December 1, 2020

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Cognitive Enhancement

Cognitive Enhancement
Author : Elisabeth Hildt,Andreas G. Franke
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-04-08
Category : Medical
Total pages :315
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Cognitive enhancement is the use of drugs, biotechnological strategies or other means by healthy individuals aiming at the improvement of cognitive functions such as vigilance, concentration or memory without any medical need. In particular, the use of pharmacological substances (caffeine, prescription drugs or illicit drugs) has received considerable attention during the last few years. Currently, however, little is known concerning the use of cognitive enhancers, their effects in healthy individuals and the place and function of cognitive enhancement in everyday life. The purpose of the book is to give an overview of the current research on cognitive enhancement and to provide in-depth insights into the interdisciplinary debate on cognitive enhancement.

Cognitive Enhancement

Cognitive Enhancement
Author : Shira Knafo,César Venero
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2014-12-20
Category : Psychology
Total pages :392
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Cognitive Enhancement: Pharmacologic, Environmental and Genetic Factors addresses the gap that exists in research on the topic, gathering multidisciplinary knowledge and tools that help the reader understand the basics of cognitive enhancement. It also provides assistance in designing procedures and pharmacological approaches to further the use of novel cognitive enhancers, a field that offers potential benefit to a variety of populations, including those with neurologic and psychiatric disorders, mild aging-related cognitive impairment, and those who want to improve intellectual performance. The text builds on our knowledge of the molecular/cellular basis of cognitive function, offering the technological developments that may soon enhance cognition. Separate sections cover enhancement drugs, environmental conditions, and genetic factors in terms of both human and animal studies, including both healthy/young and aging/diseased individuals. Provides a multidisciplinary knowledge, enabling a further understanding of cognitive enhancement Offers coverage of the pharmacologic, environmental, and genetic factors relevant to the topic Discusses cognitive enhancement from the perspective of both healthy and diseased or aging populations Topics are discussed in terms of both human and animal studies

Cognitive Enhancement

Cognitive Enhancement
Author : Fabrice Jotterand,Veljko Dubljevic
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2016-05-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :432
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There is a growing literature in neuroethics dealing with cognitive neuro-enhancement for healthy adults. However, discussions on this topic tend to focus on abstract theoretical positions while concrete policy proposals and detailed models are scarce. Furthermore, discussions appear to rely solely on data from the US or UK, while international perspectives are mostly non-existent. This volume fills this gap and addresses issues on cognitive enhancement comprehensively in three important ways: 1) it examines the conceptual implications stemming from competing points of view about the nature and goals of enhancement; 2) it addresses the ethical, social, and legal implications of neuroenhancement from an international and global perspective including contributions from scholars in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America; and 3) it discusses and analyzes concrete legal issues and policy options tailored to specific contexts.

Cognitive Enhancement in CNS Disorders and Beyond

Cognitive Enhancement in CNS Disorders and Beyond
Author : Richard S. E. Keefe,Avi (Abraham) Reichenberg,Jeffrey Cummings
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2017
Category : Medical
Total pages :448
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Cognitive Enhancement in CNS Disorders and Beyond compiles a series of educational and thought-provoking chapters from the world's leading cognitive and clinical scientists to describe the latest research on cognitive impairments in a host of pathological conditions that affect CNS functioning, what treatments are available for these impairments, and how new treatments are being tested. This volume will benefit any investigators in cognitive science and clinical research, but is also accessible to non-experts. It advances the field toward the availability of cognitive enhancing drugs and devices that will benefit those who need them most and others who may feel that these techniques can help them to thrive. There has never been a time that we knew more about cognition and never a time when cognition was more important to the functioning of human beings than right now. Psychological science and cognitive neuroscience have become the most popular endeavor of students world wide, is the focus of attention of our greatest scientific accomplishments and the emphasis of many publications in the mainstream media. Since humans depend on cognitive abilities for survival, quality of life, and productivity, improving it has never been more important. Those with impairments in key aspects of cognition suffer dearly, as they are unable to obtain and retain information, unable to make sound decisions based upon the information at hand, and unable to plan future activities. The availability of pharmacological and behavioral interventions that can improve cognitive abilities and provide impaired individuals with the social, occupational and functional quality of life that the rest of us enjoy has potential far-reaching implications. Such interventions can also benefit those who want to boost current cognitive abilities to higher levels, perhaps as a means to hone skills in providing products for others or to gain an edge on competition. There has never been a book devoted solely to describing the latest cognitive science and neuroscience on the methods for enhancing cognition in healthy and unhealthy humans. Cognitive Enhancement in CNS Disorders and Beyond accomplishes exactly that in a straightforward and accessible manner.

