November 28, 2020

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Context Effects on Embodied Representation of Language Concepts

Context Effects on Embodied Representation of Language Concepts
Author : Jie Yang
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-03-20
Category : Psychology
Total pages :28
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Embodied theories claim that semantic representations are grounded in sensorimotor systems, but the contribution of sensorimotor brain areas in representing meaning is still controversial. One current debate is whether activity in sensorimotor areas during language comprehension is automatic. Numerous neuroimaging studies reveal activity in perception and action areas during semantic processing that is automatic and independent of context, but increasing findings show that involvement of sensorimotor areas and the connectivity between word-form areas and sensorimotor areas can be modulated by contextual information. Context Effects on Embodied Representation of Language Concepts focuses on these findings and discusses the influences from word, phrase, and sentential contexts that emphasize either dominant conceptual features or non-dominant conceptual features. Reviews the findings about contextual modularity Clarifies the invariant and flexible features of embodied lexical-semantic processing

Conceptual and Interactive Embodiment

Conceptual and Interactive Embodiment
Author : Martin H. Fischer,Yann Coello
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2015-12-22
Category : Psychology
Total pages :316
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This two-volume set provides a comprehensive overview of the multidisciplinary field of Embodied Cognition. With contributions from internationally acknowledged researchers from a variety of fields, Foundations of Embodied Cognition reveals how intelligent behaviour emerges from the interplay between brain, body and environment. Drawing on the most recent theoretical and empirical findings in embodied cognition, Volume 2 Conceptual and Interactive Embodiment is divided into four distinct parts, bringing together a number of influential perspectives and new ideas. Part one introduces the field of embodied language processing, before part two presents recent developments in our understanding of embodied conceptual understanding. The final two parts look at the applied nature of embodied cognition, exploring the embodied nature of social co-ordination as well as the emerging field of artificial embodiment. Building on the idea that knowledge acquisition, retention and retrieval are intimately interconnected with sensory and motor processes, Foundations of Embodied Cognition is a landmark publication in the field. It will be of great interest to researchers and advanced students from across the cognitive sciences, including those specialising in psychology, neuroscience, intelligent systems and robotics, philosophy, linguistics and anthropology.

What can we make of theories of embodiment and the role of the human mirror neuron system?

What can we make of theories of embodiment and the role of the human mirror neuron system?
Author : Analia Arevalo,Juliana Baldo,Fernando González-Perilli, Agustin Ibanez
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2016-03-09
Category :
Total pages :129
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In recent years, work surrounding theories of embodiment and the role of the putative mirror neuron system (MNS) in humans has gained considerable attention. If humans have developed a network of neurons that fire in response to other beings’ actions, as has been shown in macaques, this system could have vast implications for all kinds of cognitive processes unique to humans, such as language, learning, empathy and communication in general. The goal of tapping into and understanding such a system is a fascinating yet challenging one. One form of embodiment -- embodied linguistics -- suggests that the way we process linguistic information is linked to our physical experience of the concept conveyed by each word. The interaction between these cognitive systems (i.e., language and motor processing) may occur thanks to the firing of neurons making up the MNS. The possible interdependence between different cognitive systems has implications for healthy as well as pathological profiles, and in fact, work in recent years has also explored the role of ‘embodiment’ and/or the MNS in clinical populations such as stroke, Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Autism, among others. Research on embodiment and/or the MNS has been approached with a number of different methodologies, but the results obtained with these different methodologies have not been entirely consistent, generating doubts regarding the theories. The question has been raised as to what this line of inquiry can gain from the types of evidence contributed by functional neuroimaging methods carried out with healthy volunteers versus behavioral or lesion-symptom mapping methods employed with neurologically-compromised individuals. Of particular interest are the clinical applications of this line of research. If indeed a system exists which reflects a tight link between, for example, the human language and motor systems, then the obvious challenge is to tap into this system to create useful therapies that can provide rehabilitation where damage has occurred. This Research Topic brought together work conducted with healthy and patient populations using several behavioral and imaging techniques, as well as insightful commentaries and opinion pieces. We believe the combined work of the participating authors is an important contribution to this intriguing line of research and an excellent point of reference for future work.

