November 25, 2020

Download Ebook Free Energy Potential Of The Russian Arctic Seas

Energy Potential of the Russian Arctic Seas

Energy Potential of the Russian Arctic Seas
Author : Alexey Piskarev,Mikhail Shkatov
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012
Category : Science
Total pages :425
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The structure of sedimentary basins of the Russian Arctic Seas is studied and illustrated by a number of maps, cross-sections and geophysical models. The calculated density models of the Earth crust illustrate the deep structure of the main blocks of the crust. Five major gas-condensate and gas fields are discovered here: three (Shtokman, Ludlov, Ledovoe) in the Barents and two (Leningrad and Rusanov) in the Kara Sea. Geological and geophysical characteristics of the Russian Arctic Sea sedimentary basins allow an estimation of their hydrocarbon potential by comparison with the known world analogues. Total potential resources of giant deposits of hydrocarbons in Russian Arctic Seas are estimated at 470 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The richest resources are the Kara Sea and Laptev Sea. Less rich is Barents Sea. The relatively smaller contribution to the overall estimation of the resources makes the resources of East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. Development the energy capacity of the continental shelf of Russia can play a stabilizing role in the dynamics of oil and gas production in the period 2010-2020. A key role in developing the capacity of the Arctic shelf oil and gas play is the innovative technology in exploration, production and management of the relevant investment projects. World offshore experience indicates that the combination of these factors is achieved through the formation of international firms and organizations. Comprehensively assesses the potential oil and gas resources in sedimentary basins within the Russian sector of the Arctic Ocean Describes the economic and legal challenges to the development of offshore fields in Russia Explores possible ways and timing to maKe these hydrocarbon resources available to the global market

Renewable Energy and Power Supply Challenges for Rural Regions

Renewable Energy and Power Supply Challenges for Rural Regions
Author : Kharchenko, Valeriy,Vasant, Pandian
Publisher : IGI Global
Release Date : 2019-03-22
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :432
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Access to power and electricity is a vital resource for businesses and for sustaining the livelihood of consumers. However, producing reliable and renewable energy and distributing it in rural areas can be challenging. Such activities require special technical support measures for organizing a highly efficient and cost-effective production process. Renewable Energy and Power Supply Challenges for Rural Regions provides innovative insights into energy production, consumption, and distribution in rural regions and examines sustainable and renewable power sources. The content within this publication explores such topics as renewable energy, electrical network, and thermal energy storage. It is designed for electricians, policymakers, state officials, professionals, researchers, and academicians.

Carbon Cycle in the Russian Arctic Seas

Carbon Cycle in the Russian Arctic Seas
Author : Alexander Vetrov,Evgeny Romankevich
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-03-09
Category : Science
Total pages :334
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This study analyzes carbon-cycle conditions controlling the state of the Arctic ecosystem and their seasonal variations. Territory covered includes the Barents, White, Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi Seas, considering inter-correlations between sources of organic carbon, their fluxes, recycling and burial in bottom sediments. All biological communities (phythoplankton, macrophythobenthos, microphythobentos, bacterioplankton, zooplankton and zoobenthos) are taken into account regarding their participation in the carbon cycle.

