June 12, 2021

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Corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts

Corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts
Author : P Dillmann,D Watkinson,E Angelini,A Adriaens
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2013-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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The conservation of metallic archaeological and historic artefacts is a major challenge whether they are ancient bronzes or relics of our more recent industrial past. Based on the work of Working Party 21 Corrosion of Archaeological and Historical Artefacts within the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC), this important book summarises key recent research on analytical techniques, understanding corrosion processes and preventing the corrosion of cultural heritage metallic artefacts. After an introductory part on some of the key issues in this area, part two reviews the range of analytical techniques for measuring and analysing corrosion processes, including time resolved spectroelectrochemistry, voltammetry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Part three reviews different types of corrosion processes for a range of artefacts, whilst part four discusses on-site monitoring techniques. The final part of the book summaries a range of conservation techniques and strategies to conserve cultural heritage metallic artefacts. Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts is an important reference for all those involved in archaeology and conservation, including governments, museums as well as those undertaking research in archaeology and corrosion science. Summarises key research on analytical techniques for measuring and analysing corrosion processes Provides detailed understanding of corrosion processes and corrosion prevention Discusses on-site monitoring techniques

Corrosion of Metallic Heritage Artefacts

Corrosion of Metallic Heritage Artefacts
Author : P Dillmann,G Beranger,P Piccardo,H Matthiessen
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-01-23
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :416
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Understanding long term corrosion processes is critical in many areas, including archaeology and conservation. This important book reviews key themes such as the processes underlying corrosion over long periods, how corrosion rates can be measured and materials conserved. After an overview of the study and conservation of metal archaeological artefacts, a group of chapters reviews long term corrosion in metals such as steel, iron and bronze. Other chapters review the impact of environmental factors on corrosion rates. The book also considers instrumental techniques for measuring corrosion such as electrochemistry and scanning electron microscopy, as well as ways of modelling corrosion processes. There is also coverage of the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors. With its distinguished editors and contributors, Corrosion of metallic heritage artefacts improves our understanding of long term corrosion and its effects. It provides a valuable reference for those involved in archaeology and conservation, as well as those dealing with the long term storage of nuclear and other waste. Reviews long term corrosion in metals such as steel, iron and bronze Considers instumental techniques such as electrochemistry for measuring corrosion

