November 30, 2020

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Decision Neuroscience

Decision Neuroscience
Author : Jean-Claude Dreher,Leon Tremblay
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2016-09-27
Category : Medical
Total pages :440
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Decision Neuroscience addresses fundamental questions about how the brain makes perceptual, value-based, and more complex decisions in non-social and social contexts. This book presents compelling neuroimaging, electrophysiological, lesional, and neurocomputational models in combination with hormonal and genetic approaches, which have led to a clearer understanding of the neural mechanisms behind how the brain makes decisions. The five parts of the book address distinct but inter-related topics and are designed to serve both as classroom introductions to major subareas in decision neuroscience and as advanced syntheses of all that has been accomplished in the last decade. Part I is devoted to anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and optogenetics animal studies on reinforcement-guided decision making, such as the representation of instructions, expectations, and outcomes; the updating of action values; and the evaluation process guiding choices between prospective rewards. Part II covers the topic of the neural representations of motivation, perceptual decision making, and value-based decision making in humans, combining neurcomputational models and brain imaging studies. Part III focuses on the rapidly developing field of social decision neuroscience, integrating recent mechanistic understanding of social decisions in both non-human primates and humans. Part IV covers clinical aspects involving disorders of decision making that link together basic research areas including systems, cognitive, and clinical neuroscience; this part examines dysfunctions of decision making in neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, behavioral addictions, and focal brain lesions. Part V focuses on the roles of various hormones (cortisol, oxytocin, ghrelin/leptine) and genes that underlie inter-individual differences observed with stress, food choices, and social decision-making processes. The volume is essential reading for anyone interested in decision making neuroscience. With contributions that are forward-looking assessments of the current and future issues faced by researchers, Decision Neuroscience is essential reading for anyone interested in decision-making neuroscience. Provides comprehensive coverage of approaches to studying individual and social decision neuroscience, including primate neurophysiology, brain imaging in healthy humans and in various disorders, and genetic and hormonal influences on decision making Covers multiple levels of analysis, from molecular mechanisms to neural-systems dynamics and computational models of how we make choices Discusses clinical implications of process dysfunctions, including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, eating disorders, drug addiction, and pathological gambling Features chapters from top international researchers in the field and full-color presentation throughout with numerous illustrations to highlight key concepts

Neuroscience of Decision Making

Neuroscience of Decision Making
Author : Oshin Vartanian,David R. Mandel
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release Date : 2011-04-14
Category : Psychology
Total pages :368
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The intersection between the fields of behavioral decision research and neuroscience has proved to be fertile ground for interdisciplinary research. Whereas the former is rich in formalized models of choice, the latter is rife with techniques for testing behavioral models at the brain level. As a result, there has been the rapid emergence of progressively more sophisticated biological models of choice, geared toward the development of ever more complete mechanistic models of behavior. This volume provides a coherent framework for distilling some of the key themes that have emerged as a function of this research program, and highlights what we have learned about judgment and decision making as a result. Although topics that are theoretically relevant to judgment and decision making researchers are addressed, the book also ventures somewhat beyond the traditional boundaries of this area to tackle themes that would of interest to a greater community of scholars. Neuroscience of Decision Making provides contemporary and essential reading for researchers and students of cognitive psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, and economics.

Psychological Perspectives on Financial Decision Making

Psychological Perspectives on Financial Decision Making
Author : Tomasz Zaleskiewicz
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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Decision Making: Neural and Behavioural Approaches

Decision Making: Neural and Behavioural Approaches
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-01-10
Category : Psychology
Total pages :536
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This well-established international series examines major areas of basic and clinical research within neuroscience, as well as emerging and promising subfields.This volume explores interdisciplinary research on decision making taking a neural and behavioural approach Leading authors review the state-of-the-art in their field of investigation, and provide their views and perspectives for future research Chapters are extensively referenced to provide readers with a comprehensive list of resources on the topics covered All chapters include comprehensive background information and are written in a clear form that is also accessible to the non-specialist

The Neuroscience of Risky Decision Making

The Neuroscience of Risky Decision Making
Author : Valerie F. Reyna,Vivian Zayas
Publisher : American Psychological Association (APA)
Release Date : 2014-01-01
Category : Psychology
Total pages :214
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Whether the decision is to have unprotected sex, consent to surgery, have an extra piece of pie, or spend rather than save for retirement, risky decisions permeate our lives, and sometimes with disastrous consequences. How and why risk taking occurs has important implications. Yet many questions remain about how neurobiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors influence decision-making. This book advances basic understanding and scientific theory about the brain mechanisms underlying risky decision by integrating findings from a number of disciplines, including development and cognitive psychology, brain sciences, law, behavioral economic, and addiction. The result is a rich scientific framework for understanding the causal mechanisms of risky decision making across the lifespan. Book jacket.

