November 30, 2020

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Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology
Author : James L. Bernat,Richard Beresford
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2014-01-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :472
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Advances in our understanding of the brain and rapid advances in the medical practice of neurology are creating questions and concerns from an ethical and legal perspective. Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology provides a detailed review of various general aspects of neuroethics, and contains chapters dealing with a vast array of specific issues such as the role of religion, the ethics of invasive neuroscience research, and the impact of potential misconduct in neurologic practice. The book focuses particular attention on problems related to palliative care, euthanasia, dementia, and neurogenetic disorders, and concludes with examinations of consciousness, personal identity, and the definition of death. This volume focuses on practices not only in North America but also in Europe and the developing world. It is a useful resource for all neuroscience and neurology professionals, researchers, students, scholars, practicing clinical neurologists, mental health professionals, and psychiatrists. A comprehensive introduction and reference on neuroethics Includes coverage of how best to understand the ethics and legal aspects of dementia, palliative care, euthanasia and neurogenetic disorders Brings clarity to issues regarding ethics and legal responsibilities in the age of rapidly evolving brain science and related clinical practice

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology
Author : Marie-Aurélie Bruno,Steven Laureys,Athena Demertzi
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2014-01-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :472
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Patients in coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, and in minimally conscious states pose medical, scientific, and ethical challenges. As patients with disorders of consciousness are by definition unable to communicate, the assessment of pain, quality of life, and end-of-life preferences in these conditions can only be approached by adopting a third-person perspective. Surveys of healthcare workers’ attitudes towards pain and end of life in disorders of consciousness shed light on the background of clinical reality, where no standard medical-legal framework is widely accepted. On the other hand, patients with locked-in syndrome, who are severely paralyzed but fully conscious, can inform about subjective quality of life in serious disability and help us to understand better the underlying factors influencing happiness in disease. In the medico-legal arena, such ethical issues may be resolved by previously drafted advance directives and, when absent, by surrogate representation. Lately, functional medical imaging and electrophysiology provide alternative means to communicate with these challenging patients and will potentially mediate to extract responses of medical-ethical content. Eventually, the clinical translation of these advanced technologies in the medical routine is of paramount importance for the promotion of medical management of these challenging patients.

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology
Author : Eric Racine,Emily Bell,Michael Shevell
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2014-01-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :472
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Neurodevelopmental disabilities, like autism spectrum disorders and cerebral palsy are a common health problem in children. Given the impact of these conditions on children, families, and healthcare and social systems, the care of developmentally challenged children raises questions related to values and ethical principles. We review the common features of neurodevelopmental disorders that help understand the associated ethical questions. We focus on three major areas where ethical questions arise for clinicians and those involved in making decisions for or caring for these children: (1) the principles of decision-making and autonomy as they relate to developmental disability; (2) the issues related to quality of life that have long intersected with developmental disability; and (3) the use of unproven therapies and diagnostics that are particularly controversial given the extent that neurodevelopmental disabilities impact children and their families, yet active treatments options are limited.

Ethical Issues in Neurology

Ethical Issues in Neurology
Author : James L. Bernat
Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Release Date : 2008
Category : Medical
Total pages :524
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Written by an eminent authority from the American Academy of Neurology's Committee on Ethics, Law, and Humanities, this book is an excellent text for all clinicians interested in ethical decision-making. The book features outstanding presentations on dying and palliative care, physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia, medical futility, and the relationship between ethics and the law. New chapters in this edition discuss how clinicians resolve ethical dilemmas in practice and explore ethical issues in neuroscience research. Other highlights include updated material on palliative sedation, advance directives, ICU withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy, gene therapy, the very-low-birth-weight premature infant, the developmentally disabled patient, informed consent, organizational ethics, brain death controversies, and fMRI and PET studies relating to persistent vegetative state.

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology
Author : Anjan Chatterjee
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2014-01-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :472
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In the wake of our improving abilities to treat or modulate the impaired nervous system, we are also learning how we might improve the abilities of the healthy nervous system. We can modulate our motor, cognitive, and affective systems in ways that potentially enhance us. Pharmacologic enhancements are used widely in some circles and their use is likely to increase. Newer noninvasive stimulation techniques also have the potential to be used as enhancements. Neuroenhancements raise deep ethical concerns about safety, compromised character, distributive justice, and coercion. The ethical concerns apply to adults in general, but also in unique ways to children who are not completely autonomous and to soldiers who choose to relinquish some of their autonomy. There are no easy solutions to these ethical concerns. Prohibition of enhancements is not a viable option. Lay and professional discussions will help establish cultural norms and guide clinical practice as well as public policy.

