June 17, 2021

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Design of Nanostructures for Versatile Therapeutic Applications

Design of Nanostructures for Versatile Therapeutic Applications
Author : Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2018-01-27
Category :
Total pages :690
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Design of Nanostructures for Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Nutraceutical Applications focuses on antimicrobial, antioxidant and nutraceutical applications of nanostructured materials. Many books discuss these subjects, but not from a pharmaceutical point-of-view. This book covers novel approaches related to the modulation of microbial biofilms, antimicrobial therapy and encapsulate polyphenols as antioxidants. Written by an internationally diverse group of academics, this book is an important reference resource for researchers, both in biomaterials science and the pharmaceutical industry. Assesses the most recently developed nanostructures that have potential antimicrobial properties, explaining their novel mechanical aspects Shows how nanoantibiotics can be used to more effectively treat disease Provides a cogent summary of recent developments in nanoantimicrobial discovery, allowing readers to quickly familiarize themselves with the topic

Design of Nanostructures for Versatile Therapeutic Applications

Design of Nanostructures for Versatile Therapeutic Applications
Author : Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2018-02-03
Category : Science
Total pages :690
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Design of Nanostructures for Versatile Therapeutic Applications focuses on antimicrobial, antioxidant and nutraceutical applications of nanostructured materials. Many books discuss these subjects, but not from a pharmaceutical point-of-view. This book covers novel approaches related to the modulation of microbial biofilms, antimicrobial therapy and encapsulate polyphenols as antioxidants. Written by an internationally diverse group of academics, this book is an important reference resource for researchers, both in biomaterials science and the pharmaceutical industry. Assesses the most recently developed nanostructures that have potential antimicrobial properties, explaining their novel mechanical aspects Shows how nanoantibiotics can be used to more effectively treat disease Provides a cogent summary of recent developments in nanoantimicrobial discovery, allowing readers to quickly familiarize themselves with the topic

Nanostructures for the Engineering of Cells, Tissues and Organs

Nanostructures for the Engineering of Cells, Tissues and Organs
Author : Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2018-02-14
Category : Science
Total pages :630
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Nanostructures for the Engineering of Cells: Tissues and Organs showcases recent advances in pharmaceutical nanotechnology, with particular emphasis on tissue engineering, organ and cell applications. The book provides an up-to-date overview of organ targeting and cell targeting using nanotechnology. In addition, tissue engineering applications, such as skin regeneration are also discussed. Written by a diverse range of international academics, this book is a valuable research resource for researchers working in the biomaterials, medical and pharmaceutical industries. Explains how nanomaterials regulate different cell behavior and function as a carrier for different biomolecules Shows how nanobiomaterials and nanobiodevices are used in a range of treatment areas, such as skin tissue, wound healing and bone regeneration Discusses nanomaterial preparation strategies for pharmaceutical application and regenerative medicine

Alginates

Alginates
Author : Md Saquib Hasnain,Amit Kumar Nayak
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2019-04-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :626
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This new volume explores the latest research on the use of alginate as a biopolymer in various biomedical applications and therapeutics. The uses of alginates and modified alginates discussed in this book include tissue regeneration, encapsulation and delivery of drugs, nucleic acid materials, proteins and peptides, genes, herbal therapeutic agents, nutraceuticals, and more. This book also describes the synthesis and characterizations of various alginate and modified alginate systems, such as hydrogels, gels, composites, nanoparticles, scaffolds, etc., used for the biomedical applications and therapeutics. Alginate, a biopolymer of natural origin, is of immense interest for its variety of applications in pharmaceuticals (as medical diagnostic aids) and in materials science. It is the one of the most abundant natural biopolymers and is considered an excellent excipient because of its non-toxic, stable, and biodegradable properties. Several research innovations have been made on applications of alginate in drug delivery and biomedicines. There needs to be a thorough understanding of the synthesis, purification, and characterization of alginates and its derivatives for their utility in healthcare fields, and this volume offers an abundance of information toward that end.

Light-Sensitive Polymeric Nanoparticles Based on Photo-Cleavable Chromophores

Light-Sensitive Polymeric Nanoparticles Based on Photo-Cleavable Chromophores
Author : Daniel Klinger
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-08-13
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :224
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The triggered release of functional compounds from such polymeric carriers as micelles, nanoparticles or nanogels is a rapidly developing and highly versatile concept which is expected to be one of the key approaches to future therapeutics. In his thesis, Daniel Klinger highlights the approach of stimuli-responsive microgels for such applications and discusses why especially light as a trigger has an outstanding position amongst the family of conventional stimuli. Based on these considerations, the author focuses on the design, synthesis and characterization of novel photo-sensitive microgels and nanoparticles as potential materials for the loading and light-triggered release/accessibility of functional compounds. Starting from the synthesis of photo-cleavable organic building blocks and their use in the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles, continuing to the examination of their loading and release profiles, and concluding with biological in vitro studies of the final materials, Daniel Klinger’s work is an excellent example of the multidisciplinary research needed for the successful development of new materials in this field and has led to a number of further publications in internationally respected journals.