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts
Author : E. Angelini,S. Grassini,S. Tusa
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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This chapter deals with the description of suitable and innovative solutions devoted to preserve metallic artefacts in their original contexts, underwater cultural heritage sites of archaeological and historical interest, as well as with the analysis of the degradation processes of ferrous and non-ferrous artefacts induced by contact with an aggressive environment such as sea water. The chapter also provides an overview of the most common conservation strategies applied to recovered artefacts.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts
Author : D. Watkinson
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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Relationships between conservation and corrosion scientists are assessed and similarities, differences and synergies identified. Corrosion control as a preservation option for heritage metals is advocated as being cost-effective and pragmatic. This will require generation of data to develop predictive conservation and estimation of object lifespan as a function of their intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Methods for quantitative determination of corrosion rates of chloride infested heritage iron and techniques for scaling to heritage value are discussed. The iron hull of the ss Great Britain and an AHRC/EPSRC Heritage Science Research Programme at Cardiff University are used to illustrate the rationale behind using corrosion control in heritage.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts
Author : D. Neff,S. Reguer,P. Dillmann
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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This chapter introduces the techniques used when investigating corrosion layers formed on cultural heritage artefacts. Various multiscale analysis methods, from macroscopic to nanoscopic scales, are presented. Information on the morphology, the elementary composition and the crystalline structure that each method allows for determining the constituents of the corrosion layers is examined, as well as their limits in terms of set-up, spatial and detection resolution. This chapter discusses the characteristics of the scientific tools that can be used to understand corrosion phenomena, by taking into account the major parameters responsible for alteration mechanisms.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts
Author : H. Matthiesen
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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Oxygen is a key factor in corrosion and decay of artefacts from our cultural heritage. The measurement of oxygen concentrations and quantification of oxygen consumption is therefore extremely useful in both corrosion and conservation science. This chapter focuses on two aspects of oxygen monitoring: first, measurement of oxygen consumption of cultural heritage artefacts to evaluate their corrosion rate and the efficiency of conservation treatments, and second, measurement of oxygen concentration in the burial environment to evaluate the preservation conditions and understand the formation of different corrosion products in situ. The chapter includes a short description of equipment for oxygen measurement, and gives some examples of its use for monitoring purposes.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts
Author : A. Adriaens,M. Dowsett
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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This chapter discusses the evaluation of metal conservation treatments using a specialized electrochemical cell. The cell can be deployed in a synchrotron beam line to make in-situ, time-lapse measurements on heritage metal alloys undergoing processes based on electrochemical treatments/measurements. We focus on two specific projects: (1) the evaluation of currently used stabilization processes for cupreous objects recovered from marine environments, and (2) the development and testing of a coating to protect lead objects which is stable, reversible (i.e. easy to apply and to remove), protective against corrosion and aesthetically justified.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts
Author : E. Cano,D. Lafuente
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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This chapter reviews the applicability and specific uses of corrosion inhibitors in metal conservation practice. Corrosion inhibitors are one of the different methods used by conservation-restoration professionals to preserve metallic cultural heritage. In the first part, specific requirements and needs for corrosion inhibitors in conservation treatments are reviewed, as well as the different methods for the assessment of their efficiency. The second part of the chapter reviews the different inhibitors used by type of metals: copper and its alloys, iron and its alloys, and other metals (including silver, lead and zinc), from traditional ones to state-of-the-art treatments.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts
Author : D.A. Scott
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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Metallographic investigations may be an essential component in the search for authenticity and fabrication technology. Assessing how an artefact is made may involve metallographic examination, usually entailing the removal of a small sample from the object concerned. Examples of the use of metallography are discussed with reference to copper alloys, high-tin bronzes, Chinese bronze mirrors, copper plaques, iron and steels, and plated or coated metals, such as depletion gilded surfaces or those covered with gold foil or other metals. The different types of features which metallography can reveal concerning ancient metallic structures are briefly discussed with several colour photomicrographs which illustrate the features described in this chapter. The importance of metallography as one component of the scientific tools to aid in the determination of authenticity of ancient metallic artefacts is stressed, and an example given of old electrotypes from the Victoria and Albert Museum. Important literature references are provided to direct the reader to more detailed studies on the subject.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts
Author : P. Letardi
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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The basic principles of corrosion and electrochemistry are briefly summarised to indicate the capabilities of electrochemical techniques in diagnostic and conservation of heritage metals. The basic elements of each electrochemical measurement – cell, electrolyte, instrumentation – are schematically illustrated in the specific application to cultural heritage. The different measurement techniques are reviewed, divided into three groups: (1) potential measurements; (2) DC techniques; (3) AC techniques. The aims and fields of application are discussed, reporting several examples of specific applications in the field of cultural heritage.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts
Author : E. Angelini,S. Grassini
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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This chapter deals with an overview of the application of plasma technologies, an innovative environmentally friendly class of processes for the surface modification of materials, for cleaning and protection of metallic artefacts. Examples of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) of organosilicon precursors are described and appear particularly promising for the corrosion protection of the different metallic substrates such as iron-based alloys, copper and silver-based alloys of archaeological and historical-artistic interest.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts
Author : P. Dillmann,D. Watkinson,E. Angelini,A. Adriaens
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts
Author : L.M. Abrantes,A.I. Melato
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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This chapter describes the recent advances in corrosion protection afforded by the use of ultra-thin organic films such as polymer films and self-assembled monolayers. Emphasis is given to the metal surface modification by self-assembled monolayers of carboxylic acids due to their properties and ability to protect metallic artefacts.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts
Author : A. Doménech-Carbó
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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This chapter discusses the application of the voltammetry of microparticles, a solid-state electrochemical technique, to the field of corrosion of archaeological metal. Identification of metals and alloys, identification, mapping and layer-by-layer analysis of corrosion products on metal surfaces using this technique are described. Applications include quantification of components of alloys and corrosion layers, and evaluation of metal conservation and the kinetics of long-term corrosion processes. Specific applications in archaeometry, conservation and restoration include authentication and dating.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts
Author : S. Grassini
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :640
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Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful tool in developing the most appropriate methodology for ensuring long-lasting artefact preservation. EIS consists in the measurement of amplitude and phase of the surface impedance of coated metallic objects at different frequencies in order to highlight either the protective effectiveness of a coating or the stability of a corrosion product layer grown onto the metallic surface. Two in-situ EIS measuring campaigns are described together with the description of the portable instrument and the measuring probes specifically designed and developed for cultural heritage applications.