December 3, 2020

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The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing

The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing
Author : Sjaak Van Loo,Jaap Koppejan
Publisher : Earthscan
Release Date : 2012-05-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :464
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This unique handbook presents both the theory and application of biomass combustion and co-firing, from basic principles to industrial combustion and environmental impact, in a clear and comprehensive manner. It offers a solid grounding on biomass combustion, and advice on improving combustion systems.Written by leading international academics and industrial experts, and prepared under the auspices of the IEA Bioenergy Implementing Agreement, the handbook is an essential resource for anyone interested in biomass combustion and co-firing technologies varying from domestic woodstoves to utility-scale power generation. The book covers subjects including biomass fuel pre-treatment and logistics, modelling the combustion process and ash-related issues, as well as featuring an overview of the current R&D needs regarding biomass combustion.

Assess of Biomass Co-firing Under Oxy-fuel Conditions on Hg Speciation and Ash Deposit Formation

Assess of Biomass Co-firing Under Oxy-fuel Conditions on Hg Speciation and Ash Deposit Formation
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category :
Total pages :129
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Highlights: In coal case, oxy-firing enhances Hg capture on the finest particles. Main affection of oxy-conditions on Hg fate is observed for cofiring processes. Oxy-cofiring increases Hg oxidation in the flue gas phase. At low temperatures, HCl(g) fraction is decreased in oxy-cofiring vs air. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces chloride deposition versus sulphates formation. Abstract: In the last years oxy-fuel combustion has been seen as an attractive method for oxygenated fuels, such as biomass, for controlling simultaneously the excess of heat arising from coal combustion and flue gas emissions (CO2, NOx, SO2 ...). However there is a lack of information with respect to the fate of other toxic pollutants found in trace concentrations, such as mercury, in oxy-fuel processes operating with biomass fuels. In addition, the modified conditions and flue gas composition leads to more corrosive environments which needs of previous evaluation to minimize possibly damaging processes in the boilers, furthermore in case of employing biomass of high alkaline compounds contents. The present work evaluates the effect of oxy-combustion processes of sub-bituminous coal and coal/ biomass (thistle) blends on mercury partitioning and speciation, under both air and different oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres, by means of a bubbling fluidized bed combustor at laboratory scale. HSC Chemistry 6.1 was supplemented for the interpretation of the experimental results and for the analysis of ash deposits formation. Hg speciation was seen to be more affected by oxy-fuel combustion during the co-firing tests than in coal combustion, with an increment in Hg oxidation at low temperatures (T

CO-FIRING COAL

CO-FIRING COAL
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2002
Category :
Total pages :15
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Proposed activities for quarter 7 (12/15/01-3/14/2002): (1) Incorporation of moisture model into PCGC2 code. Parametric study of moisture effects on flame structure and pollutants emissions in cofiring of coal and Liter Biomass (LB) (Task 4); (2) Use the ash tracer method to determine the combustion efficiency and comparison it to results from gas analysis (Task 2); (3) Effect of swirl on combustion performance (Task 2); (4) Completion of the proposed modifications to the gasifier setup (Task 3); (5) Calibration of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) used for measuring the product gas species (Task 3); and (6) To obtain temperature profiles for different fuels under different operating conditions in the fixed bed gasifier (Task 3).

Biomass Cofiring in Coal-fired Boilers

Biomass Cofiring in Coal-fired Boilers
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2004
Category : Biomass energy
Total pages :34
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Optimisation of Co-firing of High Moisture Biomass with Coal in a Bubbling Fluidised Bed Combustor

