November 25, 2020

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Discrete Cosine and Sine Transforms

Discrete Cosine and Sine Transforms
Author : Vladimir Britanak,Patrick C. Yip,K. R Rao
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2010-07-28
Category : Mathematics
Total pages :368
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The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used in many applications by the scientific, engineering and research communities and in data compression in particular. Fast algorithms and applications of the DCT Type II (DCT-II) have become the heart of many established international image/video coding standards. Since then other forms of the DCT and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) have been investigated in detail. This new edition presents the complete set of DCT and DST discrete trigonometric transforms, including their definitions, general mathematical properties, and relations to the optimal Karhunen-Loéve transform (KLT), with the emphasis on fast algorithms (one-dimensional and two-dimensional) and integer approximations of DCTs and DSTs for their efficient implementations in the integer domain. DCTs and DSTs are real-valued transforms that map integer-valued signals to floating-point coefficients. To eliminate the floating-point operations, various methods of integer approximations have been proposed to construct and flexibly generate a family of integer DCT and DST transforms with arbitrary accuracy and performance. The integer DCTs/DSTs with low-cost and low-powered implementation can replace the corresponding real-valued transforms in wireless and satellite communication systems as well as portable computing applications. The book is essentially a detailed excursion on orthogonal/orthonormal DCT and DST matrices, their matrix factorizations and integer aproximations. It is hoped that the book will serve as a valuable reference for industry, academia and research institutes in developing integer DCTs and DSTs as well as an inspiration source for further advanced research. Presentation of the complete set of DCTs and DSTs in context of entire class of discrete unitary sinusoidal transforms: the origin, definitions, general mathematical properties, mutual relationships and relations to the optimal Karhunen-Loéve transform (KLT) Unified treatment with the fast implementations of DCTs and DSTs: the fast rotation-based algorithms derived in the form of recursive sparse matrix factorizations of a transform matrix including one- and two-dimensional cases Detailed presentation of various methods and design approaches to integer approximation of DCTs and DSTs utilizing the basic concepts of linear algebra, matrix theory and matrix computations leading to their efficient multiplierless real-time implementations, or in general reversible integer-to-integer implementations Comprehensive list of additional references reflecting recent/latest developments in the efficient implementations of DCTs and DSTs mainly one-, two-, three- and multi-dimensional fast DCT/DST algorithms including the recent active research topics for the time period from 1990 up to now

Discrete Cosine and Sine Transforms

Discrete Cosine and Sine Transforms
Author : Vladimir Britanak,Pat C. Yip,Ping Yip,Kamisetty Ramamohan Rao
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2007
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :349
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The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used in many applications by the scientific, engineering and research communities and in data compression in particular. Fast algorithms and applications of the DCT Type II (DCT-II) have become the heart of many established international image/video coding standards. Since then other forms of the DCT and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) have been investigated in detail. This new edition presents the complete set of DCT and DST discrete trigonometric transforms, including their definitions, general mathematical properties, and relations to the optimal Karhunen-Loéve transform (KLT), with the emphasis on fast algorithms (one-dimensional and two-dimensional) and integer approximations of DCTs and DSTs for their efficient implementations in the integer domain. DCTs and DSTs are real-valued transforms that map integer-valued signals to floating-point coefficients. To eliminate the floating-point operations, various methods of integer approximations have been proposed to construct and flexibly generate a family of integer DCT and DST transforms with arbitrary accuracy and performance. The integer DCTs/DSTs with low-cost and low-powered implementation can replace the corresponding real-valued transforms in wireless and satellite communication systems as well as portable computing applications. The book is essentially a detailed excursion on orthogonal/orthonormal DCT and DST matrices, their matrix factorizations and integer aproximations. It is hoped that the book will serve as a valuable reference for industry, academia and research institutes in developing integer DCTs and DSTs as well as an inspiration source for further advanced research. Key Features - Presentation of the complete set of DCTs and DSTs in context of entire class of discrete unitary sinusoidal transforms: the origin, definitions, general mathematical properties, mutual relationships and relations to the optimal Karhunen-Loéve transform (KLT). - Unified treatment with the fast implementations of DCTs and DSTs: the fast rotation-based algorithms derived in the form of recursive sparse matrix factorizations of a transform matrix including one- and two-dimensional cases. - Detailed presentation of various methods and design approaches to integer approximation of DCTs and DSTs utilizing the basic concepts of linear algebra, matrix theory and matrix computations leading to their efficient multiplierless real-time implementations, or in general reversible integer-to-integer implementations. - Comprehensive list of additional references reflecting recent/latest developments in the efficient implementations of DCTs and DSTs mainly one-, two-, three- and multi-dimensional fast DCT/DST algorithms including the recent active research topics for the time period from 1990 up to now.

