January 18, 2021

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Direct Methane to Methanol

Direct Methane to Methanol
Author : Vladimir Arutyunov
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-01-30
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :320
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Direct Methane to Methanol: Foundations and Prospects of the Process offers a state-of-the-art account of one of the most interesting and potentially commercial technologies for direct conversion of natural gas into valuable chemicals. The book thoroughly explains the complex and unusual chemistry of the process, as well as possible applications for direct methane to methanol (DMTM). It covers topics involving thermokinetics, pressure, direct oxidation of heavier alkanes, and more, and provides detailed appendices with experimental data and product yields. This book provides all those who work in the field of gas processing and gas chemistry with the theory and experimental data to develop and apply new processes based on direct oxidation of natural gas. All those who deal with oil and natural gas production and processing will learn about this promising technology for the conversion of gas into more valuable chemicals. Reviews more than 350 publications on high-pressure, low-temperature oxidation of methane and other gas phase hydrocarbons Contains rare material available for the first time in English Explains the reasons of previous failure and outlines the way forward for commercial development of the conversion technology Presents a deep theoretical knowledge of this complex conversion process

Direct Methane to Methanol

Direct Methane to Methanol
Author : Vladimir Arutyunov
Publisher : Elsevier Science Limited
Release Date : 2014-02-24
Category : Science
Total pages :320
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Direct Methane to Methanol: Foundations and Prospects of the Process offers a state-of-the-art account of one of the most interesting and potentially commercial technologies for direct conversion of natural gas into valuable chemicals. The book thoroughly explains the complex and unusual chemistry of the process, as well as possible applications for direct methane to methanol (DMTM). It covers topics involving thermokinetics, pressure, direct oxidation of heavier alkanes, and more, and provides detailed appendices with experimental data and product yields. This book provides all those who work in the field of gas processing and gas chemistry with the theory and experimental data to develop and apply new processes based on direct oxidation of natural gas. All those who deal with oil and natural gas production and processing will learn about this promising technology for the conversion of gas into more valuable chemicals. Reviews more than 350 publications on high-pressure, low-temperature oxidation of methane and other gas phase hydrocarbons Contains rare material available for the first time in English Explains the reasons of previous failure and outlines the way forward for commercial development of the conversion technology Presents a deep theoretical knowledge of this complex conversion process

Direct Methane to Methanol

Direct Methane to Methanol
Author : Meenakshi Awasthi
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2015-03-01
Category :
Total pages :280
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The oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) is a type of chemical reaction discovered in the 1980s for the direct conversion of natural gas, primarily consisting of methane, into value-added chemicals. Direct conversion of methane into other useful products is one of the most challenging subjects to be studied in heterogeneous catalysis. [1] Methane activation is difficult because of its thermodynamic stability with a noble gas-like electronic configuration. The tetrahedral arrangement of strong C-H bonds. (435 kj/mol) offer no functional group, magnetic moments or polar distributions to undergo chemical attack. This makes methane less reactive than nearly all of its conversion products, limiting efficient utilisation of natural gas, the world's most abundant petrochemical resource.

Methane Conversion

Methane Conversion
Author : D.M. Bibby,C.D. Chang,S. Yurchak,R.F. Howe
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 1988-03-01
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :737
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This proceedings volume comprises the invited plenary lectures, contributed and poster papers presented at a symposium organised to mark the successful inauguration of the world's first commercial plant for production of gasoline from natural gas, based on the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline process. The objectives of the Symposium were to present both fundamental research and engineering aspects of the development and commercialization of gas-to-gasoline processes. These include steam reforming, methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline. Possible alternative processes e.g. MOGD, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons, and the direct conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons were also considered. The papers in this volume provide a valuable and extremely wide-ranging overview of current research into the various options for natural gas conversion, giving a detailed description of the gas-to-gasoline process and plant. Together, they represent a unique combination of fundamental surface chemistry catalyst characterization, reaction chemistry and engineering scale-up and commercialization.