Inorganic Nanoparticles

Inorganic Nanoparticles
Author : Claudia Altavilla,Enrico Ciliberto
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2017-12-19
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :576
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Among the various nanomaterials, inorganic nanoparticles are extremely important in modern technologies. They can be easily and cheaply synthesized and mass produced, and for this reason, they can also be more readily integrated into applications. Inorganic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Applications, and Perspectives presents an overview of these special materials and explores the myriad ways in which they are used. It addresses a wide range of topics, including: Application of nanoparticles in magnetic storage media Use of metal and oxide nanoparticles to improve performance of oxide thin films as conducting media in commercial gas and vapor sensors Advances in semiconductors for light-emitting devices and other areas related to the energy sector, such as solar energy and energy storage devices (fuel cells, rechargeable batteries, etc.) The expanding role of nanosized particles in the field of catalysis, art conservation, and biomedicine The book’s contributors address the growing global interest in the application of inorganic nanoparticles in various technological sectors. Discussing advances in materials, device fabrication, and large-scale production—all of which are urgently required to reduce global energy demands—they cover innovations in areas such as solid-state lighting, detailing how it still offers higher efficiency but higher costs, compared to conventional lighting. They also address the impact of nanotechnology in the biomedical field, focusing on topics such as quantum dots for bioimaging, nanoparticle-based cancer therapy, drug delivery, antibacterial agents, and more. Fills the informational gap on the wide range of applications for inorganic nanoparticles in areas including biomedicine, electronics, storage media, conservation of cultural heritage, optics, textiles, and cosmetics Assembling work from an array of experts at the top of their respective fields, this book delivers a useful analysis of the vast scope of existing and potential applications for inorganic nanoparticles. Versatile as either a professional research resource or textbook, this effective tool elucidates fundamentals and current advances associated with design, characterization, and application development of this promising and ever-evolving device.

RNA Nanoparticle as a Safe and Effective Drug Delivery Platform for Cancer Therapy

RNA Nanoparticle as a Safe and Effective Drug Delivery Platform for Cancer Therapy
Author : Sijin Guo
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019
Category : Cancer
Total pages :129
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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that focuses on the nanostructure design, construction, and application in biotechnology and biomedicine. Unlike other biomacromolecules, RNA is more flexible in structure and more versatile in functionality. On the other hand, RNA is a naturally-occurring biopolymer, making them more biocompatible compared to other nanomaterials. Thus, RNA can serve as a building block to construct nanoparticles as drug delivery platform for cancer therapy. This dissertation primarily describes a fundamental study that explores the immune-compatibility of RNA nanoparticles, as well as the use of thermostable RNA nanoparticles to specifically deliver therapeutics for efficient cancer therapy without causing toxicity. Firstly, RNA polygons that have identical size but varying shapes, or same shape but with different sizes were constructed as study model. The RNA nanoparticles were found to be immunologically inert, indicating that RNA nanoparticles are safe drug carriers without triggering immune responses. On the other hand, they can elicit significant immunomodulation by extending the nanoparticles with special sequences. Specifically, this immunomodulation was found to be size, shape, sequence-dependent, demonstrating the potential of using RNA nanoparticles in immunotherapy. Secondly, the use of a thermostable RNA nanoparticle for solubilizing and high-density loading chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer inhibition is reported. Small chemotherapeutic drugs possess significant anti-cancer activity, but their clinical applications were greatly limited by the poor biocompatibility such as water-insolubility. By chemically conjugating water-insoluble drugs to RNA, the RNA nanoparticles dramatically improved drug water-solubility. An ultra-thermostable RNA four-way junction nanoparticle was able to covalently load twenty-four copies of paclitaxel without nanoparticle dissociation or unfolding. After intravenous administration, the resulting RNA-paclitaxel nanoparticles harboring specific cancer targeting ligand significantly inhibited breast cancer tumor in mice. The toxicity in organs and immune responses in mice were almost undetectable. Besides paclitaxel, this RNA-drug conjugation was applied to another anti-cancer drug, camptothecin, and showed significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth. Furthermore, an acid labile linker was developed within RNA-drug conjugates, aiming at controlling pH-responsive drug release in acidic tumor environment to improve drug efficacy. Thirdly, a three-dimensional RNA cube was constructed and explored as a multi-functional drug carrier by incorporation with different therapeutic modules. This multi-functional RNA cube is able to load chemotherapeutic drug, immunostimulatory molecule, or short-interfering RNA for enhanced cellular effects in vitro. What’s more, the RNA cube can be manipulated to become reconfigurable, suggesting the great potential of drug encapsulation and release for in vivo applications. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that RNA nanoparticles can serve as a biocompatible drug delivery platform for effective cancer therapy with favorable safety profile.

