December 5, 2020

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Cytokines and the Brain

Cytokines and the Brain
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2008-06-18
Category : Science
Total pages :608
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This book opens a new page of neuro-immunobiology providing substantive experimental and clinical data to support current understanding in the field, and potential applications of this knowledge in the treatment of disease. The volume is a collection of complex, new data drawn from multiple areas of investigation in the field. The contents summarize current understanding on the presence and function of CNS cytokines and their receptors in a variety of CNS cells during health and disease. The chapters are a collection of complex, new data demonstrating the presence and synthesis of cytokines in brain cells, as well as their receptors on cell membranes in health and disease. The strength of the volume are the descriptions of the authors own investigations, together with those of others in the field pertaining to a large number of cytokines in brain function, as well as mechanisms involved in the development of CNS disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Also included are novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data. The contributors to this volume are internationally known scientists and clinical researchers in their respective fields of investigation and treatment. *Opens a new page of neuro-immunobiology and provides substantive evidence for the promise of this field in the treatment of disease *Summarizes current understanding on the presence and function of central nervous system (CNS) cytokines and their receptors in a variety of CNS cells during health and disease *Includes novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data *Offers new insight into triggers for the development of autoimmune diseases in the brain and the possibilities for treatment

Cytokines and the Brain

Cytokines and the Brain
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2008-06-18
Category : Science
Total pages :608
GET BOOK

This book opens a new page of neuro-immunobiology providing substantive experimental and clinical data to support current understanding in the field, and potential applications of this knowledge in the treatment of disease. The volume is a collection of complex, new data drawn from multiple areas of investigation in the field. The contents summarize current understanding on the presence and function of CNS cytokines and their receptors in a variety of CNS cells during health and disease. The chapters are a collection of complex, new data demonstrating the presence and synthesis of cytokines in brain cells, as well as their receptors on cell membranes in health and disease. The strength of the volume are the descriptions of the authors own investigations, together with those of others in the field pertaining to a large number of cytokines in brain function, as well as mechanisms involved in the development of CNS disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Also included are novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data. The contributors to this volume are internationally known scientists and clinical researchers in their respective fields of investigation and treatment. *Opens a new page of neuro-immunobiology and provides substantive evidence for the promise of this field in the treatment of disease *Summarizes current understanding on the presence and function of central nervous system (CNS) cytokines and their receptors in a variety of CNS cells during health and disease *Includes novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data *Offers new insight into triggers for the development of autoimmune diseases in the brain and the possibilities for treatment

Cytokines as Players of Neuronal Plasticity and Sensitivity to Environment in Healthy and Pathological Brain

Cytokines as Players of Neuronal Plasticity and Sensitivity to Environment in Healthy and Pathological Brain
Author : Silvia Alboni,Laura Maggi
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2016-03-18
Category : Electronic book
Total pages :158
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It is now accepted that immune molecules are not only present within the brain during pathology but they exert physiological functions in the “healthy” brain as well. Increasing evidence points to a neuro-modulatory role of cytokines and chemokines (CHEMOtactic cytoKINES) in basal transmission and plasticity processes where signaling between peri-synaptic astrocytes, microglia and neurons plays an important role. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms as to how cytokines, and in particular chemokines, participate in the molecular and cellular processes thought to subserve memory formation, plasticity processes and responsiveness to environmental stimuli remain to be clarified. Interestingly, in in vitro preparations, molecules like TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, CX3CL1, CXCL12, CCL2 and CCL3 are implicated in synaptic formation and scaling, in modulation of glutamatergic transmission, in plasticity and neurogenesis, in particular in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is an extremely plastic structure, one of the main neurogenic niches in the adult brain, that exhibits a marked sensibility to environmental stimuli. Indeed exposure of mice to environmental enrichment (EE) modifies learning and memory abilities increasing neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity whether exposure to severe stressful experiences diminishes neurotrophic support, impairs neurogenesis, plasticity and cognition. In the hippocampus cytokines play a key role in mediating both positive as well as negative effects of the environment affecting neuronal plasticity also in stress related pathologies, such as depression. It has been reported that mice lacking type 1 receptor for IL-1 display impaired hippocampal memory and LTP that are restored by EE; moreover negative effects on neuronal plasticity (and thus behavior) induced by stress exposure can be prevented by blocking IL-1 activity. In addition, mice lacking IL-6 have improved cognitive functions whereas the absence of microglia-driven CX3CR1 signaling increases hippocampal plasticity and spatial memory occluding the potentiating effects of EE. However, the factors mediating the effect of environmental stimuli on behavior and plasticity has been only partially identified. Interestingly, it has been suggested that chemokines can play a key role in the flexibility of hippocampal structure and may modulate neuronal signaling during behavior. The question is how cytokines may translate environmental stimuli in plasticity and behavioral changes. This research topic is proposed to explore the role of cytokines, and more in particular chemokines, in the modulation of neuronal activity as a fundamental step for the correct brain wiring, function and susceptibility to environment. We encourage the submission of original research reports, review articles, commentaries, perspectives or short communications, in the following (but not limited to) topics: - Role of cytokines and chemokines in neuronal plasticity - Immune molecules and responsiveness to environment - Role of chemokine in the flexibility of hippocampal structure