Catalysis and the Mechanism of Methane Conversion to Chemicals

Catalysis and the Mechanism of Methane Conversion to Chemicals
Author : Toshihide Baba,Akimitsu Miyaji
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020-04-18
Category : Science
Total pages :220
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This book introduces various types of reactions to produce chemicals by the direct conversion of methane from the point of view of mechanistic and functional aspects. The chemicals produced from methane are aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons such as propylene and benzene, and methanol. These chemicals are created by using homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts such as zeolites, and biocatalysts such as enzymes. Various examples of methane conversion reactions that are discussed have been chosen to illustrate how heterogeneous and homogenous catalysts and biocatalysts and/or their reaction environments control the formation of highly energetic species from methane contributing to C-C and C-O bond formation.

Methanol

Methanol
Author : Angelo Basile,Francesco Dalena
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2017-10-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :706
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Methanol: Science and Engineering provides a comprehensive review of the chemistry, properties, and current and potential uses and applications of methanol. Divided into four parts, the book begins with a detailed account of current production methods and their economics. The second part deals with the applications of methanol, providing useful insights into future applications. Modeling of the various reactor systems is covered in the next section, with final discussions in the book focusing on the economic and environmental impact of this chemical. Users will find this to be a must-have resource for all researchers and engineers studying alternative energy sources. Provides the latest developments on methanol research Reviews methanol production methods and their economics Outlines the use of methanol as an alternative green transportation fuel Includes new technologies and many new applications of methanol

Carbon Dioxide Chemistry, Capture and Oil Recovery

Carbon Dioxide Chemistry, Capture and Oil Recovery
Author : Iyad Karamé,Janah Shaya,Hassan Srour
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2018-08-16
Category : Science
Total pages :266
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Fossil fuels still need to meet the growing demand of global economic development, yet they are often considered as one of the main sources of the CO2 release in the atmosphere. CO2, which is the primary greenhouse gas (GHG), is periodically exchanged among the land surface, ocean, and atmosphere where various creatures absorb and produce it daily. However, the balanced processes of producing and consuming the CO2 by nature are unfortunately faced by the anthropogenic release of CO2. Decreasing the emissions of these greenhouse gases is becoming more urgent. Therefore, carbon sequestration and storage (CSS) of CO2, its utilization in oil recovery, as well as its conversion into fuels and chemicals emerge as active options and potential strategies to mitigate CO2 emissions and climate change, energy crises, and challenges in the storage of energy.

Beyond Oil and Gas

Beyond Oil and Gas
Author : George A. Olah,Alain Goeppert,G. K. Surya Prakash
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2011-08-24
Category : Science
Total pages :350
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The world is currently consuming about 85 million barrels of oil a day, and about two-thirds as much natural gas equivalent, both derived from non-renewable natural sources. In the foreseeable future, our energy needs will come from any available alternate source. Methanol is one such viable alternative, and also offers a convenient solution for efficient energy storage on a large scale. In this updated and enlarged edition, renowned chemists discuss in a clear and readily accessible manner the pros and cons of humankind's current main energy sources, while providing new ways to overcome obstacles. Following an introduction, the authors look at the interrelationship of fuels and energy, and at the extent of our non-renewable fossil fuels. They also discuss the hydrogen economy and its significant shortcomings. The main focus is on the conversion of CO2 from industrial as well as natural sources into liquid methanol and related DME, a diesel fuel substitute that can replace LNG and LPG. The book is rounded off with an optimistic look at future possibilities. A forward-looking and inspiring work that vividly illustrates potential solutions to our energy and environmental problems.

Zeolite Chemistry and Applications

Zeolite Chemistry and Applications
Author : Benoit Louis,Marcelo Maciel Pereira,Qiang Wang
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2020-04-20
Category :
Total pages :129
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Methane Conversion by Oxidative Processes