Optimisation of Co-firing of High Moisture Biomass with Coal in a Bubbling Fluidised Bed Combustor
Author : Muhammad Akram
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2012
Category :
Total pages :129
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Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational Fluid Dynamics
Author : Adela Ionescu
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2018-02-14
Category : Computers
Total pages :410
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This book is the result of a careful selection of contributors in the field of CFD. It is divided into three sections according to the purpose and approaches used in the development of the contributions. The first section describes the "high-performance computing" (HPC) tools and their impact on CFD modeling. The second section is dedicated to "CFD models for local and large-scale industrial phenomena." Two types of approaches are basically contained here: one concerns the adaptation from global to local scale, - e.g., the applications of CFD to study the climate changes and the adaptations to local scale. The second approach, very challenging, is the multiscale analysis. The third section is devoted to "CFD in numerical modeling approach for experimental cases." Its chapters emphasize on the numerical approach of the mathematical models associated to few experimental (industrial) cases. Here, the impact and the importance of the mathematical modeling in CFD are focused on. It is expected that the collection of these chapters will enrich the state of the art in the CFD domain and its applications in a lot of fields. This collection proves that CFD is a highly interdisciplinary research area, which lies at the interface of physics, engineering, applied mathematics, and computer science.

NO Emission During Co-firing Coal and Biomass in an Oxy-fuel Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor

NO Emission During Co-firing Coal and Biomass in an Oxy-fuel Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2015
Category :
Total pages :129
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Highlights: Burning biomass alone has a higher NO emission than coal. Nitrogen conversion is in agreement with the H/N ratio in the fuel. In oxy-fuel combustion, lower NO emission has been observed. Oxygen staging combustion succeeds in controlling the NO emission. Abstract: Co-firing biomass and coal under oxy-fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) holds the potential for negative CO2 emission into the atmosphere and is a promising technology to realized atmospheric CO2 reduction. Experiments co-firing coal and three kinds of Chinese biomass, i.e. rice husk (RH), wood chips (WC) and dry wood flour (WF) under oxy-fuel condition were carried out in a 10 kWt CFBC. Results show that burning biomass separately produces higher NO emissions and a higher fuel nitrogen conversion ratio than burning coal without biomass addition due to the higher volatile matter content of the biomass; the fuel nitrogen conversion ratio is in agreement with the H/N ratio in the fuel under both air and oxy-fuel atmosphere. In oxy-fuel combustion, lower NO emission is observed than in air combustion, because CO2 replacing N2 reduces the yield of NO precursors like NH3 during the devolatilization process and enhances NO reduction via char/NO/CO reaction. NO emission increases as temperature, overall oxygen concentration and primary oxidant fraction increase during oxy-fuel combustion. Oxygen staging succeeds in controlling NO emission in a comparatively low level at high overall oxygen concentration condition. The results can be helpful for the design and operation of the oxy-fuel fluidized bed combustor.

Analysis of Biomass Waste Cofiring Into Existing Coal-Fired Power Plant Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Analysis of Biomass Waste Cofiring Into Existing Coal-Fired Power Plant Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Author : Arif Darmawan
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category : Computers
Total pages :129
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Biomass utilization to generate electricity via combustion simply can be classified into firing and cofiring. Biomass cofiring into the pulverized coal boilers has some advantages compared to dedicated biomass firing in terms of capital cost and combustion efficiency. To understand the cofiring behavior of biomass and coal comprehensively, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method can be used to analyze and solve problems involving fluid flows inside a combustor. A CFD modeling is significantly more effective from the perspectives of time and cost and safety and ease of scaling up; hence, it is usually performed before conducting a physical investigation through experiment. Moreover, the current state-of-the-art CFD modeling-based study is capable of solving the complexity of the interdependent processes such as turbulence, heat transfer via radiation, produced gas, and reactions in both the particle and gas phases during combustion. This chapter focuses on the study of cofiring of biomass, which is palm mill wastes, into the existing coal-fired power plant. Two palm mill wastes are evaluated: palm kernel shell and hydrothermally treated empty fruit bunch. Distributions of temperature and the produced are simulated to find the most optimum and applicable cofiring conditions.

Recent Advances in Carbon Capture and Storage

Recent Advances in Carbon Capture and Storage
Author : Yongseung Yun
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2017-03-08
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :266
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Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been considered as a practical way in sequestering the huge anthropogenic CO2 amount with a reasonable cost until a more pragmatic solution appears. The CCS can work as a bridge before fulfilling the no-CO2 era of the future by applying to large-scale CO2 emitting facilities. But CCS appears to lose some passion by the lack of progress in technical developments and in commercial success stories other than EOR. This is the time to go back to basics, starting from finding a solution in small steps. The CCS technology desperately needs far newer ideas and breakthroughs that can overcome earlier attempts through improving, modifying, and switching the known principles. This book tries to give some insight into developing an urgently needed technical breakthrough through the recent advances in CCS research, in addition to the available small steps like soil carbon sequestration. This book provides the fundamental and practical information for researchers and graduate students who want to review the current technical status and to bring in new ideas to the conventional CCS technologies.