Natural Gas Hydrate - Arctic Ocean Deepwater Resource Potential

Natural Gas Hydrate - Arctic Ocean Deepwater Resource Potential
Author : Michael D. Max,Arthur H. Johnson,William P. Dillon
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-10-11
Category : Science
Total pages :113
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The book is an up-to-date basic reference for natural gas hydrate (NGH) in the Arctic Ocean. Geographical, geological, environmental, energy, new technology, and regulatory matters are discussed. The book should be of interest to general readers and scientists and students as well as industry and government agencies concerned with energy and ocean management. NGH is a solid crystalline material that compresses gas by about a factor of about 164 during crystallization from natural gas (mainly methane) - rich pore waters over time. NGH displaces water and may form large concentrations in sediment pore space. Its formation introduces changes in the geotechnical character of host sediment that allows it to be distinguished by seismic and electric exploration methods. The chemical reaction that forms NGH from gas and water molecules is highly reversible, which allows controlled conversion of the NGH to its constituent gas and water. This can be achieved rapidly by one of a number of processes including heating, depressurization, inhibitor injection, dissolution, and molecular replacement. The produced gas has the potential to make NGH a valuable unconventional natural gas resource, and perhaps the largest on earth. Estimates for NGH distribution, concentration, economic targets, and volumes in the Arctic Ocean have been carried out by restricting the economic target to deepwater turbidite sands, which are also sediment hosts for more deeply buried conventional hydrocarbon deposits. Resource base estimates are based on NGH petroleum system analysis approach using industry-standard parameters along with analogs from three relatively well known examples (Nankai-Japan, Gulf of Mexico-United States, and Arctic permafrost hydrate). Drilling data has substantiated new geotechnical-level seismic analysis techniques for estimating not just the presence of NGH but prospect volumes. In addition to a volumetric estimate for NGH having economic potential, a sedimentary depositional model is proposed to aid exploration in the five different regions around the deep central Arctic Ocean basin. Related topics are also discussed. Transport and logistics for NGH may also be applicable for stranded conventional gas and oil deposits. Arising from a discussion of new technology and methodologies that could be applied to developing NGH, suggestions are made for the lowering of exploration and capital expenses that could make NGH competitive on a produced cost basis. The basis for the extraordinarily low environmental risk for exploration and production of NGH is discussed, especially with respect to the environmentally fragile Arctic region. It is suggested that because of the low environmental risk, special regulations could be written that would provide a framework for very low cost and safe development.

Measuring Sustainable Development. The Energy Extraction in the European Arctic Ocean

Measuring Sustainable Development. The Energy Extraction in the European Arctic Ocean
Author : Christin Fund
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release Date : 2015-04-21
Category : Science
Total pages :170
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Master's Thesis from the year 2013 in the subject Energy Sciences, grade: 1,3, Dresden Technical University (Department of Economic Policy and Economic Research), course: Internationale Beziehungen, language: English, abstract: The Arctic is probably the only region in the world that has as of yet been largely spared from human activities. This is primarily caused by its extreme environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the region hosts a unique biodiversity that is of significant social, economic and cultural importance to local communities. Today, the Arctic is increasingly regarded as key region in a globalised world. In the same time, the Arctic faces various challenges in the 21th century including the search for natural resources, global warming and environmental protection, as well as the emergence of shipping routes and the establishment of tourist centres (Berkman 2012). It is well-known that the world’s increasing demand for energy resources goes hand in hand with the growing world population and the significant importance of emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India. Furthermore, a decrease of oil production can be observed in major oil producing regions, whereas oil prices will increase in the long-term and the provision of energy resources will be prospectively concentrated in alternative regions. For a long time, energy extraction in the Arctic appeared non-economical, because of harsh weather conditions and the need for high technical standards – though this might change in the near future. Changing climate in general and rising temperatures in particular result in the melting of sea ice. As a consequence, this process implies new economic opportunities for energy extraction activities in the once ice-covered Arctic Ocean. The potential for undiscovered offshore energy deposits is already recognised, but the Arctic Ocean is gaining further importance for other future energy extraction activities as well. It can be assumed that the production of energy from offshore development will continue to increase considerably in the future. Based on the considerations to ensure long-term sustainable development in the Arctic Ocean, this study aims to analyse if sustainable development is generally measureable in this region. The study pursues a European perspective and focuses on the commercial exploitation (oil and gas activities) of the European Arctic Ocean.

Russia in the Arctic

Russia in the Arctic
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Strategic Studies Institute
Release Date : 2011-01-01
Category : Arctic Coast (Russia)
Total pages :141
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The Arctic is the newest sphere of international competition for energy and security access. It pits Russia against the other Arctic states. These essays fully explore and analyze what is at stake here and what Moscow has done to increase its capability and influence in the Arctic.

Russian Approaches to International Law

Russian Approaches to International Law
Author : Lauri Mälksoo
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release Date : 2015-03-05
Category : Law
Total pages :290
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This book addresses a simple question: how do Russians understand international law? Is it the same understanding as in the West or is it in some ways different and if so, why? It answers these questions by drawing on from three different yet closely interconnected perspectives: history, theory, and recent state practice. The work uses comparative international law as starting point and argues that in order to understand post-Soviet Russia's state and scholarly approaches to international law, one should take into account the history of ideas in Russia. To an extent, Russian understandings of international law differ from what is considered the mainstream in the West. One specific feature of this book is that it goes inside the language of international law as it is spoken and discussed in post-Soviet Russia, especially the scholarly literature in the Russian language, and relates this literature to the history of international law as discipline in Russia. Recent state practice such as the annexation of Crimea in 2014, Russia's record in the UN Security Council, the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, prominent cases in investor-state arbitration, and the creation of the Eurasian Economic Union are laid out and discussed in the context of increasingly popular 'civilizational' ideas, the claim that Russia is a unique civilization and therefore not part of the West. The implications of this claim for the future of international law, its universality, and regionalism are discussed.