Methane Conversion by Oxidative Processes
Author : Wolf
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-11-11
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :548
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A reasonable case could be made that the scientific interest in catalytic oxidation was the basis for the recognition of the phenomenon of catalysis. Davy, in his attempt in 1817 to understand the science associated with the safety lamp he had invented a few years earlier, undertook a series of studies that led him to make the observation that a jet of gas, primarily methane, would cause a platinum wire to continue to glow even though the flame was extinguished and there was no visible flame. Dobereiner reported in 1823 the results of a similar investigation and observed that spongy platina would cause the ignition of a stream of hydrogen in air. Based on this observation Dobereiner invented the first lighter. His lighter employed hydrogen (generated from zinc and sulfuric acid) which passed over finely divided platinum and which ignited the gas. Thousands of these lighters were used over a number of years. Dobereiner refused to file a patent for his lighter, commenting that "I love science more than money." Davy thought the action of platinum was the result of heat while Dobereiner believed the ~ffect ~as a manifestation of electricity. Faraday became interested in the subject and published a paper on it in 1834; he concluded that the cause for this reaction was similar to other reactions.

Methane and Alkane Conversion Chemistry

Methane and Alkane Conversion Chemistry
Author : M.M. Bhasin,D.W. Slocum
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :349
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Natural gas, an abundant natural energy and chemical resource, is underutilized. Its inherent high energy content is compromised by its volatility. Storage and transportation problems abound for liquified natural gas. Several of the drawbacks of the utilization of natural gas, particularly its high volatility, could be offset by development of an economical and efficient process for coupling and/or further homologation of its principal component, methane. Alternatively, other conversion strategies such as partial oxidation to methanol and syngas, to oxygenates or conversion to such products via the intermediacy of chlorides should also be considered. Given the energy-intensive regimes necessary for the likely activation of methane, it was inevitable that researchers would tum to the use of heterogeneous catalysts. Heterogeneous catalysis is now a relatively mature discipline with numerous and diverse reactions being explored alongside informative studies on surface characterization, mechanism, and theory. Relationships to important related areas such as homogeneous catalysis, organometallic chemistry, and inorganic chemistry have become firmly established within this discipline. The field of methane and alkane activation is now over ten years old. The first decade of investigation produced results plagued by low yields and low-moderate conversions with well-articulated mechanistic limitations. As we begin the second decade of inquiry, novel strategies have brought increasing yields and conversions to such products as ethane, ethylene, methanol, and formaldehyde. These new approaches utilize separation of products via membranes or adsorbents. Moreover, additional mechanistic insight has been forthcoming from theoretical and computational examination as well as experimental investigation.

Methane Biocatalysis: Paving the Way to Sustainability

Methane Biocatalysis: Paving the Way to Sustainability
Author : Marina G. Kalyuzhnaya,Xin-Hui Xing
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-06-20
Category : Science
Total pages :312
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This book provides in-depth insights into the most recent developments in different areas of microbial methane and methanol utilization, including novel fundamental discoveries in genomics and physiology, innovative strategies for metabolic engineering and new synthetic approaches for generation of feedstocks, chemicals and fuels from methane, and finally economics and the implementation of industrial biocatalysis using methane consuming bacteria. Methane, as natural gas or biogas, penetrates every area of human activity, from households to large industries and is often promoted as the cleanest fuel. However, one should not forget that this bundle of energy, carbon, and hydrogen comes with an exceptionally large environmental footprint. To meet goals of long-term sustainability and human well-being, all areas of energy, chemicals, agriculture, waste-management industries must go beyond short-term economic considerations and target both large and small methane emissions. The search for new environment-friendly approaches for methane capture and valorization is an ongoing journey. While it is not yet apparent which innovation might represent the best solution, it is evident that methane biocatalysis is one of the most promising paths. Microbes are gatekeepers of fugitive methane in Nature. Methane-consuming microbes are typically small in number but exceptionally big in their impact on the natural carbon cycle. They control and often completely eliminate methane emission from a variety of biological and geothermal sources. The tremendous potential of these microbial systems, is only now being implemented in human-made systems. The book addresses professors, researchers and graduate students from both academia and industry working in microbial biotechnology, molecular biology and chemical engineering.

