January 24, 2021

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Diet-Microbe Interactions in the Gut

Diet-Microbe Interactions in the Gut
Author : Kieran Tuohy,Daniele Del Rio
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2014-08-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :268
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Drawing on expert opinions from the fields of nutrition, gut microbiology, mammalian physiology, and immunology, Diet-Microbe Interactions for Human Health investigates the evidence for a unified disease mechanism working through the gut and its resident microbiota, and linking many inflammation-related chronic diet associated diseases. State of the art post-genomic studies can highlight the important role played by our resident intestinal microbiota in determining human health and disease. Many chronic human diseases associated with modern lifestyles and diets — including those localized to the intestinal tract like inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease, and more pervasive systemic conditions such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease — are characterized by aberrant profiles of gut bacteria or their metabolites. Many of these diseases have an inflammatory basis, often presenting with a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, hinting at persistent and inappropriate activation of inflammatory pathways. Through the presentation and analysis of recent nutrition studies, this book discusses the possible mechanisms underpinning the disease processes associated with these pathologies, with high fat diets appearing to predispose to disease, and biologically active plant components, mainly fiber and polyphenols, appearing to reduce the risk of chronic disease development. One comprehensive, translational source for all aspects of nutrition and diet's effect on gastrointestinal health and disease Experts in nutrition, diet, microbiology and immunology take readers from the bench research (cellular and biochemical mechanisms of vitamins and nutrients) to new preventive and therapeutic approaches Clear presentations by leading researchers of the cellular mechanisms underlying diet, immune response, and gastrointestinal disease help practicing nutritionists and clinicians (gastroenterologists, endocrinologists) map out new areas for clinical research and structuring clinical recommendations

P4-33-01 - Food & Nutrition: The Driving Factors of Our Gut Microbes

P4-33-01 - Food & Nutrition: The Driving Factors of Our Gut Microbes
Author : Matthias Scholz
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category :
Total pages :129
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Introduction: The gut microbiome has attracted much attention in the last decade due to new studies and technologies revealing how gut microbes play a key role in human health and disease risk. However, we still know little about how diets, foods and nutrients shape the gut microbiome.Materials and Methods:To expand our knowledge about the complex relationship between nutrient intake and intestinal bacteria, we performed a broad dietary study covering diverse foods and nutrient intakes of nearly 100 adults. We analyzed metataxonomic data from 16S rRNA sequencing and correlated the microbial abundances of the top 55 dominant taxonomic groups with collected intakes of 40 food groups and 44 nutritional parameters, as well as degree of adherence to healthy eating patterns. Based on Spearman correlation profiles and hierarchical clustering, we also identified food groups and nutritional parameters that modulate in a similar manner microbial community structure.Results: We will present preliminary results showing direct effects of specific dietary patterns (e.g. adherence to the Mediterranean style diet), food groups (e.g., fruits, nuts, dairy) and nutrients (e.g. iron, magnesium, zinc) on specific genera of the gut microbiota. We found significant associations between alcohol and the bacterial genus Holdemania. We will show that food groups supposed to belong to the same higher-level food category do not always show the expected effect on the gut microbes, which supports the need for a detailed food classification scheme to investigate dietary effects. Similarly, we found that correlations at dietary and higher food group levels more consistently reflect existing diet:microbe associations from the literature while correlations at the nutrient level are prone to confounding factors only apparent at higher alimentary ontology.Discussion: Our study aims at a more complete understanding of the complex relations between human diet and gut microbiome community structure. Initial results confirm that both the quantity of a nutrient and the dietary source of a nutrient can both influence associations with gut bacteria. Our results may help to define new strategies for modelling diet:microbe interactions in the gut providing a new valuable tool to assist the nutrition and gut microbiome communities.Conflict of interest:There is no conflict of interest.

Diet, Microbiome and Health

Diet, Microbiome and Health
Author : Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu,Alina-Maria Holban
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-01-02
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :526
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Diet, Microbiome and Health, Volume 11, in the Handbook of Food Bioengineering series, presents the most up-to-date research to help scientists, researchers and students in the field of food engineering understand the different microbial species we have in our guts, why they are important to human development, immunity and health, and how to use that understanding to further promote research to create healthy food products. In addition, the book provides studies that clearly demonstrate how dietary preferences and social behavior significantly impact the diversity of microbial species in the gut and their numeric values, which may balance health and disease. Highlights research discoveries on how gut microbiota influence and are impacted by health and disease Includes information on and examples of healthy foods Discusses gut microbiota in autism, GI disease, neuropsychiatric disorders, obesity and metabolic disease Explores the barrier function of the gut Examines how food preferences impact gut microbiota