Modeling and Evaluation of a Coal Power Plant with Biomass Cofiring and CO2 Capture

Modeling and Evaluation of a Coal Power Plant with Biomass Cofiring and CO2 Capture
Author : Dumitru Cebrucean
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category : Technology
Total pages :129
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Coal-fired power plants are the largest source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere, with more than 9.5 billion tonnes of CO2 emitted annually. In order to mitigate the emissions of CO2 from coal-fired plants, several measures were proposed, such as increasing the efficiency of the plants, cofiring biomass with coal, and capturing and storing CO2 deep underground. Among these measures, the use of biomass, which is considered one of the most cost-effective renewables and, in addition, carbon neutral, combined with CO2 capture and storage will play an important role toward reducing the fossil-based CO2 emissions. In this study, we investigated in detail the performances of pulverized coal combustion plants with direct cofiring of biomass and integrated with an amine-based postcombustion capture technology. All the systems were modeled and simulated using the process simulation software Aspen Plus. The results indicate that cofiring 10% of biomass in a coal-based power plant only slightly affects the energy performance of the plant, reducing the net efficiency by 0.3% points. The addition of an amine capture system to both the coal-fired and biomass cofiring plants further reduces the efficiency of the plants by more than 10% points. Analyzing the effect of various CO2 capture process parameters on the heat, solvent and cooling water requirements, and on the overall plant performance, it was found that the concentration of amine in the solution is the most important parameter. The results showed that the net electrical efficiency increases for systems using higher amine concentrations. Further, we investigated the effect of systems with lower heat requirement for solvent regeneration on the plant gross/net power output and also analyzed the plant performances under a flexible CO2 capture efficiency.

Solid Fuel Blending

Solid Fuel Blending
Author : David A. Tillman,Dao N.B. Duong,N. Stanley Harding
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012
Category : Science
Total pages :335
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Create affordable solid fuel blends that will burn efficiently while reducing the carbon footprint. Solid Fuel Blending Handbook: Principles, Practices, and Problems describes a new generation of solid fuel blending processes. The book includes discussions on such topics as flame structure and combustion performance, boiler efficiency, capacity as influenced by flue gas volume and temperature, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and emissions. Attention is given to the major types of combustion systems including stokers, pulverized coal, cyclone, and fluidized bed boilers. Specific topics considered include chlorine in one or more coals, alkali metals (e.g., K, Na) and alkali earth elements, and related topics. Coals of consideration include Appalachian, Interior Province, and Western bituminous coals; Powder River Basin (PRB) and other subbituminous coals; Fort Union and Gulf Coast lignites, and many of the off-shore coals (e.g., Adaro coal, an Indonesian subbituminous coal with very low sulfur; other off-shore coals from Germany, Poland, Australia, South Africa, Columbia, and more). Interactions between fuels and the potential for blends to be different from the parent coals will be a critical focus of this of the book. One stop source to solid fuel types and blending processes Evaluate combustion systems and calculate their efficiency Recognize the interactions between fuels and their potential energy output Be aware of the Environmental Aspects of Fuel Blending

Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing

Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing
Author : Edited By Sjaak Van Loo And Jaap Koppejan
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2007
Category :
Total pages :129
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Fuel Flexible Energy Generation

