December 5, 2020

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Emerging Concepts in Ribosome Structure, Biogenesis, and Function

Emerging Concepts in Ribosome Structure, Biogenesis, and Function
Author : Vijay Kumar
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-11
Category :
Total pages :500
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Ribosome biogenesis is the process of making ribosomes which are responsible for mRNA translation into proteins. It is a tightly regulated process closely linked to nearly all biochemical and cellular processes, including cell division, growth and development. Emerging Concepts in Ribosome Structure, Biogenesis, and Function provides a synthesized overview of all the parts engaged in this process. The book begins by providing an introduction to the ribosome factory, its origin, and its evolution of translation. It then goes on to describe ribosome structure including subunits, RNA, and protein components. Ribosome biogenesis and its emergence as a frontier research area for translational potential in cancer and other diseases are also discussed. In addition, the book explores current developments in ribosome research like the emergence of ribosomopathies, how deregulation of ribosome biogenesis can impact disease mechanisms and aging, and the discovery of specialized ribosomes that have specific functions that may translate differentially with consequences on normal and pathological processes. Emerging Concepts in Ribosome Structure, Biogenesis, and Function provides fundamental coverage and emerging research on ribosomes, biogenesis, and their structure and function and is a resourceful introduction for new researchers and those engaged in interdisciplinary ribosomal research.

The Biogenesis of Cellular Organelles

The Biogenesis of Cellular Organelles
Author : Chris Mullins
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2007-03-06
Category : Medical
Total pages :181
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The Biogenesis of Cellular Organelles represents a comprehensive summary of recent advances in the study of the biogenesis and functional dynamics of the major organelles operating in the eukaryotic cell. This book begins by placing the study of organelle biogenesis in a historical perspective by describing past scientific strategies, theories, and findings and relating these foundations to current investigations. Reviews of protein and lipid mediators important for organelle biogenesis are then presented, and are followed by summaries focused on the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, lysosome, nucleus, mitochondria, and peroxisome.

The Nucleolus

The Nucleolus
Author : Mark O. J. Olson
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2011-09-15
Category : Science
Total pages :414
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Within the past two decades, extraordinary new functions for the nucleolus have begun to appear, giving the field a new vitality and generating renewed excitement and interest. These new discoveries include both newly-discovered functions and aspects of its conventional role. The Nucleolus is divided into three parts: nucleolar structure and organization, the role of the nucleolus in ribosome biogenesis, and novel functions of the nucleolus.

Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self

Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self
Author : Allan N. Schore
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release Date : 2012-08-06
Category : Psychology
Total pages :736
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During the past decade a diverse group of disciplines have simultaneously intensified their attention upon the scientific study of emotion. This proliferation of research on affective phenomena has been paralleled by an acceleration of investigations of early human structural and functional development. Developmental neuroscience is now delving into the ontogeny of brain systems that evolve to support the psychobiological underpinnings of socioemotional functioning. Studies of the infant brain demonstrate that its maturation is influenced by the environment and is experience-dependent. Developmental psychological research emphasizes that the infant's expanding socioaffective functions are critically influenced by the affect-transacting experiences it has with the primary caregiver. Concurrent developmental psychoanalytic research suggests that the mother's affect regulatory functions permanently shape the emerging self's capacity for self-organization. Studies of incipient relational processes and their effects on developing structure are thus an excellent paradigm for the deeper apprehension of the organization and dynamics of affective phenomena. This book brings together and presents the latest findings of socioemotional studies emerging from the developmental branches of various disciplines. It supplies psychological researchers and clinicians with relevant, up-to-date developmental neurobiological findings and insights, and exposes neuroscientists to recent developmental psychological and psychoanalytic studies of infants. The methodology of this theoretical research involves the integration of information that is being generated by the different fields that are studying the problem of socioaffective development--neurobiology, behavioral neurology, behavioral biology, sociobiology, social psychology, developmental psychology, developmental psychoanalysis, and infant psychiatry. A special emphasis is placed upon the application and incorporation of current developmental data from neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, neuropsychology, and neuroendocrinology into the main body of developmental theory. More than just a review of several literatures, the studies cited in this work are used as a multidisciplinary source pool of experimental data, theoretical concepts, and clinical observations that form the base and scaffolding of an overarching heuristic model of socioemotional development that is grounded in contemporary neuroscience. This psychoneurobiological model is then used to generate a number of heuristic hypotheses regarding the proximal causes of a wide array of affect-related phenomena--from the motive force that drives human attachment to the proximal causes of psychiatric disturbances and psychosomatic disorders, and indeed to the origin of the self.