Brain Informatics

Brain Informatics
Author : Shouyi Wang,Vicky Yamamoto,Jianzhong Su,Yang Yang,Erick Jones,Leon Iasemidis,Tom Mitchell
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-12-06
Category : Computers
Total pages :498
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Conference on Brain Informatics, BI 2018, held in Arlington, TX, USA, in December 2018. The 46 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 53 submissions. The papers are grouped thematically on cognitive and computational foundations of brain science, human information processing systems, brain big data analysis, curation and management, informatics paradigms for brain and mental health research, brain-machine intelligence and brain-inspired computing.

Embodied and grounded cognition

Embodied and grounded cognition
Author : Anna Borghi,Diane Pecher
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release Date : 2012-01-01
Category :
Total pages :129
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In the last 10-15 years, the "embodied" and "grounded" cognition approach has become widespread in all fields related to cognitive science, such as cognitive and social psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, anthropology, computational modelling and robotics. According to this approach, our cognitive activity is grounded in sensory-motor processes and situated in specific contexts and situations. Therefore, in this view, concepts consist of the reactivation of the same neural pattern that is present when we perceive and/or interact with the objects they refer to. In the same way, understanding language would imply forming a mental simulation of what is linguistically described. This simulation would entail the recruitment of the same neurons that are activated when actually acting or perceiving the situation, action, emotion, object or entity described by language. In the last years a lot of evidence has been collected in favour of EC and GC view. The aim of this Research Topic is twofold. First, it intends to give an idea of the field of embodied and grounded cognition in its broadness. We therefore intend to invite scientists of different disciplines (anthropology, philosophy, linguistics, cognitive and social psychology, neuroscience, computer science) to submit their proposals. The second aim of this Research Topicis to focus on some challenges that in our opinion embodied and grounded theories of cognition need to face. First, we believe that one important challenge for EC and GC views is to account for the way the so-called "abstract concepts" and abstract words are represented. Evidence on the representation of concrete concepts and words is compelling, whereas evidence on abstract concepts representation is still too scarce and limited to restricted domains. We therefore welcome proposals dealing with this complex issue. Second, we think that embodied and grounded theories of cognition would need to formulate more precise hypotheses, and that in general within the field a larger theoretical effort should be made. It is striking that, even if a lot of work in the field of computational modelling and robotics starts from an embodied approach, experimental and modelling work on embodied cognition remain somehow separate. We therefore invite researchers to submit papers proposing models which might help to explain phenomena as well as to constrain and specify in more detail the predictions and the claims advanced within the framework of EC and GC theories.

Words as Social Tools: An Embodied View on Abstract Concepts

Words as Social Tools: An Embodied View on Abstract Concepts
Author : Anna M. Borghi,Ferdinand Binkofski
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2014-03-13
Category : Psychology
Total pages :127
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How are abstract concepts and words represented in the brain? That is the central question addressed by the authors of “Words as Social Tools: An Embodied View on Abstract Concepts”. First, they focus on the difficulties in defining what abstract concepts and words are, and what they mean in psycholinguistic research. Then the authors go on to describe and critically discuss the main theories on this topic with a special emphasis on the different embodied and grounded theories proposed in cognitive psychology within the last ten years, highlighting the advantages and limitations of each of these theories. The core of this Brief consists of the presentation of a new theory developed by the authors, the WAT (Words As social Tools) view, according to which both sensorimotor (such as perception, action, emotional experiences) and linguistic experiences are at the basis of abstract concepts and of abstract word representation, processing and use. This theory assigns a major role to acquisition: one of the assumptions the authors make is that the different ways in which concrete and abstract words are acquired constrain their brain representation and their use. This view will be compared with the main existing theories on abstractness, from the theory of conceptual metaphors to the theories on multiple representation. Finally, the volume illustrates recent evidence from different areas (developmental, behavioral, cross-cultural, neuropsychological and neural) which converge with and support the authors' theory, leading to the conclusion that in order to account for representation and processing of abstract concepts and words, an extension of embodied and grounded theories is necessary.