Discrete Cosine Transform, Second Edition

Discrete Cosine Transform, Second Edition
Author : Humberto Ochoa-Dominguez,K. R. Rao
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2019-04-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :358
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Many new DCT-like transforms have been proposed since the first edition of this book. For example, the integer DCT that yields integer transform coefficients, the directional DCT to take advantage of several directions of the image and the steerable DCT. The advent of higher dimensional frames such as UHDTV and 4K-TV demand for small and large transform blocks to encode small or large similar areas respectively in an efficient way. Therefore, a new updated book on DCT, adapted to the modern days, considering the new advances in this area and targeted for students, researchers and the industry is a necessity.

Discrete Cosine Transform

Discrete Cosine Transform
Author : K. Ramamohan Rao,P. Yip
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2014-06-28
Category : Mathematics
Total pages :512
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This is the first comprehensive treatment of the theoretical aspects of the discrete cosine transform (DCT), which is being recommended by various standards organizations, such as the CCITT, ISO etc., as the primary compression tool in digital image coding. The main purpose of the book is to provide a complete source for the user of this signal processing tool, where both the basics and the applications are detailed. An extensive bibliography covers both the theory and applications of the DCT. The novice will find the book useful in its self-contained treatment of the theory of the DCT, the detailed description of various algorithms supported by computer programs and the range of possible applications, including codecs used for teleconferencing, videophone, progressive image transmission, and broadcast TV. The more advanced user will appreciate the extensive references. Tables describing ASIC VLSI chips for implementing DCT, and motion estimation and details on image compression boards are also provided.

Linear Difference Equations with Discrete Transform Methods

Linear Difference Equations with Discrete Transform Methods
Author : A.J. Jerri
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-03-09
Category : Mathematics
Total pages :442
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This book covers the basic elements of difference equations and the tools of difference and sum calculus necessary for studying and solv ing, primarily, ordinary linear difference equations. Examples from various fields are presented clearly in the first chapter, then discussed along with their detailed solutions in Chapters 2-7. The book is in tended mainly as a text for the beginning undergraduate course in difference equations, where the "operational sum calculus" of the di rect use of the discrete Fourier transforms for solving boundary value problems associated with difference equations represents an added new feature compared to other existing books on the subject at this introductory level. This means that in addition to the familiar meth ods of solving difference equations that are covered in Chapter 3, this book emphasizes the use of discrete transforms. It is an attempt to introduce the methods and mechanics of discrete transforms for solv ing ordinary difference equations. The treatment closely parallels what many students have already learned about using the opera tional (integral) calculus of Laplace and Fourier transforms to solve differential equations. As in the continuous case, discrete operational methods may not solve problems that are intractable by other meth ods, but they can facilitate the solution of a large class of discrete initial and boundary value problems. Such operational methods, or what we shall term "operational sum calculus," may be extended eas ily to solve partial difference equations associated with initial and/or boundary value problems.

Hardware Implementation, Design Synthesis and Analysis of Odd Discrete Cosine Transform and Odd Discrete Sine Transform Using Verilog HDL

Hardware Implementation, Design Synthesis and Analysis of Odd Discrete Cosine Transform and Odd Discrete Sine Transform Using Verilog HDL
Author : Sanskruti Mainkar
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2007
Category :
Total pages :170
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This objective of this work is to address the hardware implementation of Odd Discrete Cosine Transform (ODCT) and Odd Discrete Sine Transform (ODST) by utilizing the ODCT/ODST coefficients obtained from the conventional algorithms. The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is a Fourier-related transform similar to the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), but using a purely real representation. The DCT Algorithm is widely used due to its autocorrelation properties, bandwidth reduction and energy compaction efficiency and is used extensively in the field of data and image compression, audio-visual, communication and speech enhancement techniques. The Discrete Sine Transform (DST) is equivalent to a DFT of real and odd functions. It is equivalent to the imaginary part of a DFT of roughly twice the length, operating on real data with odd symmetry (since the Fourier transform of a real and odd function is imaginary and odd), where in some variants the input and/or output data are shifted by half a sample. In this thesis, the digital hardware implementations of these two transforms are achieved using a hybrid design process by modifying the traditional butterfly flow-graph. This is achieved by combining the butterfly flow-graph and the matrix-vector multiplication method. A set of 4 data points is used to implement the hybrid design, but the study can be extended to larger data sets in case of more data points with minor modifications, due to the symmetry in the basic butterfly.