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Molecular Biology of the Cell
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2006
Category : Cells
Total pages :129
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Advances in Cell Biology

Advances in Cell Biology
Author : Josef Berger
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2003
Category : Cytology
Total pages :184
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The Eukaryotic Ribosome

The Eukaryotic Ribosome
Author : H. Bielka
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2011-11-23
Category : Science
Total pages :338
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Contents References 11 II. A short historical survey 13 References 16 III. Ribosomes within the cell 20 1. Proportion of ribosomes in tissues 21 2. Free and membrane-bound ribo- mes 22 3. Ribosomes in nucleoli 26 4. Structure of polysomes in the cell 26 5. Ribosomal crystals 33 6. References 33 IV. Some general properties of ribosomes 41 1. Physical characteristics 41 2. Chemical characteristics 43 3. References 44 V. Morphology of ribosomes and poly somes 47 1. Electron microscopy 47 a) The small ribosomal subunit 48 b) The large ribosomal subunit 48 c) The monomeric ribosome 52 d) Three-dimensional models 54 e) Polysomes 55 2. Small-angle X-ray scattering 55 a) The monomeric ribosome 56 b) Polysomes 57 3. References 57 VI. Chemical components 61 1. Ribosomal proteins 61 a) Electrophoretic separation and num ber 61 b) Preparation of single ribosomal pro teins 67 c) Molecular weights 68 d) Amino acid composition and amino acid sequences 71 e) Stoichiometry 71 f) Posttranslational modifications 72 g) Comparison of ribosomal proteins of different tissues 73 h) Species specificities and evolution 74 i) Ribosomal proteins of mitochondria and chloroplasts 75 k) Ribosomal mutants with altered pro teins 75 5 3. Formation of preribosomal 2. Phosphorylation of ribosomal prote particles 139 ins 76 4. References 141 a) In vitro phosphorylation and de phosphorylation 76 VIII. Dissociation - reassociation processes b) In vivo phosphorylation 77 of ribosomal particles 151 c) Phosphorylation of ribosomal pro tein S 6 78 1.

ASM News

ASM News
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1984
Category : Microbiology
Total pages :129
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Visions of the Cell Nucleus

Visions of the Cell Nucleus
Author : Peter Hemmerich,Stephan Diekmann
Publisher : Amer Scientific Pub
Release Date : 2005
Category : Science
Total pages :319
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Visions of the Cell Nucleus brings together scientists working on different aspects of structure and function of the mammalian cell nucleus. The goal of this book is to give a state-of-the-art overview on chromatin organization, function and dynamics of subnuclear structures, gene expression, DNA distribution, and disease. Emphasis is put on new ideas of dynamic structure/function relationships revealed by the recent advent of new microscopy techniques as well as on subnuclear pathology and disease associations. The book provides all the information researchers, scientists and professionals need for this rapidly growing field. This is the most up-to-date reference on latest and emerging new research aspects of mammalian cell nucleus. It has 18 state-of-the-art review chapters written by world-renowned experts from universities and research institutes.

Regulatory Nascent Polypeptides

Regulatory Nascent Polypeptides
Author : Koreaki Ito
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-08-19
Category : Science
Total pages :315
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This book highlights a new paradigm of translation control by regulatory nascent polypeptides, which is integrated into cellular regulatory systems. Translation lies in the hub of the central dogma of biology, in which the genetic information in the forms of 4-letter sentences is translated into 20-letter sentences: sequences of amino acids that constitute proteins, the functional molecules of life. The process involves a huge number of chemical reactions as well as physical movements of the ribosome along a messenger RNA and takes, on average, tens of seconds in prokaryotes and a few minutes in eukaryotes. Detailed knowledge about the progression of translation, called "elongation", only recently started to accumulate. Newly synthesized and growing polypeptides, called nascent polypeptides, can interact with the intra-ribosomal conduit, called the ribosomal exit tunnel, when they have some specific amino acid sequences, called "an arrest sequence". Such interaction leads to a halt in the elongation reaction. Resulting stalling of the ribosome on messenger RNA can affect the secondary structure and/or localization of the message in the cell, consequently leading to biological outputs such as elevation or reduction of a gene product. This book provides a first collection of knowledge focused on regulatory nascent polypeptides, which have been studied recently using diverse organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals. Readers will be impressed by a new paradigm showing that proteins can function even during the course of their biosynthesis and that the ribosome, the "factory" of protein production, interacts with and inspects its products to adjust the speed of completion of each product. Moreover, regulatory nascent polypeptides can sense or monitor physiological states of the cell and modulate its ability to arrest translation. Living organisms use such intricate control mechanisms of translational speed to regulate gene expression. This book will be a useful addition for established scientists while inspiring students and young scientists to gain deeper insights into the processes of expression of genetic information.

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Molecular Biology of the Cell
Author : Bruce Alberts
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2004
Category :
Total pages :129
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The Translational Apparatus

The Translational Apparatus
Author : K.H. Nierhaus,F. Franceschi,A.R. Subramanian,Volker Alfred Erdmann,Brigitte Wittmann-Liebold
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :746
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Proceedings of an international conference held in Berlin, Germany, October 31-November 5, 1992

The Plasticity of Skeletal Muscle

The Plasticity of Skeletal Muscle
Author : Kunihiro Sakuma
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-03-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :292
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This book discusses recent advances and various topics in plasticity of skeletal muscle from the perspectives of morphology, biological function, and clinical applications. Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic organ to adapt to environmental various demands, appears to endocrine various myokines, which flow into blood to protect the recognizing function of brain and inhibit the appearance of several cancer tumorigenesis. The book deals with current stem-cell based, pharmacological, and nutritional therapies for muscle wasting (sarcopenia, cachexia, and muscular dystrophy). It also explains the roles of biological mediators such as PGC-1, transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPC), and AMPK in modulating muscle function. The functional roles of ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy-dependent signaling in muscle homeostasis, ribosome biogenesis, and redox regulation of mechanotransduction to modulate skeletal muscle mass are also covered. It is an essential resource for physicians, researchers, post-docs as well as graduate students in the field of sports science including rehabilitation therapy, exercise physiology, exercise biochemistry, and molecular biology dealing with skeletal muscle.

Ribosomes Structure, Function, and Dynamics

Ribosomes Structure, Function, and Dynamics
Author : Marina V. Rodnina,Wolfgang Wintermeyer,Rachel Green
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2011-12-10
Category : Medical
Total pages :442
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The ribosome is a macromolecular machine that synthesizes proteins with a high degree of speed and accuracy. Our present understanding of its structure, function and dynamics is the result of six decades of research. This book collects over 40 articles based on the talks presented at the 2010 Ribosome Meeting, held in Orvieto, Italy, covering all facets of the structure and function of the ribosome. New high-resolution crystal structures of functional ribosome complexes and cryo-EM structures of translating ribosomes are presented, while partial reactions of translation are examined in structural and mechanistic detail, featuring translocation as a most dynamic process. Mechanisms of initiation, both in bacterial and eukaryotic systems, translation termination, and novel details of the functions of the respective factors are described. Structure and interactions of the nascent peptide within, and emerging from, the ribosomal peptide exit tunnel are addressed in several articles. Structural and single-molecule studies reveal a picture of the ribosome exhibiting the energy landscape of a processive Brownian machine. The collection provides up-to-date reviews which will serve as a source of essential information for years to come.

The Membranes of Cells

The Membranes of Cells
Author : Philip Yeagle
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1993
Category : Science
Total pages :349
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In this new edition of The Membranes of Cells, all of the chapters have been updated, some have been completely rewritten, and a new chapter on receptors has been added. The book has been designed to provide both the student and researcher with a synthesis of information from a number of scientific disciplines to create a comprehensive view of the structure and function of the membranes of cells. The topics are treated in sufficient depth to provide an entry point to the more detailed literature needed by the researcher. Key Features * Introduces biologists to membrane structure and physical chemistry * Introduces biophysicists to biological membrane function * Provides a comprehensive view of cell membranes to students, either as a necessary background for other specialized disciplines or as an entry into the field of biological membrane research * Clarifies ambiguities in the field