The Risk Pivot

The Risk Pivot
Author : Bruce D. Jones,David Steven
Publisher : Brookings Institution Press
Release Date : 2014-11-21
Category : Political Science
Total pages :206
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The last decade has seen a revolution in global energy. First, we saw explosive growth in demand from Asia's rising powers, which fueled fears about scarcity and conflict. But we've also seen an American revolution in technology and markets, resulting in a dramatic increase in sup-ply. This is strengthening America's hand in the world—but it's not without complications. There are major security consequences of these shifts. Among the most consequential are China and India, Asia's emerging giants, which are increasingly exposed to political risks associated with energy risks, as well as the energy flows, pivoting to Asia. Meanwhile the great powers struggle to balance their need for fossil fuels with a mounting effort to tackle climate change. The top powers, and the United States above all, face a stra-tegic choice: whether to use energy as a weapon of geopolitics, or as a tool of a stable order. CONTENTS Introduction 1. The President and the King—Key Messages of the Book 2. The Energy Revolutions—A Primer Geopolitics in Flux—The Players 3. Choices—Scenarios, and the Choice the Powers Confront 4. Rough Seas Ahead—The Great Powers' Search for Energy Security Globalization and Complexity—The Problems 5. Transition in the Gulf 6. The Turbulent Middle 7. Fragile States 8. The Russian Problem 9. Connections—from Pipelines to Politics Governance—The Partners 10. An Emerging System of Global Energy Governance 11. Leadership Choices

Security and Sovereignty in the North Atlantic

Security and Sovereignty in the North Atlantic
Author : L. Heininen
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-11-21
Category : Political Science
Total pages :126
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The North Atlantic continues to be an area of international strategic significance regionally and globally. This study explores the strong processes of sovereignty, as well as new independent states and micro-proto-states that are forming in the region.

Still Ours to Lead

Still Ours to Lead
Author : Bruce D. Jones
Publisher : Brookings Institution Press
Release Date : 2014-03-17
Category : Political Science
Total pages :263
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Is the United States still a "superpower"? How are the rising powers establishing themselves in international politics and security? What is the future of global stability? For over a decade, Bruce Jones has had a front-row seat as the emerging powers—principally China, India, and Brazil, but also Turkey, Indonesia, Korea, and others—thrust themselves onto the global stage. From Delhi to Doha to Beijing to Brasilia, he's met with the politicians, diplomats, business leaders, and scholars of those powers as they craft their strategies for rising influence—and with senior American officials as they forge their response. In Still Ours to Lead, Jones tells a nuanced story of American leadership. He artfully examines the tension between the impulse to rival the United States and the incentives for restraint and cooperation among the rising powers. That balance of rivalry and restraint provides the United States with a continued ability to solve problems and to manage crises at roughly the same rate as when American dominance was unquestioned. Maintaining the balance is central to the question of whether we will live in a stable or unstable system in the period to come. But it just so happens that this challenge plays to America's unique strength—its unparalleled ability to pull together broad and disparate coalitions for action. To succeed, America must adapt its leadership to new realities.

The Arctic Gold Rush

The Arctic Gold Rush
Author : Roger Howard
Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date : 2010-06-01
Category : Political Science
Total pages :272
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An exploration of the political significance of the Arctic's vast untapped wealth of natural resources, and a gripping account of the race to exploit them On August 2, 2007, a Russian submarine captured world headlines by making a dangerous journey to the bottom of the Arctic seabed and planting a metal, rustfree national flag more than 14,000 feet beneath the North Pole. The aim was to assert Russia's legal sovereignty over a region whose importance had only recently started to become apparent as its melting ice had made, or was expected to make, vast natural resources open to exploitation. The latest estimates are that the region holds around 13% of the world's undiscovered oil and as much as 30% of undiscovered natural gas reserves that would be hugely profitable for any country that managed to secure control over them. Gold, platinum, copper, and other precious metals have also been found along the coast. Neighboring countries - Russia, the United States, Canada, Denmark, and Norway - are already doing everything they can to mark out new borders. The ensuing political disagreements over the issue are already rife. In particular, games of political intrigue between Moscow and Washington are being played out in the region. But as the world's resources become increasingly scarce and valuable, could the scramble for Arctic resources become violent? Could a "War for the Arctic" be fought? Praise for The Oil Hunters: "The Dramatic Days of oil exploration in the first half of the 20th century are narrated in gripping fashion by Roger Howard." -The Spectator "A fascinating story for anyone interested in one of today's main economic problems: How to reduce the hundreds of billions that Americans spend every year to import oil...the book is packed with intrepid geologists, risk-averse business people, hardup Mideast rulers and ingenious promoters- all concerned with driving up profits."-The Associated Press