Cytokines and Pain

Cytokines and Pain
Author : L.R. Watkins,S.F. Maier
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2013-03-08
Category : Medical
Total pages :232
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Within the past few years, it has become recognized that the immune system communicates to the brain. Substances released from activated immune cells (cytokines) stimulate peripheral nerves, thereby signaling the brain and spinal cord that infection/inflammation has occurred. Additionally, peripheral infection/inflammation leads to de novo synthesis and release of cytokines within the brain and spinal cord. Thus, cytokines effect neural activation both peripherally and centrally. Through this communication pathway, cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor markedly alter brain function, physiology and behavior. One important but underrecognized aspect of this communication is the dramatic impact that immune activation has on pain modulation. The purpose of this book is to examine, for the first time, immune-to-brain communication from the viewpoint of its effect on pain processing. It is aimed both at the basic scientist and health care providers, in order to clarify the major role that substances released by immune cells play in pain modulation. This book contains chapters contributed by all of the major laboratories focused on understanding how cytokines modulate pain. These chapters provide a unique vantage point from which to examine this question, as the summarized work ranges from evolutionary approaches across diverse species, to the basics of the immune response, to the effect of cytokines on peripheral and central nervous system sites, to therapeutic potential in humans.

Cytokines, Stress, and Depression

Cytokines, Stress, and Depression
Author : Robert Dantzer,Emmanuelle E. Wollmann,Raz Yirmiya
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2007-11-23
Category : Medical
Total pages :338
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Cytokines had been characterized in the early eighties as communication mole cules between immune cells, and between immunocytes and other peripheral cells, such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. They play a key role in the regulation of the immune response and the coordination of the host response to infection. Based on these biological properties, nobody would have predicted that one decade later cytokines would burst upon neurosciences and permeate into several avenues of current research. In neurology, the connection between cytokines and inflammation, and the demonstration of a pivotal role of some of these molecules in cell death by apoptosis, prompted the investigation of their involvement in several neurological diseases involving an inflammatory component, including multiple sclerosis, brain trauma, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. This movement started in the late eighties, and the corresponding field of research, known as neuroimmunology, is presently booming. In psychiatry, however, the relationship between cytokines and mental disorders was much less evident and took longer to materialize. The first indication that cytokines might be involved in psychopathology came from cancerology and internal medicine.

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation
Author : Gonzalo Emiliano Aranda Abreu
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2017-08-23
Category : Medical
Total pages :318
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"Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation" book explains how the neuronal cells become swollen at the moment of the blood-brain barrier disruption and how they lose their immunological isolation. A cascade of cytokines and immune cells from the bloodstream enters the nervous system, inflaming neurons and activating the glia. This produces a neuroinflammatory process that can generate different neurodegenerative diseases. Better understanding of mechanisms that are activated at the time when the damage to the brain occurs could lead to the development of suitable therapies that revert the neuronal inflammation and thus prevent further damage to the nervous system.