In Face of Reality

In Face of Reality
Author : Thomas A. James
Publisher : Wipf and Stock Publishers
Release Date : 2011-04-01
Category : Religion
Total pages :202
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This study of the work of noted liberal theologian Gordon Kaufman tracks his career from his first published book, Relativism, Knowledge, and Faith (1960) through his 2006 book, Jesus and Creativity, in light of recent conversations about divine action and modern scientific knowledge. James interprets Kaufman's mature position as a sophisticated reconstruction of divine activity that makes use of recent scientific theory and its naturalistic assumptions in order to revitalize a theocentric frame of reference rooted in classical theological tradition. Though there are costs to be paid in the construction of a theology of radical naturalism, particularly with respect to the relation between divine action and the human good, Kaufman's program offers a distinctive way forward. After developing a critical analysis of the limitations and possibilities of Kaufman's mature position, James suggests that a christological reconsideration of the meaning of human flourishing offers the prospect of an even more radically naturalistic and theocentric theology.

Symbols and Embodiment

Symbols and Embodiment
Author : Manuel de Vega,Arthur M. Glenberg,Arthur C. Graesser
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date : 2008
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Total pages :445
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Some cognitive scientists think the mind works like a computer, involving programs composed of abstract and arbitrary symbols. Others think cognition is embodied - based on perceptual and emotional experience. This book is a rare collaboration between scientists holding both viewpoints, in an attempt to better understand the mind.

Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts

Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2009-04
Category : Language and languages
Total pages :129
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Handbook of Cognitive Science

Handbook of Cognitive Science
Author : Paco Calvo,Toni Gomila
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2008
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Total pages :476
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The Handbook of Cognitive Science provides an overview of recent developments in cognition research, relying upon non-classical approaches. Cognition is explained as the continuous interplay between brain, body, and environment, without relying on classical notions of computations and representation to explain cognition. The handbook serves as a valuable companion for readers interested in foundational aspects of cognitive science, and neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. The handbook begins with an introduction to embodied cognitive science, and then breaks up the chapters into separate sections on conceptual issues, formal approaches, embodiment in perception and action, embodiment from an artificial perspective, embodied meaning, and emotion and consciousness. Contributors to the book represent research overviews from around the globe including the US, UK, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, France, Sweden, and the Netherlands.

The Handbook of Language Emergence

The Handbook of Language Emergence
Author : Brian MacWhinney,William O'Grady
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2014-12-23
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Total pages :656
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This authoritative handbook explores the latest integrated theory for understanding human language, offering the most inclusive text yet published on the rapidly evolving emergentist paradigm. Brings together an international team of contributors, including the most prominent advocates of linguistic emergentism Focuses on the ways in which the learning, processing, and structure of language emerge from a competing set of cognitive, communicative, and biological constraints Examines forces on widely divergent timescales, from instantaneous neurolinguistic processing to historical changes and language evolution Addresses key theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues, making this handbook the most rigorous examination of emergentist linguistic theory ever

Narrative Complexity

Narrative Complexity
Author : Marina Grishakova,Maria Poulaki
Publisher : U of Nebraska Press
Release Date : 2019-08
Category : Literary Criticism
Total pages :498
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The variety in contemporary philosophical and aesthetic thinking as well as in scientific and experimental research on complexity has not yet been fully adopted by narratology. By integrating cutting-edge approaches, this volume takes a step toward filling this gap and establishing interdisciplinary narrative research on complexity. Narrative Complexity provides a framework for a more complex and nuanced study of narrative and explores the experience of narrative complexity in terms of cognitive processing, affect, and mind and body engagement. Bringing together leading international scholars from a range of disciplines, this volume combines analytical effort and conceptual insight in order to relate more effectively our theories of narrative representation and complexities of intelligent behavior. This collection engages important questions on how narrative complexity functions as an agent of cultural evolution, how our understanding of narrative complexity can be extended in light of new research in the social sciences and humanities, how interactive media produce new types of narrative complexity, and how the role of embodiment as a factor of narrative complexity acquires prominence in cognitive science and media studies. The contributors explore narrative complexity transmitted through various semiotic channels, embedded in multiple contexts, and experienced across different media, including film, comics, music, interactive apps, audiowalks, and ambient literature.

Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences

Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences
Author : David Sander,Klaus Scherer
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release Date : 2014-02-06
Category : Psychology
Total pages :520
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Few areas have witnessed the type of growth we have seen in the affective sciences in the past decades. Across psychology, philosophy, economics, and neuroscience, there has been an explosion of interest in the topic of emotion and affect. Comprehensive, authoritative, up-to-date, and easy-to-use, the new Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences is an indispensable resource for all who wish to find out about theories, concepts, methods, and research findings in this rapidly growing interdisciplinary field - one that brings together, amongst others, psychologists, neuroscientists, social scientists, philosophers, and historians. Organized by alphabetical entries, and presenting brief definitions, concise overviews, and encyclopaedic articles (all with extensive references to relevant publications), this Companion lends itself to casual browsing by non-specialists interested in the fascinating phenomena of emotions, moods, affect disorders, and personality as well as to focused search for pertinent information by students and established scholars in the field. Not only does the book provide entries on affective phenomena, but also on their neural underpinnings, their cognitive antecedents and the associated responses in physiological systems, facial, vocal, and bodily expressions, and action tendencies. Numerous entries also consider the role of emotion in society and social behavior, as well as in cognitive processes such as those critical for perception, attention, memory, judgement and decision-making. The volume has been edited by a group of internationally leading authorities in the respective disciplines consisting of two editors (David Sander and Klaus Scherer) as well as group of 11 associate editors (John T. Cacioppo, Tim Dalgleish, Robert Dantzer, Richard J. Davidson, Ronald B. de Sousa, Phoebe C. Ellsworth, Nico Frijda, George Loewenstein, Paula M. Niedenthal, Peter Salovey, and Richard A. Shweder). The members of the editorial board have commissioned and reviewed contributions from major experts on specific topics. In addition to comprehensive coverage of technical terms and fundamental issues, the volume also highlights current debates that inform the ongoing research process. In addition, the Companion contains a wealth of material on the role of emotion in applied domains such as economic behaviour, music and arts, work and organizational behaviour, family interactions and group dynamics, religion, law and justice, and societal change. Highly accessible and wide-ranging, this book is a vital resource for scientists, students, and professionals eager to obtain a rapid, conclusive overview on central terms and topics and anyone wanting to learn more about the mechanisms underlying the emotions dominating many aspects of our lives.

The Handbook of the Neuropsychology of Language

The Handbook of the Neuropsychology of Language
Author : Miriam Faust
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2011-11-22
Category : Psychology
Total pages :1128
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This handbook provides a comprehensive review of new developments in the study of the relationship between the brain and language, from the perspectives of both basic research and clinical neuroscience. Includes contributions from an international team of leading figures in brain-language research Features a novel emphasis on state-of-the-art methodologies and their application to the central questions in the brain-language relationship Incorporates research on all parts of language, from syntax and semantics to spoken and written language Covers a wide range of issues, including basic level and high level linguistic functions, individual differences, and neurologically intact and different clinical populations

Body Memory, Metaphor and Movement

Body Memory, Metaphor and Movement
Author : Sabine C. Koch,Thomas Fuchs,Michela Summa,Cornelia Müller
Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing
Release Date : 2012-01-25
Category : Psychology
Total pages :468
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Body Memory, Metaphor and Movement is an interdisciplinary volume with contributions from philosophers, cognitive scientists, and movement therapists. Part one provides the phenomenologically grounded definition of body memory with its different typologies. Part two follows the aim to integrate phenomenology, conceptual metaphor theory, and embodiment approaches from the cognitive sciences for the development of appropriate empirical methods to address body memory. Part three inquires into the forms and effects of therapeutic work with body memory, based on the integration of theory, empirical findings, and clinical applications. It focuses on trauma treatment and the healing power of movement. The book also contributes to metaphor theory, application and research, and therefore addresses metaphor researchers and linguists interested in the embodied grounds of metaphor. Thus, it is of particular interest for researchers from the cognitive sciences, social sciences, and humanities as well as clinical practitioners.