Biopolymer-Based Nanomaterials in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications

Biopolymer-Based Nanomaterials in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications
Author : Hriday Bera,Chowdhury Mobaswar Hossain,Sudipta Saha
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2021-02-01
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :628
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Biopolymer-Based Nanomaterials in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications presents a clear and detailed body of information on biopolymer chemistry and polymer sciences in drug delivery. The book covers the recently reported nanomaterials consisting of biopolymers such as polysaccharides (i.e., plant, animal, bacteria, algae and fungi-derived) and proteins in terms of their structures, synthetic protocols and characterizations. In addition, their applications as therapeutic drug and gene delivery carriers and in other biomedical fields are reviewed. This book compiles chapters contributed by internationally renowned scholars working in biopolymer-based nanomaterials, offering a wide vision on the new and ongoing potential of different biopolymeric nanomaterials. The information related to concepts, design protocols and applications of biopolymer-based nanoplatforms is presented here, with detailed chapters on Pectin based nanomaterials, Konjac glucomannan based nanomaterials, Guar gum-based nanomaterials, tailor-made gum Arabic based nanomaterials, among others. Such systems are widely being used as functional materials for drug delivery and other therapeutic applications. Provides a critical and detailed examination in the recent development of biopolymer-based nanomaterials Focuses on modified biopolymer-based, diverse cutting-edge techniques in drug delivery and biomedical applications Assesses the opportunities and challenges of biopolymer-based nano-carriers in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields

Chimie Pure Et Appliquée

Chimie Pure Et Appliquée
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2012
Category : Chemistry
Total pages :129
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Chemical Engineering Progress

Chemical Engineering Progress
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2009
Category : Chemistry, Technical
Total pages :129
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Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2006
Category : Nanoscience
Total pages :129
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DNA/metal Oxide Nanoconjugates

