
Author : Lukasz M. Konopka,Elizabeth M. Zimmerman
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :448
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Neurofeedback involves EEG frequencies that are unique to each patient and influenced by the introduction of psychotropic medication. This requires the neurofeedback provider to understand the behavioral correlates of EEG frequencies and the effects introduced by psychotropics. This chapter is designed to provide an overview of broad classes of medications related to cognitive and EEG effects, as well as to offer implications for the neurofeedback provider in incorporating these effects to optimize treatment design. The chapter provides an overview of the acute and long-term impact of medication classes on cognitive function and EEG patterns. Medication-related EEG shifts in absolute frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha beta) are explored across anxiolytics, stimulants, antidepressants and antipsychotics. It is intended to highlight major trends in medication-related changes affecting cognition and EEG relevant to neurofeedback design. Each section contains summaries of potential cognitive/behavioral and EEG effects and recommendations for neurofeedback providers, with emphasis on individualized, repeated assessment.

Clinical Neurotherapy

Clinical Neurotherapy
Author : J.Lucas Koberda
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :448
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In these times of escalating healthcare costs in the United States, EEG biofeedback – also called neurofeedback – looks like a very promising form of treatment because of its noninvasive properties and relative cost-effectiveness. Increased numbers of medical conditions are emerging in which neurofeedback shows improvement of their symptoms. However, in only a few neuropsychiatric disorders, which include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, has the effectiveness of neurofeedback been well documented by randomized studies. Therefore, more well-designed studies are needed to increase the rank of neurofeedback in evidence-based medicine. The author recommends the use of reports combining correlation of both subjective and objective findings documenting an improvement after neurofeedback. In addition, the use of more advanced technology is suggested, including quantitative EEG and functional MRI to document an objective improvement. Also, whenever possible, employing randomization with neurofeedback “sham” controls may be of benefit in order to diminish a placebo effect.

Handbook of Clinical QEEG and Neurotherapy

Handbook of Clinical QEEG and Neurotherapy
Author : Thomas F Collura,Jon A. Frederick
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2016-11-03
Category : Psychology
Total pages :588
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This book is an essential resource describing a wide range of approaches and technologies in the areas of quantitative EEG (QEEG) and neurotherapy including neurofeedback and neuromodulation approaches. It emphasizes practical, clinically useful methods, reported by experienced clinicians who have developed and used these approaches first hand. These chapters describe how the authors approach and use their particular combinations of technology, and how clients are evaluated and treated. This resource, which is encyclopedic in scope, provides a valuable and broad, yet sufficiently detailed account, to help clinicians guide the future directions in client assessment and neurotherapeutic treatment. Each contribution includes literature citations, practical information related to clinical interventions, and clinical outcome information.

Neurotherapy and Neurofeedback

Neurotherapy and Neurofeedback
Author : Theodore J. Chapin,Lori A. Russell-Chapin
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2013-12-04
Category : Psychology
Total pages :222
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The fields of neurobiology and neuropsychology are growing rapidly, and neuroscientists now understand that the human brain has the capability to adapt and develop new living neurons by engaging new tasks and challenges throughout our lives, essentially allowing the brain to rewire itself. In Neurotherapy and Neurofeedback, accomplished clinicians and scholars Lori Russell-Chapin and Ted Chapin illustrate the importance of these advances and introduce counselors to the growing body of research demonstrating that the brain can be taught to self-regulate and become more efficient through neurofeedback (NF), a type of biofeedback for the brain. Students and clinicians will come away from this book with a strong sense of how brain dysregulation occurs and what kinds of interventions clinicians can use when counseling and medication prove insufficient for treating behavioral and psychological symptoms.