June 17, 2021

Download Ebook Free Detecting Concealed Information And Deception

Detecting Concealed Information and Deception

Detecting Concealed Information and Deception
Author : J. Peter Rosenfeld
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-02-16
Category : Psychology
Total pages :458
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Detecting Concealed Information and Deception: Recent Developments assembles contributions from the world’s leading experts on all aspects of concealed information detection. This reference examines an array of different methods—behavioral, verbal interview and physiological—of detecting concealed information. Chapters from leading legal authorities address how to make use of detected information for present and future legal purposes. With a theoretical and empirical foundation, the book also covers new human interviewing techniques, including the highly influential Implicit Association Test among others. Presents research from Concealed Information Test (CIT) studies Explores the legal implications and admissibility of the CIT Covers EEG, event-related brain potentials (ERP) and autonomic detection measures Reviews multiple verbal lie detection tools Discusses ocular movements during deception and evasion Identifies how to perceive malicious intentions Explores personality dimensions associated with deception, including religion, age and gender

Basic and applied research on deception and its detection

Basic and applied research on deception and its detection
Author : Wolfgang Ambach,Matthias Gamer
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release Date : 2014-08-07
Category :
Total pages :129
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Deception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in social interactions and has attracted a significant amount of research during the last decades. The majority of studies in this field focused on how deception modulates behavioral, autonomic, and brain responses and whether these changes can be used to validly identify lies. Especially the latter question, which historically gave rise to the development of psychophysiological “lie detection” techniques, has been driving research on deception and its detection until today. The detection of deception and concealed information in forensic examinations currently constitutes one of the most frequent applications of psychophysiological methods in the field. With the increasing use of such methods, the techniques for detecting deception have been controversially discussed in the scientific community. It has been proposed to shift from the original idea of detecting deception per se to a more indirect approach that allows for determining whether a suspect has specific knowledge of crime-related details. This so-called Concealed Information Test is strongly linked to basic psychological concepts concerning memory, attention, orienting, and response monitoring. Although research in this field has intensified with the advancement of neuroimaging techniques such as PET and fMRI in the last decade, basic questions on the psychological mechanisms underlying modulatory effects of deception and information concealment on behavioral, autonomic, and brain responses are still poorly understood. This Research Topic brings together contributions from researchers in experimental psychology, psychophysiology, and neuroscience focusing on the understanding of the broad concept of deception including the detection of concealed information, with respect to basic research questions as well as applied issues. This Research Topic is mainly composed of originalresearch articles but reviews and papers elaborating on novel methodological approaches have also been included. Experimental methods include, but are not limited to, behavioral, autonomic, electroencephalographic or brain imaging techniques that allow for revealing relevant facets of deception on a multimodal level. While this Research Topic primarily includes laboratory work, relevant issues for the field use of such methods are also discussed.

Detecting Deception

Detecting Deception
Author : Pär Anders Granhag,Aldert Vrij,Bruno Verschuere
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2015-01-20
Category : Psychology
Total pages :368
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Detecting Deception offers a state-of-the-art guide to the detection of deception with a focus on the ways in which new cognitive psychology-based approaches can improve practice and results in the field. Includes comprehensive coverage of the latest scientific developments in the detection of deception and their implications for real-world practice Examines current challenges in the field - such as counter-interrogation strategies, lying networks, cross-cultural deception, and discriminating between true and false intentions Reveals a host of new approaches based on cognitive psychology with the potential to improve practice and results, including the strategic use of evidence, imposing cognitive load, response times, and covert lie detection Features contributions from internationally renowned experts

