June 18, 2021

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Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System

Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System
Author : J. David Sweatt,Michael J. Meaney,Eric J. Nestler,Schahram Akbarian
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2012-12-31
Category : Science
Total pages :374
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Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System addresses current understanding of the roles of epigenetic processes at the molecular/cellular level, their impact on neural development and behavior, and the potential roles of these mechanisms in neurological and psychiatric disorders. This award-winning volume spans molecular epigenetics, development, cellular physiology and biochemistry, synaptic and neural plasticity, and behavioral models, and is unique in covering epigenetically based disorders of the central nervous system. Behavioral epigenetics is the study of how environmental factors alter behavior, addressing the fundamental mechanisms that shape development and individual vulnerability/resilience to adverse behavioral outcomes. By understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in epigenetic modulation, researchers may be able to develop targeted therapies for those individuals in whom it malfunctions. Edited by the most highly regarded leaders in the field, this book offers a comprehensive review of behavioral epigenetics and a balanced treatment of the strengths and weaknesses in experimentation in this area. Covering background material as well as topics of current interest, it serves both as a cutting-edge resource and a foundational reference. The book will benefit neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in the links between gene regulation and behavior, as will clinicians dealing with disorders such as addiction, depression, and schizophrenia. BMA Medical Book Awards 2014 - Highly Commended, Neurology, British Medical Association BMA Medical Book Awards 2014 - First Prize, Neurology, British Medical Association 2013 PROSE Award winner for Best in Reference Works and Best Single Volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers Presents a unified view of epigenetic mechanisms from behavior to genes and everything in between Discusses clinically relevant disorders in the context of epigenetics research, making the volume appealing to clinicians as well as basic scientists Provides numerous practical examples for the new investigator to facilitate implementation of research in neuroepigenetics

Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms in Down Syndrome Brain

Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms in Down Syndrome Brain
Author : Jie Lu
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2013
Category : Medicine
Total pages :129
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Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms in Down Syndrome Brain.

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Neural Plasticity

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Neural Plasticity
Author : Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún,Reinhard Schliebs,Merce Pallàs
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2019-09-20
Category :
Total pages :129
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Neural plasticity is a unique and adaptive feature of nervous system, which allows neurons to reorganize their interactions in response to a stimulation (intrinsic or extrinsic) to maintain their function. For these reasons, epigenetics emerges as a potential field for developing strategies to modulate changes in pathological situation because extrinsic factors and pharmacological tools can modify neural functioning in organisms during their life. Diet, exercise, environmental aspects, stressors or drugs are available to alter those mechanisms. Epigenetic involves certain molecular signaling pathways, as DNA methylation and histone acetylation and deacetylation, and the emerging non-coding small RNA, mainly microRNA, as a commanders of a number of translation processes. As most of molecular nervous cell alterations, epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in neural plasticity. This eBook collects the burgeoning advances in epigenetic mechanisms, focusing on new insights into cellular and molecular neurobiological mechanisms that underlie brain functioning in health and pathological conditions. Contributions go from basic cellular mechanism to therapeutic opportunities to tackle the challenges on nervous central system development and neurodegeneration.

Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Brain

Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Brain
Author : Andrew J. Kennedy,Gabriella N. L. Chua
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2020-06
Category : Medical
Total pages :350
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Epigenetic mechanisms are the biological processes that determine how our genome is used and the same principle can be applied to our neuron genes. In recent findings in the field of neuroepigenetics, it has been determined that our genes encode our memories, transmit information about stressful events, and play apart in our addictions. This book helps to unlock these abstract processes, leading to improved individualized treatments.

Epigenetics, Brain and Behavior

Epigenetics, Brain and Behavior
Author : Paolo Sassone Corsi,Yves Christen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-10-19
Category : Medical
Total pages :166
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Recent years have seen spectacular advances in the filed of epigenetics. These have attracted the interest of researchers in many fields and evidence connecting epigentic regulation to brain functions has been accumulationg. Neurons daily convert a variety of external stimuli into rapid or long-lasting changes in gene expression. A variety of studies have centered on the molcular mechanisms implicated in epigentic control and how these may operte in concert. It will be critical to unravel how specifity is achieved. The focus of this volume is on critical epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodeling events that occur in the nervous system and on the presumed mechanisms that operate within neurons to translate them into long-lasting neuronal responses.

Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Brain

Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Brain
Author : Andrew J. Kennedy,Gabriella N.L. Chua
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2021-06-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :350
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Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Brain provides recent findings in the field of neuroepigenetics, covering how our genes encode our memories, transmit information about stressful events, and play a part in our addictions. This book helps to unlock these abstract processes, with a forward goal of improving individualized treatments. Discusses how the epigenome affects long-term memory, stress and addiction Reviews the concept of transgenerational memory Describes treatment options for the epigenome

Epigenetics of Chronic Pain

Epigenetics of Chronic Pain
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-10-29
Category : Medical
Total pages :248
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Epigenetics of Chronic Pain, Volume Nine, presents comprehensive information on the role of epigenetics in chronic pain sensitivity, providing a detailed, but accessible, view of the field from basic principles, to clinical application. Leading international researchers discuss essential mechanisms of chronic pain epigenetics, including the molecular processes of chromatin remodeling, histone modifications, and the microRNAs and noncoding RNAs involved in regulating genes tied to pain sensitivity. The influence of epigenetics in inflammatory, neuropathic, visceral and other pain models is examined, with data derived from epigenetic studies on peripheral and central mechanisms of pain sensitivity in animal models and clinical cases studies. The studies and case examples cited highlight therapeutic pathways of significance and next steps for researchers to develop epigenetic-based treatments for chronic pain. In recent years, epigenetic regulation of gene expression has been shown to play a central role in managing human pain sensitivity. Findings show that expression of many genes critical to increases or decreases in pain sensitivity are indeed regulated by DNA methylation and its enzymes, histone-involved chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs, mainly microRNAs. Compiles all known information on epigenetic regulation of chronic pain in one volume Covers the basic functionality of epigenetic mechanisms involved in pain management, applications of recent research in understanding different types of chronic pain, and pathways for developing therapeutics Leading international researchers from across academia, clinical settings, and the pharmaceutical industry discuss epigenetics in inflammatory, neuropathic, visceral, and other pain models in-depth Enables clinicians, researchers, and pharmacologists to better understand and treat chronic pain

Brain, Behavior and Epigenetics

Brain, Behavior and Epigenetics
Author : Arturas Petronis,Jonathan Mill
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2011-05-19
Category : Medical
Total pages :320
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Biomedical research in the first decade of the 21st century has been marked by a rapidly growing interest in epigenetics. The reasons for this are numerous, but primarily it stems from the mounting realization that research programs focused solely on DNA sequence variation, despite their breadth and depth, are unlikely to address all fundamental aspects of human biology. Some questions are evident even to non-biologists. How does a single zygote develop into a complex multicellular organism composed of dozens of different tissues and hundreds of cell types, all genetically identical but performing very different functions? Why do monozygotic twins, despite their stunning external similarities, often exhibit significant differences in personality and predisposition to disease? If environmental factors are solely the cause of such variation, why are similar differences also observed between genetically identical animals housed in a uniform environment? Over the last couple of decades, epigenetics has undergone a significant metamorphosis from an abstract developmental theory to a very dynamic and rapidly developing branch of molecular biology. This volume represents a compilation of our current understanding about the key aspects of epigenetic processes in the brain and their role in behavior. The chapters in this book bring together some of the leading researchers in the field of behavioral epigenetics. They explore many of the epigenetic processes which operate or may be operating to mediate neurobiological functions in the brain and describe how perturbations to these systems may play a key role in mediating behavior and the origin of brain diseases.

Epigenetic Markers in the Postnatal Developing Rat Brain

Epigenetic Markers in the Postnatal Developing Rat Brain
Author : Rebecca Kaye Simmons
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2013
Category :
Total pages :83
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Epigenetic mechanisms provide a critical and plausible mechanism by which genes and the environment can interact and have been implicated in a number of diseases and disorders. In order to better understand how epigenetic mechanisms go awry in a diseased brain we must first understand how epigenetic mechanisms unfold during normal development. The present body of work begins to examine the role of DNA methylation in normal development and how it may contribute to a rodent model of emotion dysfunction. Using a variety of techniques, we evaluated the transcript, protein and functional output levels of DNA methyltransferase1, -3a, and -3b during several developmental timepoints in the hippocampus, amygdala and several other brain areas of normal rats as well as bred high novelty responding rats and bred low novelty responding rats. Our results lay an important foundation, paving the way for a series of new experiments that can investigate what happens when epigenetic processes go awry during critical neurodevelopmental periods.

Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System

Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System
Author : Jeremy J. Day,J. David Sweatt
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2012-12-31
Category : Medical
Total pages :374
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Epigenetic Information-processing Mechanisms in the Brain

Epigenetic Information-processing Mechanisms in the Brain
Author : Lawrence R. Edelstein,John Raymond Smythies,Denis Noble
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2014
Category : Brain chemistry
Total pages :129
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DNA Modifications in the Brain

DNA Modifications in the Brain
Author : Timothy W. Bredy
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2017-01-05
Category :
Total pages :150
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DNA Modifications in the Brain: Neuroepigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression begins with an historical overview of the early discoveries surrounding DNA methylation in the mammalian brain and then explores the evidence supporting a role for this epigenetic mechanism in controlling gene expression programs across the lifespan in both normal and diseased states. Chapters describe new directions and technological advances, and provide an overview of what the future holds for this exciting new field. This book is ideal for medical, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, but is also a great resource for researchers who need a broad introduction to the dynamic nature of DNA that sheds light on evolving concepts of gene-environment interaction and their effects on adaptation and neuropsychiatric disease. Provides a comprehensive overview of the many facets of DNA modifications Discusses the impact of this dynamic epigenetic mechanism across brain development and lifespan at behavioral, cognitive, molecular and genetic levels Contains contributions by influential leaders in the field Edited by a Neuroscientist to further promote synthesis between epigenetics, neuroscience, and clinical relevance

Epigenetic pathways in PTSD: how traumatic experiences leave their signature on the genome

Epigenetic pathways in PTSD: how traumatic experiences leave their signature on the genome
Author : Tania L Roth,David M Diamond,Karestan C Koenen
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2015-04-14
Category : Epigenetics
Total pages :158
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This research topic focuses on epigenetic components of PTSD. Epigenetic mechanisms are a class of molecular mechanisms by which environmental influences, including stress, can interact with the genome to have long-term consequences for brain plasticity and behavior. Articles herein include empirical reports and reviews that link stress and trauma with epigenetic alterations in humans and animal models of early- or later-life stress. Themes present throughout the collection include: DNA methylation is a useful biomarker of stress and treatment outcome in humans; epigenetic programming of stress-sensitive physiological systems early in development confers an enhanced risk on disease development upon re-exposure to trauma or stress; and, long-lived fear memories are associated with epigenetic alterations in fear memory and extinction brain circuitry.

The Impact of Aversive Caregiving on DNA Methylation in Blood and the Prefrontal Cortex

The Impact of Aversive Caregiving on DNA Methylation in Blood and the Prefrontal Cortex
Author : Hannah Duffy
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :59
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Aversive caregiving causes epigenetic alterations that may lead to neurological and behavioral problems later in life. These issues presumably originate in the brain, and, as such, epigenetic changes within the brain would appear to be the most relevant to better understand the origin of and possible alleviation of these issues. However, it is difficult to study epigenetics in the brain in living humans, so many researchers rely on epigenetic alterations in peripheral tissues to be an indication of aberrant epigenetic mechanisms within the brain. The reliability of using such epigenetic changes in the periphery as a proxy for that of the brain is still largely unknown. Rodent models provide a much-needed mechanism of testing whether epigenetic alterations in peripheral tissues like blood mirror that of the brain. The current study used a rodent model to examine changes in DNA methylation at two regions (exons IV and IX) of the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene in both the prefrontal cortex and blood following aversive caregiving. DNA methylation increased in response to aversive caregiving at exons IV and IX in both the prefrontal cortex and blood. Despite the similar group trends in both tissues in response to aversive caregiving, no correlations were found between DNA methylation in the brain and the blood. Data overall indicate that Bdnf DNA methylation in the blood and brain tissue is similarly responsive to early-life experiences, but the correlational analyses suggest that this relationship varies at the individual subject level.

Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Cambrian Explosion

Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Cambrian Explosion
Author : Nelson R. Cabej
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-10-12
Category : Science
Total pages :256
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Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Cambrian Explosion provides readers with a basic biological knowledge and epigenetic explanation of the biological puzzle of the Cambrian explosion, the unprecedented rapid diversification of animals that began 542 million years ago. During an evolutionarily instant of ~10 million years, which represents only 0.3% of the time of existence of life on Earth, or less than 2% of the time of existence of metazoans, all of the 30 extant body plans, major animal groups (phyla) and several extinct groups appeared. The work helps address this phenomena and tries to answer remaining questions for evolutionary biology, epigenetics, and scientific researchers. The book recognizes and presents objective representations of alternative theories for epigenetic evolution in this period, with the author drawing on his epigenetic theory of evolution to explain the causal basis of the Cambrian explosion. Both empirical evidence and theoretical arguments are presented in support of this thought-provoking epigenetic theory. Explains the Cambrian explosion from an entirely epigenetic view Takes a causal rather than descriptive approach to the phenomenon Allows for a broad readership, including those with only a basic biological knowledge, while maintaining scientific rigor