The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health

The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health
Author : Food Forum,Food and Nutrition Board,Institute of Medicine
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2013-02-27
Category : Medical
Total pages :161
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The Food Forum convened a public workshop on February 22-23, 2012, to explore current and emerging knowledge of the human microbiome, its role in human health, its interaction with the diet, and the translation of new research findings into tools and products that improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop. Over the two day workshop, several themes covered included: The microbiome is integral to human physiology, health, and disease. The microbiome is arguably the most intimate connection that humans have with their external environment, mostly through diet. Given the emerging nature of research on the microbiome, some important methodology issues might still have to be resolved with respect to undersampling and a lack of causal and mechanistic studies. Dietary interventions intended to have an impact on host biology via their impact on the microbiome are being developed, and the market for these products is seeing tremendous success. However, the current regulatory framework poses challenges to industry interest and investment.

The Gut Microbiome, An Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, E-Book

The Gut Microbiome, An Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, E-Book
Author : Eamonn M.M. Quigley
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2017-02-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :246
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Dr. Quigley has created a must-have reference on the gut microbiome for the practicing gastroenterologist. A leader in the field of human physiology and digestive disorders, he has laid out the basics on this increasingly important topic, devoting articles to the organization and biology of the human gut microbiome as well as its diagnostic potential. Top international authors have presented articles that discuss the intersection of the gut microbiome and diet and the gut-brain axis. Clinical implications of the gut microbiome are discussed with disease states like IBD, GI cancer, and liver diseases. Finally, the issue ends with the cutting-edge clinical innovation of fecal microbial transplantation. This issue bridges the gap between science and clinical practice and should be an important reference to practicing gastroenterologists.

The Mind-Gut Connection

The Mind-Gut Connection
Author : Emeran Mayer
Publisher : HarperCollins
Release Date : 2018-06-05
Category : Health & Fitness
Total pages :336
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Chances are, at some point in your life you’ve noticed the connection between your brain and your gut. If you’ve ever felt queasy as you walked into an uncomfortable situation or based a life decision based on a “gut feeling,” then you know that sometimes our bodies react faster than our minds. Most of us have also experienced the same phenomenon in reverse, where our mental state has affected our digestive system—like the butterflies in our stomach before an important meeting or a first date. But while the dialogue between the mind and the gut has been recognized for centuries, scientists today are just starting to understand how powerful that connection is. In The Mind-Gut Connection, Dr. Emeran Mayer, executive director of the UCLA Oppenheimer Center for the Neurobiology of Stress, offers a cutting-edge view into this developing science, showing us the full impact of how the brain, gut, and microbiome—the community of microorganisms that live inside the digestive tract—communicate. As Dr. Mayer explains, when this communication channel is out of whack, major health problems can crop up, including food sensitivities and allergies, digestive disorders, obesity, depression, anxiety, and fatigue. The Mind-Gut Connection teaches us how, with a few simple changes to our diet and lifestyle, we can enjoy a happier mindset, enhanced immunity, a decreased risk of developing neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, and even lose weight. With a simple, practical regimen drawn from the latest research, Dr. Mayer shows us that paying attention to the mind-gut balance is the key to unlocking vibrant health.

The Gut-Brain Axis

The Gut-Brain Axis
Author : Niall Hyland,Catherine Stanton
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2016-05-13
Category : Medical
Total pages :508
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The Gut-Brain Axis: Dietary, Probiotic, and Prebiotic Interventions on the Microbiota examines the potential for microbial manipulation as a therapeutic avenue in central nervous system disorders in which an altered microbiota has been implicated, and explores the mechanisms, sometimes common, by which the microbiota may contribute to such disorders. Focuses on specific areas in which the microbiota has been implicated in gut-brain communication Examines common mechanisms and pathways by which the microbiota may influence brain and behavior Identifies novel therapeutic strategies targeted toward the microbiota in the management of brain activity and behavior

Microbial Endocrinology

Microbial Endocrinology
Author : Mark Lyte,Primrose P.E. Freestone
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2010-04-06
Category : Medical
Total pages :316
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Microbial endocrinology represents a newly emerging interdisciplinary field that is formed by the intersection of the fields of neurobiology and microbiology. This book will introduce a new perspective to the current understanding not only of the factors that mediate the ability of microbes to cause disease, but also to the mechanisms that maintain normal homeostasis. The discovery that microbes can directly respond to neuroendocrine hormones, as evidenced by increased growth and production of virulence-associated factors, provides for a new framework with which to investigate how microorganisms interface not only with vertebrates, but also with invertebrates and even plants. The reader will learn that the neuroendocrine hormones that one most commonly associates with mammals are actually found throughout the plant, insect and microbial communities to an extent that will undoubtedly surprise many, and most importantly, how interactions between microbes and neuroendocrine hormones can influence the pathophysiology of infectious disease.

