November 24, 2020

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Corrosion in Refineries

Corrosion in Refineries
Author : J Harston
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-01-23
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :128
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Corrosion in ageing refinery plant presents a serious safety hazard. This important book summarises key research into corrosion processes in refinery equipment, how it can be measured and controlled. The book reviews factors affecting corrosion such as carburisation and metal dusting as well as corrosion in steel and other materials used in refinery technology. It considers corrosion in a range of refinery equipment such as storage tanks, HF alkylation units, sour water strippers and insulated units. Other chapters discuss ways of testing for corrosion and cracking in refineries together with integrity and life cycle assessment techniques. There is also coverage of ways of trouble-shooting corrosion problems and preventative measures such as coating systems. With its distinguished editor and team of contributors, Corrosion in refineries is a valuable reference for all those concerned with building and maintaining refineries in the petrochemical industry. Summarises key research into corrosion processes in refinery equipment Discusses ways of testing for corrosion and cracking in refineries

Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry
Author : Alec Groysman
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2016-10-24
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :356
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This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion fatigue occurring at refinery units. At last, fouling, corrosion and cleaning are discussed in this book.

Corrosion by Carbon and Nitrogen

Corrosion by Carbon and Nitrogen
Author : H Grabke,M Schütze
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-01-23
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :332
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Metal dusting is a form of corrosion involving the disintegration of metals and alloys into a dust of graphite and metal particles when exposed to a carburizing atmosphere. This important book reviews the factors affecting metal dusting and how it can be prevented in sectors such as the chemical and petrochemical industries and in the direct reduction of iron ores. It also considers the related corrosion phenomena of carburization and nitridation. After an introductory chapter setting out the key processes involved in metal dusting, the book reviews how this corrosion process affects a range of metals such as iron and steel, as well as nickel-based and chromium-based high-temperature alloys. There are chapters on the effects of particular gas mixtures on the corrosion process and on the use of coatings to prevent metal dusting. Processes involved in carburization and nitridation are also described and discussed. With its distinguished editors and team of contributors, Corrosion by carbon and nitrogen is a valuable reference for all those concerned with understanding and preventing these corrosion processes in various industries. Reviews this corrosion process and how it affects the petrochemical and other industries Discusses the effect of particular gas mixtures on the corrosion process

Oil and Gas Corrosion Prevention

Oil and Gas Corrosion Prevention
Author : James G. Speight
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 2014-03-13
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :150
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According to NACE (National Association of Corrosion Engineers), the total annual cost of corrosion in petroleum refining takes up $3.7 billion in the US alone. Corrosion control is always a challenge for the downstream industry, but as the quality of feedstock is declining due to refineries accepting more of the heavy and shale gas and oil resources that are more readily available today, refinery managers, petroleum and natural gas engineers are unprepared for the new set of corrosion problems that are showing up in their equipment and processing units. Oil and Gas Corrosion Prevention: From Surface Facilities to Refineries quickly gets the engineer and manager up to speed on the latest types of corrosion common for these lower grade crude oils and gases as well as the best prevention methods for all of the major sections of the refinery, especially desalting and sulfur recovery units, which are the most common problem areas for unconventional feedstocks. Also covering the unique midstream sections, or point of entry to the refinery, as well as the major critical refinery equipment, Oil and Gas Corrosion Prevention: From Surface Facilities to Refineries offers the perfect quick cross-reference for the oil and gas community. Gets engineers and managers up to speed on the latest types of corrosion common for lower grade crude oils and gases Provides the best prevention methods for all of the major sections of the refinery, especially desalting and sulfur recovery units Covers additional topics such as unique midstream sections, or point of entry to the refinery, as well as major critical refinery equipment

Amine Unit Corrosion in Refineries

Amine Unit Corrosion in Refineries
Author : J Harston,F Ropital
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2007-04-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :56
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The corrosion of carbon steels in amine units used for gas treatment in refining operations is a major problem for the petrochemical industry. Maximising amine unit reliability, together with improving throughput, circulation and treatment capacity, requires more effective ways of measuring and predicting corrosion rates. However, there has been a lack of data on corrosion. This valuable report helps to remedy this lack of information by summarising findings from over 30 plants. It covers such amine types as methyl diethanolamine (MDEA), diethanolamine (DEA), monoethanolamine (MEA) and di-isopropanolamine (DIPA), and makes recommendations on materials and process parameters to maximise amine unit efficiency and reliability. Covers such amine types as Methyl Diethanolamine (MDEA) and Di-isopropanolamine Makes recommendations on materials and process parameters to maximise amine unit efficiency and reliability