Natural Gas Conversion II

Natural Gas Conversion II
Author : H.E. Curry-Hyde,R.F. Howe
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 1994-07-15
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :584
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This Symposium provided the opportunity to review progress after more than 10 years of research and development in the field of natural gas conversion. Oxidative coupling of methane as a route to higher value fuels or feedstock was a major part of the program. The advances in understanding of reaction mechanisms and catalyst structure were discussed in a Plenary paper and in many of the contributed papers. The homogeneous gas phase chemistry involved in methane oxidation is relevant not only to oxidative coupling but also to synthesis gas and methanol production via partial oxidation. This field is reviewed in a Plenary paper and contributed papers describe developments in catalysts and technology for partial oxidation to synthesis gas and to methanol. An alternative route to synthesis gas from methane currently receiving attention is carbon dioxide reforming. This technology is reviewed in a Plenary paper and recent advances are described in contributed papers. The first detailed account of the Shell SMDS Fischer-Tropsch process for production of transport fuels from natural gas recently commercialised in Malaysia is given in this book. Papers discuss structural aspects of Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, modifications of Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to produce light olefins, and the possibilities of operating a Fischer-Tropsch process off-shore. Methanol as an intermediate in natural gas conversion continues to attract attention, and methanol synthesis and conversion are discussed in contributed papers. The possibilities of finding new uses for methane are treated in a Plenary paper and arguments for using methane as a fuel rather than a feedstock are also presented. Among the new uses of methane considered are the generation of electricity in fuel cells and the use of methane as a reductant for NOx emissions. The papers will be of interest to scientists and engineers working in the field of gas conversion, transportation fuels, primary petrochemicals and catalysis.

Gaseous Carbon Waste Streams Utilization

Gaseous Carbon Waste Streams Utilization
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on Developing a Research Agenda for Utilization of Gaseous Carbon Waste Streams
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2019-02-22
Category : Science
Total pages :256
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In the quest to mitigate the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere, researchers and policymakers have increasingly turned their attention to techniques for capturing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, either from the locations where they are emitted or directly from the atmosphere. Once captured, these gases can be stored or put to use. While both carbon storage and carbon utilization have costs, utilization offers the opportunity to recover some of the cost and even generate economic value. While current carbon utilization projects operate at a relatively small scale, some estimates suggest the market for waste carbon-derived products could grow to hundreds of billions of dollars within a few decades, utilizing several thousand teragrams of waste carbon gases per year. Gaseous Carbon Waste Streams Utilization: Status and Research Needs assesses research and development needs relevant to understanding and improving the commercial viability of waste carbon utilization technologies and defines a research agenda to address key challenges. The report is intended to help inform decision making surrounding the development and deployment of waste carbon utilization technologies under a variety of circumstances, whether motivated by a goal to improve processes for making carbon-based products, to generate revenue, or to achieve environmental goals.

Natural Gas Conversion V

Natural Gas Conversion V
Author : A. Parmaliana,D. Sanfilippo,F. Frusteri,A. Vaccari,F. Arena
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 1998-09-17
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :978
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On January 1988, the ascertained and economically accessible reserves of Natural Gas (NG) amounted to over 144,000 billion cubic meters worldwide, corresponding to 124 billion tons of oil equivalents (comparable with the liquid oil reserves, which are estimated to be 138 billion TOE). It is hypothesized that the volume of NG reserve will continue to grow at the same rate of the last decade. Forecasts on production indicate a potential increase from about 2,000 billion cubic meters in 1990 to not more than 3,300 billion cubic meters in 2010, even in a high economic development scenario. NG consumption represents only one half of oil: 1.9 billion TOE/y as compared to 3.5 of oil. Consequently, in the future gas will exceed oil as a carbon atom source. In the future the potential for getting energetic vectors or petrochemicals from NG will continue to grow. The topics covered in Natural Gas Conversion V reflect the large global R&D effort to look for new and economic ways of NG exploitation. These range from the direct conversion of methane and light paraffins to the indirect conversion through synthesis gas to fuels and chemicals. Particularly underlined and visible are the technologies already commercially viable. These proceedings prove that mature and technologically feasible processes for natural gas conversion are already available and that new and improved catalytic approaches are currently developing, the validity and feasibility of which will soon be documented. This is an exciting area of modern catalysis, which will certainly open novel and rewarding perspectives for the chemical, energy and petrochemical industries.