Theory-Driven Approaches to Cognitive Enhancement

Theory-Driven Approaches to Cognitive Enhancement
Author : Lorenza S. Colzato
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-09-05
Category : Psychology
Total pages :337
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of cognitive enhancement, the use of different substances and actions (e.g., meditation, video game, smart drugs, food supplements, nutrition, brain stimulation, neurofeedback, physical exercise, music, or cognitive training) to enhance human perception, attention, memory, cognitive control, and action in healthy individuals. Chapters contain research on enhancing procedures and activities that will help to further develop enhancement based on individual needs and interests. Chapters also discuss the underlying mechanism of how these means influence and change behaviors and moods. In addition, the book also provides “real-life” examples in which the several means of cognitive enhancement have been successfully applied. It concludes with a call to develop more specific, mechanistic theories to guide cognitive enhancing programs as well as the editor’s own tailored-approach proposal for enhancing cognition for individuals. Featured topics include: The effect of caffeine on cognitive abilities. Aerobic exercise and its short-term and long-term effects on cognition. The effect, if any, of Ritalin and Modafinil on promoting cognitive enhancement. Temperature variations and its influences on behavior. The effect of food supplements across the lifespan. "Theory-Driven Approaches to Cognitive Enhancement is a must-have resource for psychologists, physicians, sport and exercise scientists, medical scientists, and teachers". “This book provides a state-of-the-art overview of different aspects of cognitive enhancement. The chapters are very focused, well-structured, in-depth, and rounded up by excellent illustrations. I highly recommend the book to readers interested in the matter”. Dr. Julia Karbach, Goethe University “It is overall a highly original book on a timely topic, with a fresh approach and rich in practical and societal implications. The book is written in a very clear way and it is a pleasure to read.” Dr. Anna M. Borghi, Sapienza University of Rome

Cognitive Enhancement in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

Cognitive Enhancement in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders
Author : Matcheri Keshavan,Shaun Eack
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2019-03-21
Category : Medical
Total pages :194
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A practical guide on how to assess and treat schizophrenia and related disorders using cognitive rehabilitation.

The Stimulated Brain

The Stimulated Brain
Author : Roi Cohen Kadosh
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-06-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :568
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The Stimulated Brain—which garnered an Honorable Mention for Biomedicine & Neuroscience at the 2015 PROSE Awards from the Association of American Publishers—presents the first integration of findings on brain stimulation from different research fields with a primary focus on Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES), one of the most frequently used noninvasive stimulation methods. The last decade has witnessed a significant increase in the amount of research exploring how noninvasive brain stimulation can not only modulate but also enhance cognition and brain functions. However, although Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and particularly tES have the potential to become more widely applicable techniques (as they come with none of the risks associated with deep brain stimulation) the reference literature on these neurotechnologies has been sparse. This resource provides a broad survey of current knowledge, and also marks future directions in cognitive and neuro-enhancement. It expands our understanding of basic research findings from animals and humans, including clear translational benefits for applied research and the therapeutic use of noninvasive brain stimulation methods. The book's coverage includes a primer that paves the way to a more advanced knowledge of tES and its physiological basis; current research findings on cognitive and neuro-enhancement in animals and typical and atypical human populations, such as neurological patients; and discussions of future directions, including specific neuroethical issues and pathways for collaboration and entrepreneurialism. The Stimulated Brain is the first book to provide a comprehensive understanding of different aspects of noninvasive brain stimulation that are critical for scientists, clinicians, and those who are interested in “stimulating their minds by exploring this fascinating field of research. Honorable Mention for Biomedicine & Neuroscience in the 2015 PROSE Awards from the Association of American Publishers The only reference on the market to focus on transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) Coverage across technical, historical, and application topics makes this the single, comprehensive resource for researchers and students Edited book with chapters authored by international leaders in the fields of medicine, neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy—providing the broadest, most expert coverage available

Cognitive Enhancement

Cognitive Enhancement
Author : Robert H. Blank
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2015-10-22
Category : Philosophy
Total pages :144
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Rapid advances in cognitive neuroscience and converging technologies have led to a vigorous debate over cognitive enhancement. This book outlines the ethical and social issues, but goes on to focus on the policy dimensions, which until now have received much less attention. As the economic, social and personal stakes involved with cognitive enhancement are so high, and the advances in knowledge so swift, we are likely to see increasing demands for government involvement in cognitive enhancement techniques. The book therefore places these techniques in a political context and brings the subsequent considerations and divisions to the forefront of the debate, situating their resolution within the milieu of interest group politics. The book will provide a starting point from which readers can develop a balanced policy framework for addressing such concerns.

Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of an 18‐month Randomized Clinical Trial

Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of an 18‐month Randomized Clinical Trial
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category :
Total pages :129
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Abstract : Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to treating core cognitive deficits in adults with autism, but rigorously controlled trials of comprehensive interventions that target both social and non‐social cognition over a sufficient period of time to impact functioning are lacking. This study examined the efficacy of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) for improving core cognitive and employment outcomes in adult autism. Verbal adult outpatients with autism spectrum disorder ( N = 54) were randomized to an 18‐month, single‐blind trial of CET, a cognitive remediation approach that integrates computer‐based neurocognitive training with group‐based training in social cognition, or an active enriched supportive therapy (EST) comparison focused on psychoeducation and condition management. Primary outcomes were composite indexes of neurocognitive and social‐cognitive change. Competitive employment was a secondary outcome. Intent‐to‐treat analyses indicated that CET produced significant differential increases in neurocognitive function relative to EST ( d = .46, P = .013). Both CET and EST were associated with large social‐cognitive improvements, with CET demonstrating an advantage at 9 ( d = .58, P = 0.020), but not 18 months ( d = .27, P = 0.298). Effects on employment indicated that participants treated with CET were significantly more likely to gain competitive employment than those in EST, OR = 6.21, P = 0.023, which was mediated by cognitive improvement. CET is a feasible and potentially effective treatment for core cognitive deficits in adult autism spectrum disorder. The treatment of cognitive impairments in this population can contribute to meaningful improvements in adult outcomes. Autism Res 2018, 11: 519–530 . © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Lay Summary: Cognitive enhancement therapy (CET), an 18‐month cognitive remediation intervention designed to improve thinking and social understanding, was found to be more effective than supportive therapy at improving mental quickness, attention, and employment in adults living with autism. Social understanding was equally improved in CET and supportive therapy. Cognitive remediation interventions are feasible and may confer significant functional benefits to adults with autism.

Cognitive Enhancing Drugs

Cognitive Enhancing Drugs
Author : Jerry J. Buccafusco
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2003-12-17
Category : Medical
Total pages :203
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During the past decade research into the pharmacology of cognition, particularly regarding learning and memory, has supported the concept that many potential neural targets exist for the development of cognitive-enhancing drugs. Whereas the main impetus for this research has been the ever growing population of individuals with dementing disorders such as Alzheimer`s disease, attention is also being focused on issues relating to cognitive impairment associated with "normal" aging. This book is useful as a source of information for making informed decisions regarding the relative utility and attributes of the various neural targets that have been studied to date.

Cognitive Enhancement

Cognitive Enhancement
Author : E Berndt ~autofilled~
Publisher : epubli
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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Cognitive Enhancement

Cognitive Enhancement
Author : Kathleen M. Kantak,Joseph G. Wettstein
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2015-05-14
Category : Medical
Total pages :470
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This book highlights the behavioral and neurobiological issues relevant for drug development, reviews evidence for an innovative approach for drug discovery and presents perspectives on multiple special topics ranging from therapeutic drug use in children, emerging technologies and non-pharmacological approaches to cognitive enhancement.

Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics

Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics
Author : Judy Illes,Barbara J. Sahakian
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release Date : 2011-04-07
Category : Medical
Total pages :976
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The past two decades have seen unparalleled developments in our knowledge of the brain and mind. However, these advances have forced us to confront head-on some significant ethical issues regarding our application of this information in the real world- whether using brain images to establish guilt within a court of law, or developing drugs to enhance cognition. Historically, any consideration of the ethical, legal, and social implications of emerging technologies in science and medicine has lagged behind the discovery of the technology itself. These delays have caused problems in the acceptability and potential applications of biomedical advances and posed significant problems for the scientific community and the public alike - for example in the case of genetic screening and human cloning. The field of Neuroethics aims to proactively anticipate ethical, legal and social issues at the intersection of neuroscience and ethics, raising questions about what the brain tells us about ourselves, whether the information is what people want or ought to know, and how best to communicate it. A landmark in the academic literature, the Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics presents a pioneering review of a topic central to the sciences and humanities. It presents a range of chapters considering key issues, discussion, and debate at the intersection of brain and ethics. The handbook contains more than 50 chapters by leaders from around the world and a broad range of sectors of academia and clinical practice spanning the neurosciences, medical sciences and humanities and law. The book focuses on and provides a platform for dialogue of what neuroscience can do, what we might expect neuroscience will do, and what neuroscience ought to do. The major themes include: consciousness and intention; responsibility and determinism; mind and body; neurotechnology; ageing and dementia; law and public policy; and science, society and international perspectives. Tackling some of the most significant ethical issues that face us now and will continue to do so over the coming decades, The Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics will be an essential resource for the field of neuroethics for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, basic scientists in the neurosciences and psychology, scholars in humanities and law, as well as physicians practising in the areas of primary care in neurological medicine.