Digital Image Processing

Digital Image Processing
Author : Wilhelm Burger,Mark J. Burge
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2016-03-25
Category : Computers
Total pages :811
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This revised and expanded new edition of an internationally successful classic presents an accessible introduction to the key methods in digital image processing for both practitioners and teachers. Emphasis is placed on practical application, presenting precise algorithmic descriptions in an unusually high level of detail, while highlighting direct connections between the mathematical foundations and concrete implementation. The text is supported by practical examples and carefully constructed chapter-ending exercises drawn from the authors' years of teaching experience, including easily adaptable Java code and completely worked out examples. Source code, test images and additional instructor materials are also provided at an associated website. Digital Image Processing is the definitive textbook for students, researchers, and professionals in search of critical analysis and modern implementations of the most important algorithms in the field, and is also eminently suitable for self-study.

The Transform and Data Compression Handbook

The Transform and Data Compression Handbook
Author : Kamisetty Ramam Rao,Patrick C. Yip
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-10-03
Category : Computers
Total pages :408
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Data compression is one of the main contributing factors in the explosive growth in information technology. Without it, a number of consumer and commercial products, such as DVD, videophone, digital camera, MP3, video-streaming and wireless PCS, would have been virtually impossible. Transforming the data to a frequency or other domain enables even more efficient compression. By illustrating this intimate link, The Transform and Data Compression Handbook serves as a much-needed handbook for a wide range of researchers and engineers. The authors describe various discrete transforms and their applications in different disciplines. They cover techniques, such as adaptive quantization and entropy coding, that result in significant reduction in bit rates when applied to the transform coefficients. With clear and concise presentations of the ideas and concepts, as well as detailed descriptions of the algorithms, the authors provide important insight into the applications and their limitations. Data compression is an essential step towards the efficient storage and transmission of information. The Transform and Data Compression Handbook provides a wealth of information regarding different discrete transforms and demonstrates their power and practicality in data compression.

Digital Television

Digital Television
Author : Walter Fischer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2004-03-05
Category : Computers
Total pages :384
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Digital Television deals with all present-day TV transmission methods, i.e. MPEG, DVB, ATSC and ISDB-T. The DVD Video is also discussed to some extent. The discussion is focussed on dealing with these subjects in as practical a way as possible. Although mathematical formulations are used, they are in most cases only utilized to supplement the text. The book also contains chapters dealing with basic concepts such as digital modulation or transformations into the frequency domain. A major emphasis is placed on the measuring techniques used on these various digital TV signals. Practical examples and hints concerning measurement are provided. The book starts with the analog TV baseband signal and then continues with the MPEG-2 data stream, digital video, digital audio and the compression methods. After an excursion into the digital modulation methods, all the mentioned transmission methods are discussed in detail. Interspersed between these are found the chapters on the relevant measuring technique.

Discrete Cosine Transform, Second Edition

Discrete Cosine Transform, Second Edition
Author : Humberto Ochoa-Dominguez,K. R. Rao
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2019-04-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :358
GET BOOK

Many new DCT-like transforms have been proposed since the first edition of this book. For example, the integer DCT that yields integer transform coefficients, the directional DCT to take advantage of several directions of the image and the steerable DCT. The advent of higher dimensional frames such as UHDTV and 4K-TV demand for small and large transform blocks to encode small or large similar areas respectively in an efficient way. Therefore, a new updated book on DCT, adapted to the modern days, considering the new advances in this area and targeted for students, researchers and the industry is a necessity.

Digital Signal Processing and Statistical Classification

Digital Signal Processing and Statistical Classification
Author : George J. Miao,Mark A. Clements
Publisher : Artech House
Release Date : 2002
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :492
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This is the first book to introduce and integrate advanced digital signal processing (DSP) and classification together, and the only volume to introduce state-of-the-art transforms including DFT, FFT, DCT, DHT, PCT, CDT, and ODT together for DSP and communication applications. You get step-by-step guidance in discrete-time domain signal processing and frequency domain signal analysis; digital filter design and adaptive filtering; multirate digital processing; and statistical signal classification. It also helps you overcome problems associated with multirate A/D and D/A converters.