Eye Tracking & Detection of Deception

Eye Tracking & Detection of Deception
Author : Fernando Mendes de Barros
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category : Deception
Total pages :168
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The Concealed Information Test (CIT) is one of the most scientifically supported techniques of lie-detection to date, and it is specifically used for detecting individuals’ knowledge of crime details. Advancements in the field of eye-tracking research also indicate that pupillometry data could be of value for detection of deception techniques. Recognising a research gap regarding the potential benefits of using eye-tracking data for detection of concealed information in CIT studies, the present study investigated whether eye fixation duration (i.e. dwell time) and average pupil size (APS) could predict individuals’ attempts to conceal information in a CIT procedure that used mock-crime photographs as its primary source of test stimuli. A total of 30 participants took part in a mock-crime CIT experiment and were assigned to two groups (guilty and innocent). Guilty participants were required to enact a mock-theft, whereas innocent participants performed an observation task. The CIT had two types of question trials (critical and control-relevant trials). Critical trials presented the simultaneous display of crime-relevant and crime-irrelevant photographs, and correct answers could only be known to guilty participants. In control-relevant trials, the correct answers could only be known to innocent participants, and they showed the simultaneous display of control-relevant and control-irrelevant photographs. Results revealed that guilty participants displayed significant increases in APS when responding to both critical and control-relevant trials, in comparison to innocent participants. Moreover, neither guilty nor innocent participants displayed significant differences in APS between responses towards relevant and irrelevant photographs. Regarding dwell time responses, results showed that only guilty participants presented significant decreases in mean dwell time towards relevant(i.e. known)photographs, compared with irrelevant photographs in critical trials. By contrast, innocent participants displayed significant increase in dwell time towards relevant photographs in comparison to irrelevant photographs in control-relevant trials, whereas guilty participants presented significant decrease in dwell time towards relevant photos in these trials. These results suggest that guilty participants engaged in avoidance behaviour during the CIT examination, and detection of participants’ attempts to conceal information is possible by targeting guilty participants’ eye-movement patterns. Moreover, data from innocent participants suggest that innocent participants are less likely to engage in avoidance behaviour during CIT examinations and they may display an orienting response towards known test stimuli instead.

Memory Detection

Memory Detection
Author : Bruno Verschuere,Gershon Ben-Shakhar,Ewout Meijer
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2011-02-24
Category : Psychology
Total pages :129
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Traditional techniques for detecting deception, such as the 'lie-detector test' (or polygraph), are based upon the idea that lying is associated with stress. However, it is possible that people telling the truth will experience stress, whereas not all liars will. Because of this, the validity of such methods is questionable. As an alternative, a knowledge-based approach known as the 'Concealed Information Test' has been developed which investigates whether the examinee recognizes secret information - for example a crime suspect recognizing critical crime details that only the culprit could know. The Concealed Information Test has been supported by decades of research, and is used widely in Japan. This is the first book to focus on this exciting approach and will be of interest to law enforcement agencies and academics and professionals in psychology, criminology, policing and law.

Deception in Court: Open Issues and Detection Techniques

Deception in Court: Open Issues and Detection Techniques
Author : Cristina Scarpazza,Giuseppe Sartori
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2020-07-08
Category :
Total pages :129
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How to spot a lie. Response conflict, sensory details and other theory-based approaches to memory and deception detection

How to spot a lie. Response conflict, sensory details and other theory-based approaches to memory and deception detection
Author : Claudia Tielt
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release Date : 2019-05-15
Category : Psychology
Total pages :14
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Essay from the year 2017 in the subject Psychology - Forensic Psychology, Penal System, grade: nicht benotet, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, language: English, abstract: Early psychophysiological approaches were based on the assumption that anxiety in the situation of an examination discriminates between deceptive and truthful testimonies. Since then, different procedures have been developed that aim at detecting deception. The theoretical underpinnings of these procedures are diverse and differ in precision. This paper will propose a framework for deception research based on established psychological theories. This work begins with a brief review of the most important psychophysiological procedures used to detect memory and deception as well as their respective theoretical foundations. Then an attempt is made to build a conceptual framework for deception research based on established psychological theories. In this endeavour, the complex process of deception versus truthful memory-based reporting will be broken down into the simpler mental processes that can be theoretically expected to be involved. The theoretical assumptions on the mental processes behind lying will be linked to relevant neuropsychological and psychophysiological findings, while taking into consideration the typical restraints given in the context of applied deception detection.