Polar Energy Resources Potential

Polar Energy Resources Potential
Author : Joseph P. Riva,James E. Mielke
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1977
Category : Power resources
Total pages :178
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Russia and European Energy Security

Russia and European Energy Security
Author : Keith C. Smith
Publisher : CSIS
Release Date : 2008
Category : History
Total pages :26
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Officials of the Putin/Medvedev administration routinely deny that Russia employs its energy resources for political purposes. But Russia's actions demonstrate again and again that the Kremlin leadership will use its enormous energy wealth to increase its political and economic influence in Europe and the wider world. This should not come as a surprise to European officials.Many European policymakers have come to believe that their countries are so dependent economically on Russia that they have no choice but to defer to Moscow in order to ensure future supplies of Russian oil and gas. This opinion prevails in spite of the fact that today's Russia is significantly weaker economically than any large European state, with the exception of Ukraine. With its huge energy resources, Moscow appears to be playing with a stronger hand in East-West economic relations than Brussels, Berlin, or Paris. Europe's “soft power” has turned out to be less influential with Moscow than many expected. And neither Europe nor the United States has been able to reverse the rush toward authoritarianism in Russia.The purpose of this report is to encourage greater European and American cooperation on issues of energy security, particularly as they relate to Russian suppliers, and to highlight Moscow's policies regarding the use of its enormous energy potential to affect political and security events in Europe. The war in Georgia, whatever the arguments concerning who shot first, is part of a Kremlin strategy to discourage the building of gas pipelines from Caspian countries to Europe, in the process bypassing Russian territory and Russia's control of Central Asian supplies. Without a more aggressive competition policy, Europe will lose much of its ability to lead the Continent toward greater integration and cooperation.The present situation only reinforces the impression in Moscow that transparent, competitive energy trade policies are unnecessary and would curb the extremely high rents now collected by Russian elites. In the long run, however, the current policies of the Kremlin will lead to greater suspicion of its motives, delay the development of a modern energy sector in Russia, and as a result, delay the country's integration into a democratic league of nations within Europe.

Geologic Structures of the Arctic Basin

Geologic Structures of the Arctic Basin
Author : Alexey Piskarev,Victor Poselov,Valery Kaminsky
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-06-11
Category : Science
Total pages :375
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This book contains the most complete description of the geologic and geophysical data of the structure of Arctic Basin including structures of the earth’s crust, crustal and acoustic basement, and sedimentary cover. The book includes information about extracted and studied cores and samples; observed, processed and interpreted data on geophysical anomalies and different conceptions, and a hypotheses of the origin of the modern Arctic Basin structures. Progress in solving the problems of the Arctic Basin geology is presented in the chapters and include contributions from leading field experts.

Russian Arctic Seas

Russian Arctic Seas
Author : Nataly Marchenko
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-02-15
Category : Science
Total pages :274
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For safe operations in the Arctic, it is critical to understand the natural conditions and to learn from the experiences of ice pilots who have worked there. In the context of planning the PetroArctic project, accounts of seagoing activities in the Russian Arctic Seas that ersulted in accidents have been gathered and are now made available in this bilingual (Russian-English) volume. Here especially, the physical environment and navigation issues for the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi seas are described. Fully half of the book describes accidents induced by heavy ice conditions since 1900: 94 accidents are carefully reported and classified. Among these, the accidents involve shipwrecks, forced drift (ice jet as special case), overwintering, and various types of vessel damage. Most accounts include details such as distinguishing features, behavior of the crew, photos, and maps, which reveal ice conditions, date, location, and vessels involved (for each of four seas). The book will be useful to scientists, industrial planners and a wide audience interested in the Arctic Seas.