Insights into Microbe-Microbe Interactions in Human Microbial Ecosystems: Strategies to be Competitive

Insights into Microbe-Microbe Interactions in Human Microbial Ecosystems: Strategies to be Competitive
Author : Clara G. de los Reyes-Gavilán,Nuria Salazar
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2016-12-01
Category :
Total pages :129
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All parts of our body having communication with the external environment such as the skin, vagina, the respiratory tract or the gastrointestinal tract are colonized by a specific microbial community. The colon is by far the most densely populated organ in the human body. The pool of microbes inhabiting our body is known as “microbiota” and their collective genomes as “microbiome”. These microbial ecosystems regulate important functions of the host, and their functionality and the balance among the diverse microbial populations is essential for the maintenance of a “healthy status”. The impressive development in recent years of next generation sequencing (NGS) methods have made possible to determine the gut microbiome composition. This, together with the application of other high throughput omic techniques and the use of gnotobiotic animals has greatly improved our knowledge of the microbiota acting as a whole. In spite of this, most members of the human microbiota are largely unknown and remain still uncultured. The final functionality of the microbiota is depending not only on nutrient availability and environmental conditions, but also on the interrelationships that the microorganisms inhabiting the same ecological niche are able to establish with their partners, or with their potential competitors. Therefore, in such a competitive environment microorganisms have had to develop strategies allowing them to cope, adapt, or cooperate with their neighbors, which may imply notable changes at metabolic, physiological and genetic level. The main aim of this Research Topic was to contribute to better understanding complex interactions among microorganisms residing in human microbial habitats.

The Gut Microbiome

The Gut Microbiome
Author : Gyula Mozsik
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2016-11-02
Category : Medical
Total pages :112
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In the last decades, the importance of gut microbiome has been linked to medical research on different diseases. Developments of other medical disciplines (human clinical pharmacology, clinical nutrition and dietetics, everyday medical treatments of antibiotics, changes in nutritional inhabits in different countries) also called attention to study the changes in the gut microbiome. This book contains five excellent review chapters in the field of gut microbiome, written by researchers from the USA, Canada, China, and India. These chapters present a critical review about some clinically important changes in the gut microbiome in the development of some human diseases and therapeutic possibilities (liver disease, cardiovascular diseases, brain diseases, gastrointestinal diseases). The book brings to attention the essential role of gut microbiome in keeping our life healthy. This book is addressed to experts of microbiology, podiatrists, gastroenterologists, internists, nutritional experts, cardiologists, basic and clinical researchers, as well as experts in the field of food industry.

Health and the Gut

Health and the Gut
Author : William Olds
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2014-08-04
Category : Medical
Total pages :410
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This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. The study of the intestinal ecosystem of bacteria in the human gut—the gut microbiome—is a new field that is rapidly evolving. This book serves as an introduction to some of the new and exciting research that is being done in this field. Included are chapters that examine the following: • Gut microbiome’s roles in the pathogenesis of obesity and autoimmune disease • The effect of nutrition on the richness of the microbial community • The stability of the microbiome to various stressors • Emerging ways to diagnose diseases using the microbiome • Exciting prospects for using these microbes to cure disease This easily accessible reference volume offers a comprehensive guide to this relatively new field of study. Edited by a researcher from Yale University, Health and the Gut: The Emerging Role of Intestinal Microbiota in Disease and Therapeutics is an authoritative and easy-to-use reference, ideal for both researchers in the field and those who wish to gain more information about the impact of gut microbiota on human health.