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology
Author : Stefan Lorenzl,Georg Nübling,Klaus Maria Perrar,Raymond Voltz
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2014-01-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :472
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Patients with chronic neurologic disorders suffer from the burden of disease progression without the hope for a cure. Therefore, symptom management and palliative care approaches should be included from the beginning of the illness. Palliative care aims at improving a patient’s quality of life by alleviating suffering due to physical, psychosocial, and spiritual factors. Since no curative and only limited life-prolonging treatment options are available for most chronic neurologic disorders, a palliative care approach can help to create a treatment plan that considers all aspects of the disease. We have provided palliative care approaches for the most common neurodegenerative disorders like dementia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A palliative approach to neurologic disorders does not simply mean limiting treatment and focusing on pain. Instead, the whole unit of care, consisting of the patient, relatives, and caregivers, should be perceived with all their needs.

Ethics and Law for Neurosciences Clinicians

Ethics and Law for Neurosciences Clinicians
Author : James E Szalados
Publisher : Rutgers University Press
Release Date : 2019-02-04
Category : Medical
Total pages :182
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The brain represents the final frontier in medical sciences. Clinical neurosciences include the subspecialties of neurology, neurosurgery, neuro-imaging, cerebrovascular interventional specialties, neurocritical care, and the allied specialties in pharmacy and nursing. The first lens through which we see our patients is the clinical perspective; however, the complexity of neurosciences and the rapidity of the advances in these subspecialties require that clinicians not lose sight of the personhood of the patients, the professionalism required in the care of these complex patients, or the regulatory environment in which we practice. Science and technology are advancing more rapidly than regulations or the law can interpret and integrate them into a supportive or regulatory framework. Thus, morality, ethics, and the law comprise the final lens through which we approach complex patient management issues, frame our communications with patients and families, and evaluate the risks and potential benefits of new technology. Ethics and Law for Neurosciences Clinicians is written for all clinicians in the neurosciences specialties to examine and re-examine the ethical and legal implications of advances in clinical neurosciences.

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology
Author : Lois Margaret Nora
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2014-01-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :472
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There is dynamic interplay between the disciplines of law and ethics, and the result is often laws and regulation that impact the practice of clinical neurology. This chapter explores how the disciplines of law and ethics inform and intersect with each other, and how resulting law impacts the everyday work of the clinical neurologist. Examples of how the core bioethical principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, respect for autonomy, and justice are manifest in legislative, common, and administrative laws are presented. Examples of how these laws, in turn, impact the practice of neurology through protection of patient privacy, the avoidance of conflict of interest, and informed consent and other issues are offered.

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology
Author : Paul J. Ford,Abhishek Deshpande
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2014-01-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :472
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A clear understanding of distinctions and definitions is necessary before determining which types of surgically invasive neuroscience research should be permitted and how the experimental protocols can properly be undertaken. A failure to clarify the ethical distinctions in invasive neuroscience research hinders attempts at ethical analysis and guidance. At least four main distinctions need to be addressed: “invasiveness” as an important moral characteristic; special brain–mind-related risks; research participant selection; and ideologic interpretation of human function. Harm and not invasiveness is the metric by which to measure the ethical permissibility of research. Because of a class of harms to minds and selves, special attention should be paid to value considerations. These considerations need to be addressed by researchers, funders, and review boards to create proper safeguards from conception of research through final application of results.

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology

Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology
Author : Jerry Menikoff
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2014-01-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :472
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A history of past abuses on research with human subjects has led to various sets of rules that are designed to insure ethical practices to protect research subjects appropriately. To understand these rules, it is important to appreciate the significant differences between being a patient, where protecting the best interests of that patient is the primary goal, and being a research subject, where that is generally not the case. In the research setting, there can be a conflict between attempting to answer the research question, and doing what is best for the subject. The rules for conducting research with human subjects attempt to manage this conflict in an ethically acceptable manner. This chapter provides an overview of those rules, including a somewhat extended discussion of the U.S. “Common Rule” as a particular example.

Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics

Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics
Author : Judy Illes,Barbara J. Sahakian
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release Date : 2011-04-07
Category : Medical
Total pages :976
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The past two decades have seen unparalleled developments in our knowledge of the brain and mind. However, these advances have forced us to confront head-on some significant ethical issues regarding our application of this information in the real world- whether using brain images to establish guilt within a court of law, or developing drugs to enhance cognition. Historically, any consideration of the ethical, legal, and social implications of emerging technologies in science and medicine has lagged behind the discovery of the technology itself. These delays have caused problems in the acceptability and potential applications of biomedical advances and posed significant problems for the scientific community and the public alike - for example in the case of genetic screening and human cloning. The field of Neuroethics aims to proactively anticipate ethical, legal and social issues at the intersection of neuroscience and ethics, raising questions about what the brain tells us about ourselves, whether the information is what people want or ought to know, and how best to communicate it. A landmark in the academic literature, the Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics presents a pioneering review of a topic central to the sciences and humanities. It presents a range of chapters considering key issues, discussion, and debate at the intersection of brain and ethics. The handbook contains more than 50 chapters by leaders from around the world and a broad range of sectors of academia and clinical practice spanning the neurosciences, medical sciences and humanities and law. The book focuses on and provides a platform for dialogue of what neuroscience can do, what we might expect neuroscience will do, and what neuroscience ought to do. The major themes include: consciousness and intention; responsibility and determinism; mind and body; neurotechnology; ageing and dementia; law and public policy; and science, society and international perspectives. Tackling some of the most significant ethical issues that face us now and will continue to do so over the coming decades, The Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics will be an essential resource for the field of neuroethics for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, basic scientists in the neurosciences and psychology, scholars in humanities and law, as well as physicians practising in the areas of primary care in neurological medicine.