Identifying Deception Using Novel Technology-Based Approaches to Uncover Concealed Information

Identifying Deception Using Novel Technology-Based Approaches to Uncover Concealed Information
Author : Jeffrey Proudfoot
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2014
Category :
Total pages :223
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Concealing information, one of the many forms of deception, is a pervasive phenomenon as it is present in virtually every facet of interpersonal communication. In some cases, information concealment can have profound implications (e.g., insider threats in organizations, security screening at the border, and criminal interviews). New technologies are under development to aid in identifying concealed information, however, additional research is needed in three key areas to increase the feasibility of using these technologies in real-world credibility assessment contexts. First, research is needed to investigate the accuracy of new credibility assessment technologies relative to existing deception-detection systems. Demonstrating that new technologies meet or exceed detection accuracies of existing systems (e.g., the polygraph) is critical. Second, research is needed to determine if a targetless Concealed Information Test (CIT) is feasible. Existing CIT research supports the presence of main effect differences between persons concealing information and the control group. These behaviors may permit the detection of concealed information without the use of customized sets of stimuli. Eliminating the need to create customized sets of stimuli for each examinee would drastically increase the ease with which an automated system can be used to conduct a CIT. Finally, research is needed to illuminate various elements of the human-computer interaction that occurs during automated credibility assessments. This is a new domain of human-computer interaction as system users in this context are not instigating the interaction, and in many cases, they may be seeking to limit the effectiveness of the system. Before novel systems designed to conduct credibility assessments can be adopted, further research is needed to illuminate how users perceive, respond to, and strategically manage their behaviors when interacting with systems of this nature. This dissertation contains the results of a research program designed to address each of these areas. First, an experiment was designed to investigate the accuracy rates of two promising noncontact measures of concealed information (oculometrics and vocalics) relative to electrodermal activity (EDA). Second, an experiment was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using a targetless CIT to elicit main effect differences between concealers and the control group to identify concealed information. And third, a thorough analysis of examinees' general perceptions, self-reported stress and arousal, perceived effort and performance, and use of countermeasures within the context of an automated credibility assessment interview was conducted. This research effort has yielded the following findings. First, eye tracking and vocalics can be used to identify significant differences in the behaviors and physiology of examinees concealing information, however, the accuracy with which truth tellers and information concealers can be classified remains impractical for an applied setting. Second, there are main effect differences between persons concealing information and telling the truth, however, the use of countermeasures may limit the accuracy with which concealers can be identified. Finally, the presence of concealed information and the use of crime-relevant questions alter how examinees perceive and react to a system designed to identify concealed information. The limitations of this research, as well as directions for future research, are discussed.

The Polygraph and Lie Detection

The Polygraph and Lie Detection
Author : National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee to Review the Scientific Evidence on the Polygraph
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2003-01-22
Category : Law
Total pages :416
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The polygraph, often portrayed as a magic mind-reading machine, is still controversial among experts, who continue heated debates about its validity as a lie-detecting device. As the nation takes a fresh look at ways to enhance its security, can the polygraph be considered a useful tool? The Polygraph and Lie Detection puts the polygraph itself to the test, reviewing and analyzing data about its use in criminal investigation, employment screening, and counter-intelligence. The book looks at: The theory of how the polygraph works and evidence about how deceptivenessâ€"and other psychological conditionsâ€"affect the physiological responses that the polygraph measures. Empirical evidence on the performance of the polygraph and the success of subjects’ countermeasures. The actual use of the polygraph in the arena of national security, including its role in deterring threats to security. The book addresses the difficulties of measuring polygraph accuracy, the usefulness of the technique for aiding interrogation and for deterrence, and includes potential alternativesâ€"such as voice-stress analysis and brain measurement techniques.