Neuroscience and the Economics of Decision Making

Neuroscience and the Economics of Decision Making
Author : Alessandro Innocenti
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2013-06-19
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :224
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In the last two decades there has been a flourishing research carried out jointly by economists, psychologists and neuroscientists. This meltdown of competences has lead towards original approaches to investigate the mental and cognitive mechanisms involved in the way the economic agent collects, processes and uses information to make choices. This research field involves a new kind of scientist, trained in different disciplines, familiar in managing experimental data, and with the mathematical foundations of decision making. The ultimate goal of this research is to open the black-box to understandthe behavioural and neural processes through which humans set preferences and translate these behaviours into optimal choices. This volume intends to bring forward new results and fresh insights into this matter.

The Neuroscience and Psychophysiology of Experience-Based Decisions

The Neuroscience and Psychophysiology of Experience-Based Decisions
Author : Eldad Yechiam,Itzhak Aharon
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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In experience-based decisions people learn to make decisions by sampling the relevant alternatives and getting feedback. The study of experience-based decisions has recently revealed some robust regularities that differ from how people make decisions based on descriptions. For example, people were found to underweight small probability events in experience-based decisions, while overweighting them in decisions based on descriptions (i.e. where the participants have full information about the outcome distributions but no feedback). This is now commonly referred to as the description-experience gap. In parallel to the recent advancement in Decision Science, neuroscientists have for a long while used the experience-based decisions paradigm for analyzing brain-behavior interactions. For example, phenomena such as the feedback-based Error-Related Negativity (fERN) in event-related potentials and the role of non-declarative knowledge in selecting advantageously were discovered using experience-based tasks. The goal of the current Research Topic is to combine two sources of knowledge concerning experience-based decisions: State of the art models in decision science, and neuroscientific and psychophysiological approaches that shed light on the working of the brain in these decisions. Also relevant are process-based analyses of fractions of behavior in these types of decisions. We consider original empirical work and theoretical analyses of existing datasets.

Neuroscience and the Economics of Decision Making

Neuroscience and the Economics of Decision Making
Author : Alessandro Innocenti
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2013-06-19
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :224
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In the last two decades there has been a flourishing research carried out jointly by economists, psychologists and neuroscientists. This meltdown of competences has lead towards original approaches to investigate the mental and cognitive mechanisms involved in the way the economic agent collects, processes and uses information to make choices. This research field involves a new kind of scientist, trained in different disciplines, familiar in managing experimental data, and with the mathematical foundations of decision making. The ultimate goal of this research is to open the black-box to understandthe behavioural and neural processes through which humans set preferences and translate these behaviours into optimal choices. This volume intends to bring forward new results and fresh insights into this matter.

Decision-Making Experiments under a Philosophical Analysis: Human Choice as a Challenge for Neuroscience

Decision-Making Experiments under a Philosophical Analysis: Human Choice as a Challenge for Neuroscience
Author : Gabriel José Corrêa Mograbi,Carlos Eduardo Batista de Sousa
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2015-10-15
Category : Electronic book
Total pages :123
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This introduction just aims to be a fast foreword to the special topic now turned into an e-book. The Editorial "Decision-Making Experiments under a Philosophical Analysis: Human Choice as a Challenge for Neuroscience" alongside with my opinion article "Neurophilosophical considerations on decision making: Pushing-up the frontiers without disregarding their foundations" play the real role of considering in more details the articles and the whole purpose of this e-book. What I must highlight in this foreword is that our intention with such a project was to deepen into the very foundations of our current paradigms in decision neuroscience and to philosophically moot its foundations and repercussions. Normal Science (a term coined by Philosopher Thomas Kuhn) works under a research consensus among a scientific community: A shared paradigm, consolidated methods, widespread convictions. Pragmatically, winning formulas must be kept, although, not at any cost. What differentiates a gifted and revolutionary scientist from a more bureaucratic colleague is the capacity and willingness of constantly reevaluating, depurating and refining his/her own paradigm. That is best strategy to avoid that a paradigm itself would gradually come under challenge. In my view, some achievements, in this sense, were brought about in our project. The e-book will be inspiring and informative for both neuroscientists that are concerned with the very foundations of their works and for philosophers that are not blind to empirical evidence. Kant once said: “Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind”. Paraphrasing Kant we could say: Philosophy without science is empty, science without philosophy is blind.

Consumer Neuroscience

Consumer Neuroscience
Author : Philip Kotler
Publisher : MIT Press
Release Date : 2017-11-16
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :368
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Foreword / Philip Kotler -- Introduction to consumer neuroscience / Manuel Garcia-Garcia, Moran Cerf, and Ana Iorga -- Brain physiology and anatomy / Yuping Chen, Ming Hsu, and Moran Cerf -- Sensation and perception / Irit Shapira-Lichter and Moran Cerf -- Methods / Moran Cerf -- Attention / Manuel Garcia-Garcia -- Memory / Ingrid LC Nieuwenhuis -- Emotions / Carl Marci and Brendan Murray -- Appendix to chapter 7 -- Attention and emotion / Giovanni Vecchiato, Patrizia Cherubino, Arianna Trettel, and Fabio Babiloni -- Decision making / Moran Cerf -- The brain's reward system : a marketer's guide to the biological basis of pleasure / Neal J. Roese, Hans Melo, Thalia Vrantsidis, and William A. Cunningham -- Customer-based brand equity : insights from consumer neuroscience / Ming Hsu -- Pricing / Hirak Parikh, Davide Baldo, and Kai-Markus Muller -- Social marketing applications for consumer neuroscience / Dante M. Pirouz -- Using the knowledge from neuroscience to make business predictions / Moran Cerf -- Implications of consumer neuroscience in market research / David Brandt -- Ethics in consumer neuroscience / Julia Trabulsi, Maria Cordero, Daniela Somarriba, and Manuel Garcia-Garcia -- Future of consumer neuroscience / Kimberly Rose Clark -- Index -- Contributors

Neuroscience perspectives on Security: Technology, Detection, and Decision Making

Neuroscience perspectives on Security: Technology, Detection, and Decision Making
Author : Elena Rusconi,Kenneth C. Scott-Brown,Andrea Szymkowiak
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2015-08-03
Category :
Total pages :129
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In security science, efficient operation depends typically on the interaction between technology, human and machine detection and human and machine decision making. A perfect example of this interplay is ‘gatekeeping’, which is aimed to prevent the passage of people and objects that represent known threats from one end to the other end of an access point. Gatekeeping is most often achieved via visual inspections, mass screening, random sample probing and/or more targeted controls on attempted passages at points of entry. Points of entry may be physical (e.g. national borders) or virtual (e.g. connection log-ons). Who and what are defined as security threats and the resources available to gatekeepers determine the type of checks and technologies that are put in place to ensure appropriate access control. More often than not, the net performance of technology-aided screening and authentication systems ultimately depends on the characteristics of human operators. Assessing cognitive, affective, behavioural, perceptual and brain processes that may affect gatekeepers while undertaking this task is fundamental. On the other hand, assessing the same processes in those individuals who try to breach access to secure systems (e.g. hackers), and try to cheat controls (e.g. smugglers) is equally fundamental and challenging. From a security standpoint it is vital to be able to anticipate, focus on and correctly interpret the signals connected with such attempts to breach access and/or elude controls, in order to be proactive and to enact appropriate responses. Knowing cognitive, behavioral, social and neural constraints that may affect the security enterprise will undoubtedly result in a more effective deployment of existing human and technological resources. Studying how inter-observer variability, human factors and biology may affect the security agenda, and the usability of existing security technologies, is of great economic and policy interest. In addition, brain sciences may suggest the possibility of novel methods of surveillance and intelligence gathering. This is just one example of a typical security issue that may be fruitfully tackled from a neuroscientific and interdisciplinary perspective. The objective of our Research Topic was to document across relevant disciplines some of the most recent developments, ideas, methods and empirical findings that have the potential to expand our knowledge of the human factors involved in the security process. To this end we welcomed empirical contributions using different methodologies such as those applied in human cognitive neuroscience, biometrics and ethology. We also accepted original theoretical contributions, in the form of review articles, perspectives or opinion papers on this topic. The submissions brought together researchers from different backgrounds to discuss topics which have scientific, applicative and social relevance.

Neuroeconomics

Neuroeconomics
Author : Paul W. Glimcher,Ernst Fehr
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-08-13
Category : Psychology
Total pages :560
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In the years since it first published, Neuroeconomics: Decision Making and the Brain has become the standard reference and textbook in the burgeoning field of neuroeconomics. The second edition, a nearly complete revision of this landmark book, will set a new standard. This new edition features five sections designed to serve as both classroom-friendly introductions to each of the major subareas in neuroeconomics, and as advanced synopses of all that has been accomplished in the last two decades in this rapidly expanding academic discipline. The first of these sections provides useful introductions to the disciplines of microeconomics, the psychology of judgment and decision, computational neuroscience, and anthropology for scholars and students seeking interdisciplinary breadth. The second section provides an overview of how human and animal preferences are represented in the mammalian nervous systems. Chapters on risk, time preferences, social preferences, emotion, pharmacology, and common neural currencies—each written by leading experts—lay out the foundations of neuroeconomic thought. The third section contains both overview and in-depth chapters on the fundamentals of reinforcement learning, value learning, and value representation. The fourth section, “The Neural Mechanisms for Choice, integrates what is known about the decision-making architecture into state-of-the-art models of how we make choices. The final section embeds these mechanisms in a larger social context, showing how these mechanisms function during social decision-making in both humans and animals. The book provides a historically rich exposition in each of its chapters and emphasizes both the accomplishments and the controversies in the field. A clear explanatory style and a single expository voice characterize all chapters, making core issues in economics, psychology, and neuroscience accessible to scholars from all disciplines. The volume is essential reading for anyone interested in neuroeconomics in particular or decision making in general. Editors and contributing authors are among the acknowledged experts and founders in the field, making this the authoritative reference for neuroeconomics Suitable as an advanced undergraduate or graduate textbook as well as a thorough reference for active researchers Introductory chapters on economics, psychology, neuroscience, and anthropology provide students and scholars from any discipline with the keys to understanding this interdisciplinary field Detailed chapters on subjects that include reinforcement learning, risk, inter-temporal choice, drift-diffusion models, game theory, and prospect theory make this an invaluable reference Published in association with the Society for Neuroeconomics—www.neuroeconomics.org Full-color presentation throughout with numerous carefully selected illustrations to highlight key concepts

Aging and Decision Making

Aging and Decision Making
Author : Thomas M. Hess,JoNell Strough,Corinna Löckenhoff
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-02-17
Category : Medical
Total pages :432
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Decisions large and small play a fundamental role in shaping life course trajectories of health and well-being: decisions draw upon an individual's capacity for self-regulation and self-control, their ability to keep long-term goals in mind, and their willingness to place appropriate value on their future well-being. Aging and Decision Making addresses the specific cognitive and affective processes that account for age-related changes in decision making, targeting interventions to compensate for vulnerabilities and leverage strengths in the aging individual. This book focuses on four dominant approaches that characterize the current state of decision-making science and aging - neuroscience, behavioral mechanisms, competence models, and applied perspectives. Underscoring that choice is a ubiquitous component of everyday functioning, Aging and Decision Making examines the implications of how we invest our limited social, temporal, psychological, financial, and physical resources, and lays essential groundwork for the design of decision supportive interventions for adaptive aging that take into account individual capacities and context variables. Divided into four dominant approaches that characterize the current state of decision-making science and aging neuroscience Explores the impact of aging on the linkages between cortical structures/functions and the behavioral indices of decision-making Examines the themes associated with behavioral approaches that attempt integrations of methods, models, and theories of general decision-making with those derived from the study of aging Details the changes in underlying competencies in later life and the two prevailing themes that have emerged—one, the general individual differences perspective, and two, a more clinical focus

Goal-Directed Decision Making

Goal-Directed Decision Making
Author : Richard W. Morris,Aaron Bornstein,Amitai Shenhav
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-08-23
Category : Science
Total pages :484
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Goal-Directed Decision Making: Computations and Neural Circuits examines the role of goal-directed choice. It begins with an examination of the computations performed by associated circuits, but then moves on to in-depth examinations on how goal-directed learning interacts with other forms of choice and response selection. This is the only book that embraces the multidisciplinary nature of this area of decision-making, integrating our knowledge of goal-directed decision-making from basic, computational, clinical, and ethology research into a single resource that is invaluable for neuroscientists, psychologists and computer scientists alike. The book presents discussions on the broader field of decision-making and how it has expanded to incorporate ideas related to flexible behaviors, such as cognitive control, economic choice, and Bayesian inference, as well as the influences that motivation, context and cues have on behavior and decision-making. Details the neural circuits functionally involved in goal-directed decision-making and the computations these circuits perform Discusses changes in goal-directed decision-making spurred by development and disorders, and within real-world applications, including social contexts and addiction Synthesizes neuroscience, psychology and computer science research to offer a unique perspective on the central and emerging issues in goal-directed decision-making

A Handbook of Process Tracing Methods

A Handbook of Process Tracing Methods
Author : Michael Schulte-Mecklenbeck,Anton Kuehberger,Joseph G. Johnson
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2019-06-10
Category : Psychology
Total pages :390
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A Handbook of Process Tracing Methods demonstrates how to better understand decision outcomes by studying decision processes, through the introduction of a number of exciting techniques. Decades of research have identified numerous idiosyncrasies in human decision behavior, but some of the most recent advances in the scientific study of decision making involve the development of sophisticated methods for understanding decision process—known as process tracing. In this volume, leading experts discuss the application of these methods and focus on the best practices for using some of the more popular techniques, discussing how to incorporate them into formal decision models. This edition has been expanded and thoroughly updated throughout, and now includes new chapters on mouse tracking, protocol analysis, neurocognitive methods, the measurement of valuation, as well as an overview of important software packages. The volume not only surveys cutting-edge research to illustrate the great variety in process tracing techniques, but also serves as a tutorial for how the novice researcher might implement these methods. A Handbook of Process Tracing Methods will be an essential read for all students and researchers of decision making.