Cytokines and Mental Health

Cytokines and Mental Health
Author : Ziad Kronfol
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Medical
Total pages :426
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Cytokines and Mental Health explores the relationship between cytokines, neural circuitry and mental health. It is interdisciplinary and "translational", bringing together information that spans the spectrum from the molecular and cellular levels to the patient and the clinic. Content includes chapters that discuss cytokine pathways in the brain, the neurochemical and neuroendocrine effects of cytokines, and the behavioral effects of cytokines including sickness behavior. These chapters in basic research are followed by a more clinical section that discusses the role of cytokines in neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The book offers different things to different people. It should be of great interest to neuroscientists and immunologists working in the field of psychoneuroimmunology. It would also greatly benefit mental health professionals including psychiatrists, psychologists and clinicians of diverse background who are interested in mind-body medicine.

Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines

Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines
Author : Armen A. Galoyan
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Medical
Total pages :188
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Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines: Immune Response and Neuronal Survival summarizes the biological and chemical data of signal molecules of the brain neuroendocrine immune system, mainly proline-rich peptides, which play an important role in the regulation of immune response, neuronal survival, hematopoiesis, and adaptation. The author also describes the role of PRPs for the protection of neurons against neurodegenerative disturbances and diseases. Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines: Immune Response and Neuronal Survival will be of great aid to the researchers and students in various areas of neurobiological profile (neurochemistry, neuroendocrinology, neurophysiology, and endocrinology).

The Neuroimmunological Basis of Behavior and Mental Disorders

The Neuroimmunological Basis of Behavior and Mental Disorders
Author : Allan Siegel,Steven S. Zalcman
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2008-11-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :438
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For many years, the immune and central nervous systems were thought to function independently with little or no interaction between the two. This view has und- gone dramatic changes over the past three decades. Indeed, we now know that there exists various feedback loops between the brain and immune systems that impact signi cantly upon different behavioral processes, including normal behavior and mental disorders. Pioneering efforts in generating this change were initiated by a number of early investigators. Included were those whose efforts were directed at establishing neuroimmune connections as well as others whose research focused upon the relationship between immunity, cytokines, and behavior. This book brings together outstanding scientists and clinicians who have made major contributions to the rapidly developing eld investigating the relationship between immunity and behavior. The book is divided into three parts. The rst part describes pathways by which the brain and immune systems communicate and int- act with each other. In the chapter “Cytokines and the Blood–Brain Barrier” p- vides insight into interactions between the blood–brain barrier and cytokines. Such interactions underlie basic communication between the immune system and brain that are present in normal as well as in disease conditions. In the chapter “Neu- chemical and Endocrine Responses to Immune Activation: The Role of Cytokines,” the neurochemical and endocrine consequences of immune challenge and cytokine administration on central neurotransmitter activity are discussed.

Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis

Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis
Author : M. Filippi,M. Rovaris,G. Comi
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2008-02-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :236
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Written by world-renowned scientists, the volume provides a state-of-the-art on the most recent MRI techniques related to MS, and it is an indispensable tool for all those working in this field. The context in which this book exists is that there is an increasing perception that modern MR methodologies should be more extensively employed in clinical trials to derive innovative information.

Central Nervous System Diseases and Inflammation

Central Nervous System Diseases and Inflammation
Author : Thomas E. Lane,Monica Carson,Conni Bergmann,Tony Wyss-Coray
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2007-12-24
Category : Medical
Total pages :318
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Edited and authored by top names in the field, this book provides a succinct reference on inflammatory central nervous system disease. It focuses on current areas of investigation in the fields of neuroimmunology, virology, pharmacology, and disease. Sections focus on specific categories of diseases, examining the pharmacological, virological, and immunological effects of and on the disease. This book’s unique organization provides a concise overview of inflammatory CNS disease.