DNA/metal Oxide Nanoconjugates
Author : Biwu Liu
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2016
Category :
Total pages :169
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DNA-functionalized nanomaterials have shown versatile applications in biosensor development, biomedical diagnostics, therapy, and catalysis. DNA is attractive for this purpose for its programmable structure, molecular recognition function, and ease of modification. Various nanomaterials, including noble metals, carbons, metal oxides, soft polymeric nanostructures, and metal organic frameworks have been conjugated with DNA. Among them, metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) exhibit unique magnetic, catalytic, and surface properties. Most previously reported DNA/MONP conjugates were prepared with the help of surface coating layers or linkers. While such conjugation provides stable hybrid materials, the intrinsic surface properties of MONPs are often masked. The primary focus of this thesis is to interface DNA oligonucleotides with pristine MONPs to provide critical insights into the fundamental understandings at these bio-nano interfaces and to design functional biosensors towards environmentally and biologically important analytes. In Chapter 2 the interaction between indium-doped tin oxide nanoparticles (ITO NPs) and fluorescently labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is systematically studied. While electrochemical and photochemical biosensors based on ITO for DNA detection have been developed, little is known about the biointerface chemistry. The DNA adsorption and fluorescence quenching capability of ITO NPs is first confirmed. Salt concentration, pH, DNA sequence and length affect DNA adsorption. The adsorption mechanism is found to be through the phosphate backbone using displacement assays. ITO NPs but not In2O3 can discriminate ssDNA and double stranded DNA (dsDNA) based on the difference in their chain flexibility. In Chapter 3, the interaction between fluorescently labeled DNA and iron oxide nanoparticles is investigated. Fe3O4 NPs adsorb DNA via the phosphate backbone and quench the fluorescence. With the strong affinity between arsenate and Fe3O4, a highly sensitive arsenate sensor is demonstrated based on the displacement of fluorescently labeled DNA by arsenate. Arsenate displaces adsorbed DNA to increase fluorescence, allowing the detection of arsenate down to 300 nM. The sensor design represents a new way of using DNA: analyte recognition relying on metal oxide while DNA is used only as a signaling molecule. In Chapter 4, following the work in Chapter 2 and 3, a total of 19 MONPs are screened for their ability to adsorb DNA, quench fluorescence, and release adsorbed DNA in the presence of a few common anions. These MONPs have different fluorescence quenching properties, DNA adsorption affinity, and different sensitivity toward anions probed by DNA desorption. Finally, CeO2, Fe3O4, and ZnO are used to form a sensor array to discriminate phosphate, arsenate, and arsenite from the rest using the linear discriminant analysis method. The study not only provides a solution for anion discrimination using MONPs and DNA but also insights into the interface of metal oxides and DNA. In Chapter 5, a fluorescently labeled DNA is used as a probe to investigate the interaction between a biologically important molecule, H2O2, and a nanozyme, nanoceria. Nanoceria has been previously reported to bind DNA strongly. I demonstrate that the adsorbed DNA can be readily displaced by H2O2, resulting in over 20-fold fluorescence enhancement. The displacement mechanism instead of oxidative DNA cleavage is confirmed by denaturing gel electrophoresis and surface group pKa measurements. This system can sensitively detect H2O2 down to 130 nM. When coupled with glucose oxidase, glucose is detected down to 8.9 [mu]M in buffer. Detection in serum is also achieved with results comparable with that from a commercial glucose meter. With an understanding of the ligand role of H2O2, new applications in rational materials design, sensor development, and drug delivery can be further exploited. In Chapter 6, I demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA in promoting the peroxidase activity of iron oxide nanoparticles. The effect of DNA length, sequence, surface coating are systematically studied. The rate enhancement is more significant with longer DNA. The negatively charged phosphate backbone and bases of DNA can increase the substrate binding, thus facilitating the oxidation reaction in the presence of H2O2. The role of DNA in modulating the peroxidase activity of iron oxide provides insights into the mechanism the nanozymes. Overall, the adsorption mechanism of DNA by various oxides, the controlling of the catalytic activity of oxides, and the related biosensor applications have been extensively studied in this thesis.

Hydrogels

Hydrogels
Author : Lacramioara Popa,Mihaela Violeta Ghica,Cristina Dinu-Pirvu
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2019-04-10
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :132
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Hydrogels, as three-dimensional polymer networks, are able to retain a large amount of water in their swollen state. The biomedical application of hydrogels was initially hampered by the toxicity of cross-linking agents and the limitations of hydrogel formation under physiological conditions. However, emerging knowledge in polymer chemistry and an increased understanding of biological processes have resulted in the design of versatile materials and minimally invasive therapies.The novel but challenging properties of hydrogels are attracting the attention of researchers in the biological, medical, and pharmaceutical fields. In the last few years, new methods have been developed for the preparation of hydrophilic polymers and hydrogels, which may be used in future biomedical and drug delivery applications. Such efforts include the synthesis of self-organized nanostructures based on triblock copolymers with applications in controlled drug delivery. These hydrogels could be used as carriers for drug delivery when combined with the techniques of drug imprinting and subsequent release. Engineered protein hydrogels have many potential advantages. They are excellent biomaterials and biodegradables. Furthermore, they could encapsulate drugs and be used in injectable forms to replace surgery, to repair damaged cartilage, in regenerative medicine, or in tissue engineering. Also, they have potential applications in gene therapy, although this field is relatively new.

Injectable Biodegradable Carriers for the Delivery of Therapeutic Agents and Tissue Engineering