Ethical Dilemmas in Neurology

Ethical Dilemmas in Neurology
Author : Adam Zeman,Linda L. Emanuel
Publisher : Bailliere Tindall Limited
Release Date : 2000
Category : Medical
Total pages :219
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An international team of recognized authorities offer a collection of thought provoking essays on ethical questions often faced by neurologists in clinical practice. Each chapter covers a difficult situation that isfrequently encountered, and for which there is no clear right answer International contributors bring a wide range of backgrounds and perspectives to the different dilemmas Hot topics such as the ethics of clinical trials are discussed. Review of topics such as new drugs and their impact on health care budgets, and other pros and cons of continued curative treatment are discussed

Ethical and Legal Issues in Modern Surgery

Ethical and Legal Issues in Modern Surgery
Author : Nadey Hakim,Vassilios Papalois,Miran Epstein
Publisher : World Scientific Publishing Company
Release Date : 2014-12-18
Category : Law
Total pages :444
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Over the last quarter of a century, the fields of medical ethics and of legal issues related to medical practice have rapidly developed for a number of reasons. Firstly, the provision of healthcare nowadays is based on a complicated partnership between healthcare providers, patients, administrators and organizations responsible for providing finance; this complicated partnership frequently results in clashes of views, opinions, and priorities, which have a major ethical and legal dimension. Secondly, a major event of the 21st century is the development of multicultural societies; healthcare-related decisions thus have to be made on the background of so many different ethnicities, religions, cultures and languages, resulting in a great spectrum of ethical and legal implications. Thirdly, in the modern world, people are more mobile and can easily and cost-effectively seek treatment outside of their country of origin or residence, which raises many ethical and legal issues. Lastly, the development of new medical specialties, modern and advanced treatments for very challenging patients, and the introduction of new technologies in medical practice have dramatically broadened the spectrum of ethical and legal issues related to medical practice. This book will therefore aim to cover in detail general principles and specific issues related to the ethical and legal dimensions of modern surgical practice.

Neuroethics

Neuroethics
Author : Judy Illes,Professor of Neurology Canada Research Chair in Neuroethics and Director of the National Core for Neuroethics Judy Illes
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date : 2006
Category : Medical
Total pages :329
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Recent advances in the brain sciences have dramatically improved our understanding of brain function. As we find out more and more about what makes us tick, we must stop and consider the ethical implications of this new found knowledge. Will having a new biology of the brain through imaging make us less responsible for our behavior and lose our free will? Should certain brain scan studies be disallowed on the basis of moral grounds? Why is the media so interested in reporting results of brain imaging studies? What ethical lessons from the past can best inform the future of brain imaging? These compelling questions and many more are tackled by a distinguished group of contributors to this, the first-ever volume on neuroethics. The wide range of disciplinary backgrounds that the authors represent, from neuroscience, bioethics and philosophy, to law, social and health care policy, education, religion and film, allow for profoundly insightful and provocative answers to these questions, and open up the door to a host of new ones. The contributions highlight the timeliness of modern neuroethics today, and assure the longevity and importance of neuroethics for generations to come.

Guide to the Primary Care of Neurological Disorders

Guide to the Primary Care of Neurological Disorders
Author : A. John Popp
Publisher : Thieme
Release Date : 2011-01-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :456
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Synthesizing the expert clinical advice of specialists who treat disorders of the nervous system, this book is an accessible, single-volume resource for primary care physicians requiring practical information on a range of neurological disorders. A Guide to the Primary Care of Neurological Disorders provides readers with a firm foundation in neuroscience concepts that will enable them to make timely diagnostic, treatment, and referral decisions about common symptoms, including chronic pain, headache, seizures, numbness, and dizziness. Additional chapters cover specific categories of neurological disease, providing the reader with concise descriptions of the clinical manifestations, examination techniques, and treatment options for each. Features: An outline at the start of each chapter aids rapid location of topics of interest Thorough coverage of history-taking and the physical examination Pearls and Pitfalls at the end of each chapter review fundamental concepts and provide helpful guideposts for managing each clinical situation Packed with essential information on clinical neurosciences, this comprehensive book is ideal for primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants, residents in primary care specialties, and medical students.A co-publication of Thieme and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons)