April 13, 2021

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Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes and Natural Analogues

Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes and Natural Analogues
Author : W. Miller,R. Alexander,N. Chapman,John C McKinley,J.A.T. Smellie
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2000-11-09
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :328
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Many countries are currently exploring the option to dispose of highly radioactive solid wastes deep underground in purpose built, engineered repositories. A number of surface and shallow repositories for less radioactive wastes are already in operation. One of the challenges facing the nuclear industry is to demonstrate confidently that a repository will contain wastes for so long that any releases that might take place in the future will pose no significant health or environmental risk. One method for building confidence in the long-term future safety of a repository is to look at the physical and chemical processes which operate in natural and archaeological systems, and to draw appropriate parallels with the repository. For example, to understand why some uranium orebodies have remained isolated underground for billions of years. Such studies are called 'natural analogues'. This book investigates the concept of geological disposal and examines the wide range of natural analogues which have been studied. Lessons learnt from studies of archaeological and natural systems can be used to improve our capabilities for assessing the future safety of a radioactive waste repository.

Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1996
Category : Radioactive waste disposal in the ground
Total pages :129
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Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
Author : W. R. Alexander,Linda McKinley
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-07-29
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :300
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Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste presents a critical review of designing, siting, constructing and demonstrating the safety and environmental impact of deep repositories for radioactive wastes. It is structured to provide a broad perspective of this multi-faceted, multi-disciplinary topic: providing enough detail for a non-specialist to understand the fundamental principles involved and with extensive references to sources of more detailed information. Emphasis is very much on “deep geological disposal – at least some tens of metres below land surface and, in many cases, many hundred of metres deep. Additionally, only radioactive wastes are considered directly – even though such wastes often contain also significant chemotoxic or otherwise hazardous components. Many of the principles involved are generally applicable to other repository options (e.g. near-surface or on-surface disposal) and, indeed, to other types of hazardous waste. Presents a current critical review in designing, siting, constructing and demonsrating the safety and environmental impact of deep repositories for radwaste Addresses the fundamental principles of radioactive waste with up-to-date examples and real-world case studies Written for a multi-disciplinary audience, with an appropriate level of detail to allow a non-specialist to understand

Geological Disposal of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste: A Comparative Assessment

Geological Disposal of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste: A Comparative Assessment
Author : Ferenc L. Toth
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2011-02-21
Category : Science
Total pages :621
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Fossil fuels will remain the backbone of the global energy economy for the foreseeable future. The contribution of nuclear energy to the global energy supply is also expected to increase. With the pressing need to mitigate climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the fossil energy industry is exploring the possibility of carbon dioxide disposal in geological media. Geological disposal has been studied for decades by the nuclear industry with a view to ensuring the safe containment of its wastes. Geological disposal of carbon dioxide and that of radioactive waste gives rise to many common concerns in domains ranging from geology to public acceptance. In this respect, comparative assessments reveal many similarities, ranging from the transformation of the geological environment and safety and monitoring concerns to regulatory, liability and public acceptance issues. However, there are profound differences on a broad range of issues as well, such as the quantities and hazardous features of the materials to be disposed of, the characteristics of the targeted geological media, the site engineering technologies involved and the timescales required for safe containment at the disposal location. There are ample opportunities to learn from comparisons and to derive insights that will assist policymakers responsible for national energy strategies and international climate policies.

Deep Geologic Repositories

Deep Geologic Repositories
Author : Norbert T. Rempe
Publisher : Geological Society of America
Release Date : 2008-01-01
Category : Science
Total pages :119
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This volume contains 11 case studies of toxic waste repositories that use geologic isolation in order to accomplish the permanent and safe isolation of dangerous materials. It describes past and currently active facilities and also discusses generic considerations of the isolation capability of average crustal rock, apparently in an effort to convince audiences of the safety of these facilities.

Research and Development for the Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

Research and Development for the Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2006
Category : Radioactive waste disposal in the ground
Total pages :129
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Characterization and Evaluation of Sites for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Fractured Rocks

Characterization and Evaluation of Sites for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Fractured Rocks
Author : Svensk kärnbränslehantering AB.
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1998
Category : Geological repositories
Total pages :378
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Geological Repository Systems for Safe Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Radioactive Waste

Geological Repository Systems for Safe Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Radioactive Waste
Author : Michael J Apted,Joonhong Ahn
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2010-07-27
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :792
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Geological disposal has been internationally adopted as the most effective approach to assure the long-term, safe disposition of the used nuclear fuels and radioactive waste materials produced from nuclear power generation, nuclear weapons programs, medical, treatments, and industrial applications. Geological repository systems take advantage of natural geological barriers augmented with engineered barrier systems to isolate these radioactive materials from the environment and from future populations. Geological repository systems for safe disposal of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive waste critically reviews the state-of-the-art technologies, scientific methods, regulatory developments, and social engagement approaches directly related to the implementation of geological repository systems. Part one introduces geological disposal, including multiple-barrier geological repositories, as well as reviewing the impact of nuclear fuel recycling practices and underground research laboratory activities on the development of disposal concepts. Part two reviews geological repository siting in different host rocks, including long-term stability analysis and radionuclide transport modelling. Reviews of the range of engineered barrier systems, including waste immobilisation technologies, container materials, low pH concretes, clay-based buffer and backfill materials, and barrier performance are presented in Part three. Part four examines total system performance assessment and safety analyses for deep geological and near-surface disposal, with coverage of uncertainty analysis, use of expert judgement for decision making, and development and use of knowledge management systems. Finally, Part five covers regulatory and social approaches for the establishment of geological disposal programs, from the development of radiation standards and risk-informed, performance-based regulations, to environmental monitoring and social engagement in the siting and operation of repositories. With its distinguished international team of contributors, Geological repository systems for safe disposal of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive waste is a standard reference for all nuclear waste management and geological repository professionals and researchers. Critically reviews the state-of-the-art technologies, scientific methods, regulatory developments, and social engagement approaches related to the implementation of geological repository systems Chapters introduce geological disposal and review the development of disposal concepts Examines long-term stability analysis, the range of engineered barrier systems and barrier performance

Nuclear Waste Governance

Nuclear Waste Governance
Author : Achim Brunnengräber,Maria Rosaria Di Nucci,Ana Maria Isidoro Losada,Lutz Mez,Miranda A. Schreurs
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2015-02-19
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :327
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This volume examines the national plans that ten Euratom countries plus Switzerland and the United States are developing to address high-level radioactive waste storage and disposal. The chapters, which were written by 23 international experts, outline European and national regulations, technology choices, safety criteria, monitoring systems, compensation schemes, institutional structures, and approaches to public involvement. Key stakeholders, their values and interests are introduced, the responsibilities and authority of different actors considered, decision-making processes are analyzed as well as the factors influencing different national policy choices. The views and expectations of different communities regarding participatory decision making and compensation and the steps that have been or are being taken to promote dialogue and constructive problem-solving are also considered.​

Disposition of High-Level Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel

Disposition of High-Level Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Radioactive Waste Management,Committee on Disposition of High-Level Radioactive Waste Through Geological Isolation
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2001-07-05
Category : Science
Total pages :212
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Focused attention by world leaders is needed to address the substantial challenges posed by disposal of spent nuclear fuel from reactors and high-level radioactive waste from processing such fuel. The biggest challenges in achieving safe and secure storage and permanent waste disposal are societal, although technical challenges remain. Disposition of radioactive wastes in a deep geological repository is a sound approach as long as it progresses through a stepwise decision-making process that takes advantage of technical advances, public participation, and international cooperation. Written for concerned citizens as well as policymakers, this book was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and waste management organizations in eight other countries.

Burying Uncertainty

Burying Uncertainty
Author : K. S. Shrader-Frechette
Publisher : Univ of California Press
Release Date : 1993-12-03
Category : Nature
Total pages :346
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Shrader-Frechette looks at current U.S. government policy regarding the nation's high-level radioactive waste both scientifically and ethically. What should be done with our nation's high-level radioactive waste, which will remain hazardous for thousands of years? This is one of the most pressing problems faced by the nuclear power industry, and current U.S. government policy is to bury "radwastes" in specially designed deep repositories. K. S. Shrader-Frechette argues that this policy is profoundly misguided on both scientific and ethical grounds. Scientifically—because we cannot trust the precision of 10,000-year predictions that promise containment of the waste. Ethically—because geological disposal ignores the rights of present and future generations to equal treatment, due process, and free informed consent. Shrader-Frechette focuses her argument on the world's first proposed high-level radioactive waste facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analyzing a mass of technical literature, she demonstrates the weaknesses in the professional risk-assessors' arguments that claim the site is sufficiently safe for such a plan. We should postpone the question of geological disposal for at least a century and use monitored, retrievable, above-ground storage of the waste until then. Her message regarding radwaste is clear: what you can't see can hurt you.

Scientific and Technical Basis for the Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

Scientific and Technical Basis for the Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes
Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
Publisher : Technical Reports Series
Release Date : 2003
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :80
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This report considers key safety issues regarding the geological disposal of radioactive waste and focuses on the different functions of a repository within its life cycle. It describes the processes relevant to the containment of long-lived radioactive waste and other processes that might affect the long term integrity of the repository. Chapters include discussion of: the geological disposal concept; near field components and processes; far field barriers and processes; safety and performance assessments.

The Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste

The Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste
Author : Neil A. Chapman,Ian G. McKinley,Marion D. Hill
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
Release Date : 1987-04-28
Category : Nature
Total pages :280
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The Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste Neil A. Chapman and Ian G. McKinley The disposal of radioactive wastes is becoming a central issue in the nuclear debate and any consideration of the future of nuclear power, and its effect on the environment, must take waste management into account. Nuclear waste is currently a significant political issue in Western Europe and North America and is becoming increasingly important in all other countries with existing or planned nuclear programmes. This is the first book to tackle in a comprehensive and integrated fashion the problems associated with the geological disposal of nuclear waste. International research and development launched during the last decade has enabled the authors to describe detailed concepts for the long-term management and disposal of such material. The level of presentation is such that readers with high school science will be able to understand the issues involved. However, the broad scope of coverage with references provided throughout as well as a guide to the key sources of information, make this an invaluable book for both the researcher and the lay environmental scientist.

Risk Methodology for Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste

Risk Methodology for Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste
Author : James E. Campbell
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1978
Category : Radioactive waste disposal in the ground
Total pages :264
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Colloid/nanoparticle formation and mobility in the context of deep geological nuclear waste disposal (Project KOLLORADO-2) ; final report

Colloid/nanoparticle formation and mobility in the context of deep geological nuclear waste disposal (Project KOLLORADO-2) ; final report
Author : Huber, Florian,Noseck, Ulrich,Schäfer, Thorsten
Publisher : KIT Scientific Publishing
Release Date : 2014-03-03
Category : Bentonite
Total pages :213
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To assess the relevance of colloidal influences on radionuclide transport for the long-term safety of a radioactive waste repository, the KOLLORADO-2 project integrates the results of geochemical and hydrogeological studies. The results may serve as a basis for an appraisal of the implications of colloid presence in the vicinity of radioactive waste repositories in different deep geological host-rock formations.