Fourier Analysis

Fourier Analysis
Author : Source Wikipedia
Publisher : University-Press.org
Release Date : 2013-09
Category :
Total pages :194
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 192. Chapters: Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem, Discrete cosine transform, Discrete Fourier transform, Bessel function, Dirac delta function, Autocorrelation, Laplace's equation, Convolution, Topological group, Banach algebra, List of Fourier-related transforms, Frequency spectrum, Haar measure, Laplace transform, Fourier transform spectroscopy, Convolution theorem, Harmonic function, Basis function, Periodic function, Whittaker-Shannon interpolation formula, Fundamental frequency, Laplace operator, Modified discrete cosine transform, Fourier optics, Spherical harmonics, LTI system theory, Window function, Pontryagin duality, Multiplier, Discrete-time Fourier transform, Modulus of continuity, Sobolev space, Almost periodic function, Carleson's theorem, Ewald summation, Relations between Fourier transforms and Fourier series, Poisson summation formula, Analytic signal, Reciprocal lattice, Fractional Fourier transform, Solid harmonics, Spin-weighted spherical harmonics, Short-time Fourier transform, Uncertainty principle for the short-time Fourier transform, Riesz-Thorin theorem, Discrete Hartley transform, Linear canonical transformation, SigSpec, Discrete sine transform, Chirplet transform, Homogeneous distribution, Peter-Weyl theorem, Bilinear time-frequency distribution, Metaplectic group, Bloch wave - MoM method, Marcinkiewicz interpolation theorem, Spectral leakage, Orthonormal basis, Paley-Wiener theorem, Overlap-add method, FBI transform, Unit circle, Fourier inversion theorem, DFT matrix, Poisson kernel, Interpolation space, Littlewood-Paley theory, Motions in the time-frequency distribution, List of cycles, Parametrix, A derivation of the discrete Fourier transform, Parseval's theorem, Number-theoretic transform, Compact group, Overlap-save method, Set of uniqueness, Multitaper, Convolution power, ..

Innovations in Digital Watermarking Techniques

Innovations in Digital Watermarking Techniques
Author : Feng-Hsing Wang
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2009-09-21
Category : Computers
Total pages :186
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Information security and copyright protection are more important today than before. Digital watermarking is one of the widely used techniques used in the world in the area of information security. This book introduces a number of digital watermarking techniques and is divided into four parts. The first part introduces the importance of watermarking techniques and intelligent technology. The second part includes a number of watermarking techniques. The third part includes the hybrid watermarking techniques and the final part presents conclusions. This book is directed to students, professors, researchers and application engineers who are interested in the area of information security.

Handbook of Formulas and Tables for Signal Processing

Handbook of Formulas and Tables for Signal Processing
Author : Alexander D. Poularikas
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 1998-09-29
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :864
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Signal processing is a broad and timeless area. The term "signal" includes audio, video, speech, image, communication, geophysical, sonar, radar, medical, and more. Signal processing applies to the theory and application of filtering, coding, transmitting, estimating, detecting, analyzing, recognizing, synthesizing, recording, and reproducing signals. Handbook of Formulas and Tables for Signal Processing a must-have reference for all engineering professionals involved in signal and image processing. Collecting the most useful formulas and tables - such as integral tables, formulas of algebra, formulas of trigonometry - the text includes: Material for the deterministic and statistical signal processing areas Examples explaining the use of the given formula Numerous definitions Many figures that have been added to special chapters Handbook of Formulas and Tables for Signal Processing brings together - in one textbook - all the equations necessary for signal and image processing for professionals transforming anything from a physical to a manipulated form, creating a new standard for any person starting a future in the broad, extensive area of research.

Cosine-/Sine-Modulated Filter Banks

Cosine-/Sine-Modulated Filter Banks
Author : Vladimir Britanak,K. R. Rao
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-08-02
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :645
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This book covers various algorithmic developments in the perfect reconstruction cosine/sine-modulated filter banks (TDAC-MDCT/MDST or MLT, MCLT, low delay MDCT, complex exponential/cosine/sine-modulated QMF filter banks), and near-perfect reconstruction QMF banks (pseudo-QMF banks) in detail, including their general mathematical properties, matrix representations, fast algorithms and various methods to integer approximations being recently a new transform technology for lossless audio coding. Each chapter will contain a number of examples and will conclude with problems and exercises. The book reflects the research efforts/activities and achieved results of the authors in the time period over the last 20 years.