Polygraph

Polygraph
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1995
Category : Lie detectors and detection
Total pages :129
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Detecting Deceptive Communication from Verbal, Visual and Paralinguistic Cues

Detecting Deceptive Communication from Verbal, Visual and Paralinguistic Cues
Author : John Edward Hocking
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1976
Category : Lie detectors and detection
Total pages :326
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Detecting Truthful and Deceptive Statements in Children and Adults

Detecting Truthful and Deceptive Statements in Children and Adults
Author : Tanya Lee Luten
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1998
Category :
Total pages :118
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Running Head: Scaled P300 Scalp Profiles in Detection of Deception

Running Head: Scaled P300 Scalp Profiles in Detection of Deception
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2002
Category :
Total pages :100
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Three studies were performed. The first two dealt with countermeasures to brain wave-based detection of deception in concealed information test protocols. There are two kinds of such protocols extant. One, the "6-probe" protocol utilizes multiple different crime details whose brain responses are averaged together. This protocol was easily defeated in the first study, as the detection rates dropped from 82% detection in the simple guilty group to 18% in the guilty group using a countermeasure. Although the average reaction time distinguished these two groups, there was enough overlap in their reaction time distributions such that in any individual case, one could not use reaction time to infer deception. The second protocol, the "1-probe" protocol uses one crime detail as a probe in each of as many runs as one wishes. One group was run in three successive seeks as 1) a guilty group, 2) a countermeasure group, and 3) finally without the explicit use of the countermeasure. In the first week, 92% of the subjects were detected. The countermeasure dropped this rate to 50%. In the final third week, without explicit use of countermeasure, only 58% were detected. There was no overlap in the reaction time distributions of the first two weeks, suggesting that the explicit countermeasure use could be detected with reaction time. In the third week, the reaction time distributions looked like those of the first week, so that test beaters would not be detected with reaction time. Other matters examined were 1) a comparison of individual brain wave analysis methods; 2) a comparison of naive versus sophisticated subjects, and 3) a comparison in terms of workload between the 1-probe and the 6-probe protocols.

The Reaction Time Three-item Concealed Information Test

The Reaction Time Three-item Concealed Information Test
Author : Andrea Marie Arsenault
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2016
Category : Anxiety
Total pages :227
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The reaction time three-item Concealed Information Test (RT-CIT) is a type of recognition test that examiners can use to detect concealed awareness of crime details among crime suspects. Examiners assume that only perpetrators and investigators know crime-related details and infer examinees are “guilty” if the test indicates that they possess crime-related knowledge. However, it is possible for innocent examinees to learn crime-related details from other sources (e.g., media, investigators), a phenomenon known as information leakage, which was the focus of the current study. Results revealed that the RT-CIT successfully differentiated between examinees guilty of a mock crime, innocent but informed of the crime (informed-innocent), and innocent but unaware of crime details (uninformed-innocent). Classification accuracy using a classification procedure (the Compound Classification Procedure, CCP) was also good for guilty (92.5%) and uninformed-innocent groups (100%). However, consistent with predictions, elevated false positive rates were found among informed-innocent groups (50%), supporting the conclusion that the RT-CIT is vulnerable to information leakage. Another variable of interest was the type of instructions given to participants prior to the RT-CIT, which prior research has found influences RT-CIT performance. Examinees in the current study read one of two instruction sets (deception, or control instructions) prior to completing a RT-CIT, but did not show any differences in RT-CIT performance. Individual differences in anxiety were also examined in an attempt to predict the accuracy of the RT-CIT. Preliminary analyses pointed to state cognitive anxiety as the best predictor, which ultimately accounted for significant variance in the accuracy detection score (the difference in response accuracy between irrelevant and crime details). Given strong performance of the RT-CIT, state cognitive anxiety did not account for significant variance in the RT detection score, RT and accuracy sensitivity indexes, nor did it add to the prediction of guilt beyond the results of the CCP. Taken together, the results support using the RT-CIT to detect concealed knowledge in criminal investigations, given that examiners take precautions against information leakage. However, given the artificial nature of mock crimes, the small predictive value of cognitive anxiety, and the questionable effectiveness of the instruction manipulation, more research is necessary.

Educing information

Educing information
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Center for Strategic Intelligence Research Joint
Release Date : 2006-01-01
Category : Military intelligence
Total pages :339
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"Educing information" refers to information elicitation and strategic debriefing as well as to interrogation. The study is not a "how-to" manual to teach practitioners how to conduct interrogations. Rather, it is a series of scientific papers intended to help all of us better understand how information can be educed.