Corrosion Inhibitors in the Oil and Gas Industry

Corrosion Inhibitors in the Oil and Gas Industry
Author : Viswanathan S. Saji,Saviour A. Umoren
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2020-04-13
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :464
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Provides comprehensive coverage of corrosion inhibitors in the oil and gas industries Considering the high importance of corrosion inhibitor development for the oil and gas sectors, this book provides a thorough overview of the most recent advancements in this field. It systematically addresses corrosion inhibitors for various applications in the oil and gas value chain, as well as the fundamentals of corrosion inhibition and interference of inhibitors with co-additives. Corrosion Inhibitors in the Oil and Gas Industries is presented in three parts. The first part on Fundamentals and Approaches focuses on principles and processes in the oil and gas industry, the types of corrosion encountered and their control methods, environmental factors affecting inhibition, material selection strategies, and economic aspects of corrosion. The second part on Choice of Inhibitors examines corrosion inhibitors for acidizing processes, inhibitors for sweet and sour corrosion, inhibitors in refinery operations, high-temperature corrosion inhibitors, inhibitors for challenging corrosive environments, inhibitors for microbiologically influenced corrosion, polymeric inhibitors, vapor phase inhibitors, and smart controlled release inhibitor systems. The last part on Interaction with Co-additives looks at industrial co-additives and their interference with corrosion inhibitors such as antiscalants, hydrate inhibitors, and sulfide scavengers. -Presents a well-structured and systematic overview of the fundamentals and factors affecting corrosion -Acts as a handy reference tool for scientists and engineers working with corrosion inhibitors for the oil and gas industries -Collectively presents all the information available on the development and application of corrosion inhibitors for the oil and gas industries -Offers a unique and specific focus on the oil and gas industries Corrosion Inhibitors in the Oil and Gas Industries is an excellent resource for scientists in industry as well as in academia working in the field of corrosion protection for the oil and gas sectors, and will appeal to materials scientists, electrochemists, chemists, and chemical engineers.

Corrosion in the Petrochemical Industry, Second Edition

Corrosion in the Petrochemical Industry, Second Edition
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ASM International
Release Date : 2015-12-01
Category : Petroleum chemicals industry
Total pages :426
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Originally published in 1994, this second edition of Corrosion in the Petrochemical Industry collects peer-reviewed articles written by experts in the field of corrosion that were specifically chosen for this book because of their relevance to the petrochemical industry. This edition expands coverage of the different forms of corrosion, including the effects of metallurgical variables on the corrosion of several alloys. It discusses protection methods, including discussion of corrosion inhibitors and corrosion resistance of aluminum, magnesium, stainless steels, and nickels. It also includes a section devoted specifically to petroleum and petrochemical industry related issues.

Corrosion and Materials Selection

Corrosion and Materials Selection
Author : Alireza Bahadori
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2014-08-11
Category : Science
Total pages :576
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The petroleum and chemical industries contain a wide variety of corrosive environments, many of which are unique to these industries. Oil and gas production operations consume a tremendous amount of iron and steel pipe, tubing, pumps, valves, and sucker rods. Metallic corrosion is costly. However, the cost of corrosion is not just financial. Beyond the huge direct outlay of funds to repair or replace corroded structures are the indirect costs – natural resources, potential hazards, and lost opportunity. Wasting natural resources is a direct contradiction to the growing need for sustainable development. By selecting the correct material and applying proper corrosion protection methods, these costs can be reduced, or even eliminated. This book provides a minimum design requirement for consideration when designing systems in order to prevent or control corrosion damage safely and economically, and addresses: • Corrosion problems in petroleum and chemical industries • Requirements for corrosion control • Chemical control of corrosive environments • Corrosion inhibitors in refineries and petrochemical plants • Materials selection and service life of materials • Surface preparation, protection and maintainability • Corrosion monitoring - plant inspection techniques and laboratory corrosion testing techniques Intended for engineers and industry personnel working in the petroleum and chemical industries, this book is also a valuable resource for research and development teams, safety engineers, corrosion specialists and researchers in chemical engineering, engineering and materials science.

Fouling in Refineries

Fouling in Refineries
Author : James G. Speight
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 2015-05-14
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :538
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Fouling in Refineries is an important and ongoing problem that directly affects energy efficiency resulting in increased costs, production losses, and even unit shutdown, requiring costly expenditures to clean up equipment and return capacity to positive levels. This text addresses this common challenge for the hydrocarbon processing community within each unit of the refinery. As refineries today face a greater challenge of accepting harder to process heavier crudes and the ongoing flow of the lighter shale oil feedstocks, resulting in bigger challenges to balance product stability within their process equipment, this text seeks to inform all relative refinery personnel on how to monitor fouling, characterize the deposits, and follow all available treatments. With basic modeling and chemistry of fouling and each unit covered, users will learn how to operate at maximum production rates and elongate the efficiency of their refinery’s capacity. Presents an understanding of the breakdown of fouling per refinery unit, including distillation and coking units Provides all the factors, crude types, and refining blends that cause fouling, especially the unconventional feedstocks and high acid crudes used today Helps users develop an analysis-based treatment and control strategy that empowers them to operate refinery equipment at a level that prevents fouling from occurring