Understanding and Exploiting Host-Commensal Interactions to Combat Pathogens

Understanding and Exploiting Host-Commensal Interactions to Combat Pathogens
Author : Sudhanshu Shekhar,Fernanda Cristina Petersen,Xi Yang
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2020-01-14
Category :
Total pages :129
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Trillions of commensal microbes reside on and inside the human body, including the intestinal and respiratory tracts, which encompass various microbial taxa, such as bacteria, fungi, archea and viruses. The close proximity of microbes with the host provides an opportunity to continually interact with each other. Advances in research approaches, including high-throughput sequencing, have allowed us to study host and commensal microbes at the genetic and functional levels. Recent studies suggest that commensal microbes play a crucial role in the development of the host’s immune system and induce innate and adaptive immune responses against pathogens. It is also becoming apparent that the gut commensals are endowed with a capacity to alter immune responses in organs beyond the intestine, such as the lungs, highlighting the significance of the gut commensals in controlling systemic immunity. On the other hand, the host’s immune system possesses the ability to shape the repertoire of commensal microbes and contribute to the establishment of beneficial relationships with them. A better understanding of host-commensal interactions will be important for designing effective vaccines and therapeutics against pathogens. This Research Topic sheds light on our current understanding of the interplay between the host’s immune system and commensal microbes and how this interplay can be exploited for prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategies against pathogens.

Probiotics

Probiotics
Author : Ray Fuller
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Juvenile Nonfiction
Total pages :398
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In recent years the gastrointestinal microflora has featured strongly in scientific, veterinary and medical research. As a result it has become obvious that the gut microflora is an essential component of the healthy animal. Not only is it involved in digestion of food, it is essential for the optimal resistance to disease. The first part of this book records the research that has been done on the factors affecting colonization of the gut and the effect that the flora has on the host animal. The second part discusses the way in which this basic knowledge affects the choice of organism being used as a probiotic. The evidence for the involvement of the gut microflora in the health and well-being of the animal is incontrovertible, but the development of probiotics has been largely empirical, failing to capitalize on the relevant research data. The bringing together of the basic information on gut microecology and the development of probiotic preparations is long overdue. It is hoped that this exercise will result in a more scientific approach to probiotic development and the emergence of new and improved preparations for animals and man. The authors involved are all experts in their field and I am greatly indebted to them for their contributions to the book. R. Fuller Abbreviations used for - generIc names Aspergillus A.B. Bacillus Bact. Bacteroides Bifidobacterium Bif. C. Clostridium Cam. Campylobacter Can. Candida Cor. Corynebacteri urn E. Escherichia Enterobacter Eb. Ent. Enterococcus Fusobacterium F. Fib. Fibrobacter K. Klebsiella 1.

The Molecular Nutrition of Fats

The Molecular Nutrition of Fats
Author : Vinood B. Patel
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-10-29
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :470
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The Molecular Nutrition of Fats presents the nutritional and molecular aspects of fats by assessing their dietary components, their structural and metabolic effects on the cell, and their role in health and disease. Subject areas include molecular mechanisms, membranes, polymorphisms, SNPs, genomic wide analysis, genotypes, gene expression, genetic modifications and other aspects. The book is divided into three sections, providing information on the general and introductory aspects, the molecular biology of the cell, and the genetic machinery and its function. Topics discussed include lipid-related molecules, dietary lipids and lipid metabolism, high fat diets, choline, cholesterol, membranes, trans-and saturated fatty acids, and lipid rafts. Other sections provide comprehensive discussions on G protein-coupled receptors, micro RNA, transcriptomics, transcriptional factors, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, beta-oxidation, cholesteryl ester transfer, beta-oxidation, lysosomes, lipid droplets, insulin mTOR signaling and ligands, and more. Summarizes molecular nutrition in health as related to fats Discusses the impact of fats on cancer, heart disease, dementia, and respiratory and intestinal disease Includes preclinical, clinical and population studies Covers the genome, the whole body and whole communities Includes key facts, a mini dictionary of terms and summary points

Gut Microbiota

Gut Microbiota
Author : Edward Ishiguro,Natasha Haskey,Kristina Campbell
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-01-10
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :208
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Gut Microbiota: Interactive Effects on Nutrition and Health provides a detailed account of gut microbiota research, an exploration of how diet influences gut microbiota and the implications of gut microbiota for health. The book provides a summary of how diet interacts with the gut microbiome and presents practical applications focused on food, supplements and safety. This book provides scientists and clinicians who have an interest in the microbiome with an understanding of the future potential—and limitations—of this tool, as they strive to make use of evidence-based diet information for the maintenance of good health. Consolidates new research on how gut microbiota affects nutrition Identifies how the research applies to food, supplements and safety Provides diet recommendations to improve health Includes case studies from clinical populations Explores how diet influences gut microbiota