Fuel Flexible Energy Generation
Author : John Oakey
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2015-12-08
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :334
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Fuel Flexible Energy Generation: Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Fuels provides updated information on flexible fuel energy generation, the process by which one or more fuels can be combusted in the same boiler or turbine to generate power. By adapting or building boilers and turbines to accept multiple fuel sources, they can be co-fired with biomass and waste derived fuels, allowing a reduction in carbon output, thus providing cleaner energy. Fuel flexibility is becoming more important in a world of diminishing fossil fuel stocks. Many countries are investing in the development of more efficient fuel flexible boilers and turbines, and their use is becoming more prevalent in industry as well. This book provides comprehensive coverage of flexible fuel energy generation across all potential fuel types, and was written by a selection of experts in the field who discuss the types of fuels which can be used in fuel flexible energy generation, from solid fuels to biomass fuels, the preparation of fuels to be used in fuel flexible operations, that includes their handling and transport, and combustion and conversion technologies with chapters ranging from large-scale coal gasification to technology options and plant design issues. Focuses on fuel flexibility across all potential fuel types Includes thorough treatment of the technology being developed to allow for fuel flexibility Written by leading experts in the field Provides an essential text for R&D managers in firms which produce boilers or turbines, those who work in the fuel industry, and academics working in engineering departments on energy generation

Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction

Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction
Author : Prabir Basu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-07-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :548
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Biomass is the most widely used non-fossil fuel in the world. Biomass resources show a considerable potential in the long-term given the increasing proliferation of dedicated energy crops for biofuels. The second edition of Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis is enhanced with new topics, such as torrefaction and cofiring, making it a versatile resource that not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of biomass conversion systems. This book will allow professionals, such as engineers, scientists, and operating personnel of biomass gasification, pyrolysis or torrefaction plants, to gain a better comprehension of the basics of biomass conversion. The author provides many worked out design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. With a dedicated focus on the design, analysis, and operational aspects of biomass gasification, pyrolysis, and torrefaction, Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction, Second Edition offers comprehensive coverage of biomass in its gas, liquid, and solid states in a single easy-to-access source. Contains new and updated step-by-step process flow diagrams, design data and conversion charts, and numerical examples with solutions Includes chapters dedicated to evolving torrefaction technologies, practicing option of biomass cofiring, and biomass conversion economics Expanded coverage of syngas and other Fischer-Tropsch alternatives Spotlights advanced processes such as supercritical water gasification and torrefaction of biomass. Provides available research results in an easy-to-use design methodology

Clean Coal Engineering Technology

Clean Coal Engineering Technology
Author : Bruce G. Miller
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2010-11-15
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :696
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Concern over the effects of airborne pollution, green house gases, and the impact of global warming has become a worldwide issue that transcends international boundaries, politics, and social responsibility. The 2nd Edition of Coal Energy Systems: Clean Coal Technology describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants. Coal is the dirtiest of all fossil fuels. When burned, it produces emissions that contribute to global warming, create acid rain, and pollute water. With all of the interest and research surrounding nuclear energy, hydropower, and biofuels, many think that coal is finally on its way out. However, coal generates half of the electricity in the United States and throughout the world today. It will likely continue to do so as long as it's cheap and plentiful [Source: Energy Information Administration]. Coal provides stability in price and availability, will continue to be a major source of electricity generation, will be the major source of hydrogen for the coming hydrogen economy, and has the potential to become an important source of liquid fuels. Conservation and renewable/sustainable energy are important in the overall energy picture, but will play a lesser role in helping us satisfy our energy demands today. Dramatically updated to meet the needs of an ever changing energy market, Coal Energy Systems, 2nd Edition is a single source covering policy and the engineering involved in implementing that policy. The book addresses many coal-related subjects of interest ranging from the chemistry of coal and the future engineering anatomy of a coal fired plant to the cutting edge clean coal technologies being researched and utilized today. A 50% update over the first edition, this new book contains new chapters on processes such as CO2 capture and sequestration, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems, Pulverized-Coal Power Plants and Carbon Emission Trading. Existing materials on worldwide coal distribution and quantities, technical and policy issues regarding the use of coal, technologies used and under development for utilizing coal to produce heat, electricity, and chemicals with low environmental impact, vision for utilizing coal well into the 21st century, and the security coal presents. Clean Liquids and Gaseous Fuels from Coal for Electric Power Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems Pulverized-Coal Power Plants Advanced Coal-Based Power Plants Fluidized-Bed Combustion Technology CO2 capture and sequestration