High Acid Crudes

High Acid Crudes
Author : James G. Speight
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 2014-04-30
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :150
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High Acid Crudes quickly gets the refinery manager and all other relative personnel up to date on this particular type of feedstock by providing an overview and relevant details of the identification of high acid crudes and their influence on the refinery’s process units, especially regarding corrosion potential. Covering the types, effects on the various refining units, and proper acid stripping techniques, High Acid Crudes effectively trains refinery personnel with a quick reference guide for day-to-day use in today’s refineries. Due to their discounted value but potential for higher production rates, refineries are accepting more of high acidic crude feedstocks, otherwise referred to as “opportunity or “challenging crude oils. Refining of these resources is still increasing due to high oil prices, with China dominating this market and doubling their production of high acid crudes by 2015. Processing these resources can significantly increase any refinery’s productivity, but knowledge and proper training for the refinery manager and crude supplier is key to reducing the risk that is commonly associated with high acid feedstocks, while still maintaining clean production standards. Provides an overview of the identification of high acid crudes and their influence on the refinery’s process units Covers the types of high acid crudes, effects on the various refining units, and proper acid stripping techniques Trains refinery personnel as a quick reference guide for day-to-day use for today’s refinery

Amine Unit Corrosion in Refineries

Amine Unit Corrosion in Refineries
Author : J Harston,F Ropital
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2007-04-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :56
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The corrosion of carbon steels in amine units used for gas treatment in refining operations is a major problem for the petrochemical industry. Maximising amine unit reliability, together with improving throughput, circulation and treatment capacity, requires more effective ways of measuring and predicting corrosion rates. However, there has been a lack of data on corrosion. This valuable report helps to remedy this lack of information by summarising findings from over 30 plants. It covers such amine types as methyl diethanolamine (MDEA), diethanolamine (DEA), monoethanolamine (MEA) and di-isopropanolamine (DIPA), and makes recommendations on materials and process parameters to maximise amine unit efficiency and reliability. Covers such amine types as Methyl Diethanolamine (MDEA) and Di-isopropanolamine Makes recommendations on materials and process parameters to maximise amine unit efficiency and reliability

Guide to the Practical Use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines

Guide to the Practical Use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines
Author : Johannes Karl Fink
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 2016-05-09
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :266
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Guide to Practical Use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines delivers a well-rounded collection of content, references, and patents to show all the practical chemical choices available for refinery and pipeline usage, along with their purposes, benefits, and general characteristics. Covering the full spectrum of downstream operations, this reference solves the many problems that engineers and managers currently face, including corrosion, leakage in pipelines, and pretreatment of heavy oil feedstocks, something that is of growing interest with today's unconventional activity. Additional coverage on special refinery additives and justification on why they react the way they do with other chemicals and feedstocks is included, along with a reference list of acronyms and an index of chemicals that will give engineers and managers the opportunity to recognize new chemical solutions that can be used in the downstream industry. Presents tactics practitioners can use to effectively locate and utilize the right chemical application specific to their refinery or pipeline operation Includes information on how to safely perform operations with coverage on environmental issues and safety, including waste stream treatment and sulfur removal Helps readers understand the composition and applications of chemicals used in oil and gas refineries and pipelines, along with where they should be applied, and how their structure interacts when mixed at the refinery

Materials Selection for Petroleum Refineries and Gathering Facilities

Materials Selection for Petroleum Refineries and Gathering Facilities
Author : Richard A. White
Publisher : National Assn of Corrosion
Release Date : 1998
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :203
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Corrosion in Systems for Storage and Transportation of Petroleum Products and Biofuels

Corrosion in Systems for Storage and Transportation of Petroleum Products and Biofuels
Author : Alec Groysman
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2014-02-17
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :297
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This book treats corrosion as it occurs and affects processes in real-world situations, and thus points the way to practical solutions. Topics described include the conditions in which petroleum products are corrosive to metals; corrosion mechanisms of petroleum products; which parts of storage tanks containing crude oils and petroleum products undergo corrosion; dependence of corrosion in tanks on type of petroleum products; aggressiveness of petroleum products to polymeric material; how microorganisms take part in corrosion of tanks and pipes containing petroleum products; which corrosion monitoring methods are used in systems for storage and transportation of petroleum products; what corrosion control measures should be chosen; how to choose coatings for inner and outer surfaces of tanks containing petroleum products; and how different additives (oxygenates, aromatic solvents) to petroleum products and biofuels influence metallic and polymeric materials. The book is of interest to corrosion engineers, materials engineers, oil and gas engineers, petroleum engineers, chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, failure analysts, scientists, and students, designers of tanks, pipelines and other systems for storage and transportation fuels, technicians. The book is of interest to corrosion engineers, materials engineers, oil and gas engineers, petroleum engineers, chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, failure analysts, scientists, and students, designers of tanks, pipelines and other systems for storage and transportation fuels, technicians. The book is of interest to corrosion engineers, materials engineers, oil and gas engineers, petroleum engineers, chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, failure analysts, scientists, and students, designers of tanks, pipelines and other systems for storage and transportation fuels, technicians.

Crude Unit Corrosion Guide

Crude Unit Corrosion Guide
Author : Gutzeit Joerg
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018-07-23
Category : Electronic book
Total pages :262
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This revision is based primarily on the author's experience dealing with all aspects of corrosion and fouling in crude units. The Guide also reflects the Industry's consensus experiences reported at past meetings of the NACE1 STG34 Committee on Petroleum Refining and Gas Processing and the API2 Subcommittee on Corrosion and Materials.