The Inflamed Mind

The Inflamed Mind
Author : Edward Bullmore
Publisher : Picador
Release Date : 2018-12-31
Category : Psychology
Total pages :256
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As seen on "CBS This Morning" Worldwide, depression will be the single biggest cause of disability in the next twenty years. But treatment for it has not changed much in the last three decades. In the world of psychiatry, time has apparently stood still...until now with Edward Bullmore's The Inflamed Mind: A Radical New Approach to Depression. A Sunday Times (London) Top Ten Bestseller In this game-changing book, University of Cambridge profressor of psychiatry Edward Bullmore reveals the breakthrough new science on the link between depression and inflammation of the body and brain. He explains how and why we now know that mental disorders can have their root cause in the immune system, and outlines a future revolution in which treatments could be specifically targeted to break the vicious cycles of stress, inflammation, and depression. The Inflamed Mind goes far beyond the clinic and the lab, representing a whole new way of looking at how mind, brain, and body all work together in a sometimes misguided effort to help us survive in a hostile world. It offers insights into how we could start getting to grips with depression and other mental disorders much more effectively in the future.

Cytokine Effector Functions in Tissues

Cytokine Effector Functions in Tissues
Author : Maria Foti,Massimo Locati
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2017-07-17
Category : Medical
Total pages :304
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Cytokine Effector Functions in Tissues discusses the cytokines networks in the context of the specific-tissue environment. It is an up-to-date collection of articles that addresses the specific issue of how the cytokines are able to condition tissue specific homeostasis. The book helps the reader understand how cytokines network inside the tissues and highlights whether tissue-protection or exacerbation will be finally controlled. It describes the cytokines detected and regulated in different tissues, such as the brain, lungs, spleen, liver, pancreas and intestine, also addressing the issue of timing in specific cell types. Categorizes the cytokines based primarily on tissue and target cells Emphasizes different roles and outcomes observed during innate and adaptive response Represents a rapid guide to cytokines in health and disease in tissue and organ context Presents a different view on how known mediators may work if analyzed in a different perspective, determining the final outcome on tissue-specific target cells

New Insights to Neuroimmune Biology

New Insights to Neuroimmune Biology
Author : Istvan Berczi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2010-05-27
Category : Medical
Total pages :284
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New Insights to Neuroimmune Biology investigates the mechanisms that and functions of the Neuroimmune Regulatory Supersystem. Covering molecular regulation of cytokines in brain astrocytes, immunoregulation by the sympathetic nervous system, circadian regulation of immune reactions, antigen recognition by the CNS, the modulation of the immune response by head injury, neurogenic inflammation, the role of tachykinins in asthma and allergic disease, defence and defeat reactions, cytokines, behavior and affective disorders, increased activity of type 1 helper T cell functions after reward stimulation. This book has relevance to the entire scientific community in Biology, Medicine and Veterinary medicine as it discusses molecular, cellular, organic and systemic aspects as well as the physological, pathophysiological and behavioral mechnisms which are involved in Neuroimmiune Biology.

Psychoneuroimmunology

Psychoneuroimmunology
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-10-10
Category : Science
Total pages :1320
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Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of interactions among behavioral, neural and endocrine, and immunologic processes of adaptation. These two volumes provide a clearly written, extensively referenced summary of some of the behavioral, neural and endocrine regulators of immune responses and immunologically mediated disease processes and of the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of immune system activity. Several chapters expand upon topics reviewed in earlier editions of this series; most chapters cover active areas of research that have not previously been reviewed. As illustrated in this fourth edition, interdisciplinary research continues to provide evidence that the brain and immune system represent a single, integrated system of defense. Fully revised and updated fourth edition of the classic reference Provides a neuroendocrine and immunologic perspective for the behavioral scientist Provides a behavioral and neuroscience perspective for the immunologist Helps the reader translate basic science findings into clinically relevant information Provides the reader with the background for and foundation of integrative research and integrative medicine Provides an encyclopedic resource for advanced undergraduates and for pre- and post-doctoral students as well as active researchers