Neuroethics of Cognitive Enhancement

Neuroethics of Cognitive Enhancement
Author : Anita Sue Jwa
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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This dissertation, which lies at the intersection of law and biosciences, explores ethical and legal implications of emerging biotechnology. More specifically, it focuses on the use of direct biological intervention for cognitive enhancement. Recent developments in neuroscience have enabled technological advances to modulate cognitive functions of the brain. Most of these brain intervention technologies were initially developed as treatments for neuropsychiatric diseases, but researchers have begun to investigate their potential to enhance cognitive functions in the healthy population. Despite ethical concerns about cognitive enhancement, both individuals and society as a whole can greatly benefit from these technologies, depending on how we regulate their use. To date, regulatory analyses of brain intervention technologies have focused on a technology itself -- for instance, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s regulation of a brain stimulation device -- rather than the use of a technology, such as the use of a brain stimulation device at work or school. Given that some forms of cognitive enhancement have already started to penetrate the general public's everyday life, we should launch a discussion about potential regulatory issues regarding their use in various real-world situations. The goal of the first paper is to fill the gap by providing an analytical framework in which to examine these regulatory issues. It aims to illustrate the issues around respecting autonomy and preventing coercive use of cognitive enhancement. The proposed framework categorizes the real-world settings where a brain intervention technology can be used for cognitive enhancement based on two criteria -- who is subjected to cognitive enhancement and who imposes cognitive enhancement. Based on this framework, the article analyzes regulatory issues arising out of every combination of subject/imposing party by taking one example case. Focusing on the regulations in the United States, this analysis demonstrates the current lack of adequate safeguards against coercive use. The existing consent requirement or appeals processes are not sufficient to prevent the use of cognitive enhancement against the subject's will. This paper concludes by calling for more attention from government agencies and researchers to develop sound protections against the coercive use of cognitive enhancement. This paper was published in Neuroethics in 2019. The second paper tackles one possible use of enhancement -- use of direct biological brain intervention to improve cognitive function in minor children. Parental use and state regulation of cognitive enhancement will inevitably cause tensions between parent, child, and state. These tensions stem from two different but fundamentally related causes: minors' incompetency to make decisions about their own welfare and parental autonomy from the state to make decisions about the upbringing of their minor children. However, these tensions are not without precedents. The courts have frequently struggled to set the boundary of parental autonomy and to balance parent's rights, children's interests, and state's interests and have accumulated extensive precedents in various contexts. This paper reviews previous US court decisions in the contexts analogous to cognitive enhancement -- medical treatment, education, and mandatory vaccination -- and analyzes their implications for future discourse on the use of cognitive enhancement on minors. The third paper is an empirical study on the mechanism of a brain stimulation technology called transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). tDCS delivers weak direct current to the brain using two electrodes attached to the scalp, and it is believed to be able to alter neuronal activation in a target region under/near the electrodes. It is gaining momentum both in the research community and in the general public as a safe and affordable tool for treatment and enhancement alike. However, recent meta-analyses have reported that there are inconsistent and conflicting results among tDCS studies. These inconsistencies stem in part from the lack of precise understanding of the mechanism underlying tDCS. Using a novel MRI technique, this study measures the primary direction and magnitude of current in a human brain undergoing direct current stimulation. The results show that current flow deviates significantly from its desired path under modeling and that the current primarily travels through cerebrospinal fluid, which has higher conductivity compared with gray matter and white matter. It also demonstrated that only some portion of injected current actually reached the cortex. This study provides a new way for in vivo investigation of tDCS current. Its findings also raise concerns about the ability of tDCS to target a specific region in the brain, which in turn suggests the risks of its premature application in and outside of a clinical context to modulate cognitive function. Given current and potentially more widespread use of cognitive enhancement, this dissertation should provide a useful guide for policymakers and researchers to identify issues around the use of direct biological brain interventions for cognitive enhancement and to develop sound policies to ensure the responsible use of these novel technologies.

Neuroethics, Justice and Autonomy: Public Reason in the Cognitive Enhancement Debate

Neuroethics, Justice and Autonomy: Public Reason in the Cognitive Enhancement Debate
Author : Veljko Dubljević
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2019-04-29
Category : Philosophy
Total pages :138
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This book explicitly addresses policy options in a democratic society regarding cognitive enhancement drugs and devices. The book offers an in-depth case by case analysis of existing and emerging cognitive neuroenhancement technologies and canvasses a distinct political neuroethics approach. The author provides an argument on the much debated issue of fairness of cognitive enhancement practices and tackles the tricky issue of how to respect preferences of citizens opposing and those preferring enhancement. The author persuasively argues the necessity of a laws and regulations regarding the use of cognitive enhancers. He also argues that the funds for those who seek cognitive enhancement should be allocated free of charge to the least advantaged. The work argues that the notion of autonomy has been mistakenly associated with the metaphysical concept of free will, and offers a political definition of autonomy to clarify how responsibility is implicitly grounded in the legal and political system. As such, this book is an essential read for everyone interested in neuroethics, and a valuable resource for policy makers, as well as scholars and students in philosophy, law, psychiatry and neuroscience.