Injectable Biodegradable Carriers for the Delivery of Therapeutic Agents and Tissue Engineering
Author : Riccardo Levato
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2015
Category :
Total pages :182
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The design of smart biomaterial devices plays a key role to improve the way conventional therapies are being delivered, and to promote the development of new approaches for advanced therapies, such as regenerative medicine and targeted drug release. Injectable biodegradable materials, such as those consisting of suspensions of polymeric particles, are highly versatile devices that can be delivered through minimally-invasive injections. The physic-chemical properties of the particles can be engineered to obtain smart scaffolds for tissue engineering, carriers for drug release and cell therapy. The aim of this Thesis is to develop a novel class of biodegradable and injectable particulate carriers based on polylactic acid (PLA), that are capable to trigger and guide specific responses from the cells and the biological milieu. First, a novel route to fabricate PLA-based microcarriers (MCs) was set and characterized. The production method involved green, non-harmful chemicals and it is easy to scale-up. Such technique allowed tuning MC size and size distribution in the range suitable for drug and cell delivery applications. The favorable regulatory status of the materials and reagents may also be beneficial for the translation of the MCs from bench to bedside. The principles guiding the fabrication procedure can inspire techniques to generate nanocarriers for controlled drug delivery. Recent studies point out the importance of drug-loaded and submicron-sized materials in the treatment of severe clinical conditions, such as persistent biofilm infections. These nanoparticles (NPs) can be endowed with smart functionalities to enhance drug delivery within the biofilm matrix. In this way, NPs encapsulating the antibiotic ciprofloxacin were produced and functionalized with DNase I. The NPs improved the antimicrobial activity of the encapsulated drug and promoted biofilm eradication, targeting and degrading directly the biofilm matrix. On the other hand, larger particles such as MC, display a high surface area for cell expansion. MCs can also deliver cells with therapeutic potential as ¿living drugs¿, ideally in a spatio-temporal controlled fashion. This is especially important, as, in standard cell therapies, direct injection of cells is accompanied by massive cell mortality that renders the treatment ineffective. PLA MCs suitable for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) homing have been produced and modified with different functionalization approaches. The physic-chemical properties of the MCs and bioactive coatings modulated cell adhesion, proliferation, and migratory potential in response to chemokines that regulate MSC tissue localization, like SDF-1a. The results highlight the importance of carriers design to control cell delivery, and provide important guidelines to instruct a new generation of efficient biomaterial carriers. Another exciting application of injectable, cell-laden MCs is to use them as building blocks to fabricate living tissues in vitro. Combining MC technology and bioprinting is an appealing strategy to generate tissues grafts with controlled architectures. The suspension of injectable PLA cell-laden MCs within gelatin-based hydrogels formed an extrudable, composite bioink. MCs acted as mechanical reinforcement for soft gels and as means for cell expansion to encapsulate high cell payload. MSCs were shown to form MC-MSCs aggregates, with enhanced cell-to-cell contact on surface functionalized PLA MCs, and differentiated towards the osteogenic lineage. This result suggests potential applications of MC-MSCs laden bioinks for bone tissue engineering, and the composite bioink is proposed as component to build multimaterial, 3D-printed osteochondral graft models. Taken together, the injectable devices developed in the Thesis constitute promising and highly versatile biomaterial platforms for biomedical applications, and can be employed in a wide array of tissue engineering, and cell and drug delivery strategies.

Polymeric Nanoparticle and Bioconjugate MRI Contrast Agents for In Vivo Imaging

Polymeric Nanoparticle and Bioconjugate MRI Contrast Agents for In Vivo Imaging
Author : Clare Lee Matilda Le Guyader
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category :
Total pages :228
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Nanoparticles are the hallmark of nanomedicine, proving clinically relevant for the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic drugs. Nanomaterials are highly versatile, with the ability for scientists to tailor composition and function to suit the desired application. Herein, two types of nanocarriers are investigated in the context of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents: polymeric nanoparticles and protein carriers. A key research focus in applying nanoparticles for drug delivery is in understanding physicochemical properties affecting in vivo fate. Shape or morphology of a particle is a vastly underutilized property in the design of nanoparticles, and is difficult to predictably control in the context of polymeric nanoparticles. Investigations of block copolymer nanoassemblies evaluate effects of the polymer structure and the self-assembly process to form interesting and diverse structures. In this work, ring-opening metathesis polymerization is employed to prepare and study block copolymer amphiphile self-assembly. First, a small library of amphiphiles are prepared in which the hydrophobic block functionality is varied. In varying the polymer structure and the solvent for assembly, different morphologies are produced, including small and large spheres, cylinders, y-junctions, and rods. In several cases, one polymer can take on different morphologies depending on the organic cosolvent used during micellization, highlighting the importance of assembly conditions and dynamics in forming kinetically trapped structures versus thermodynamically stable structures. These are important considerations when designing, synthesizing, and formulating polymeric nanoparticles for in vivo applications. Next, direct incorporation of a gadolinium based contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging is studied. A novel monomer and chain transfer agent of a gadolinium-chelate are used to directly incorporate the contrast agent in to a polynorbornene polymer backbone. The resulting spherical and fibrillar nanoparticles exhibited enhanced relaxivity and are studied as MRI contrast agents using live imaging in murine models. Finally, a fatty acid ligand is conjugated to a gadolinium-based contrast agent is prepared and formulated with human serum albumin. In formulation with HSA, the agent exhibits high relaxivity and prolonged blood circulation. In addition, therapeutic conjugates formulated with HSA are evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity and found to be effective in tumor growth suppression in vivo.