January 17, 2021

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Ethics in Forensic Science

Ethics in Forensic Science
Author : J. C. Upshaw Downs,Anjali Ranadive Swienton
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2012
Category : Law
Total pages :454
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The word "ethical" can be defined as proper conduct. A failure of forensic scientists to act ethically can result in serious adverse outcomes. However, while seemingly simple to define, the application of being "ethical" is somewhat more obscure. That is, when is ethical, ethical, and when is it not? Because we have an adversarial legal system, differences of opinion exist in forensic science. However, there are instances when differences are so divergent that an individual's ethics are called into question. In light of not only the O.J. Simpson trial - the first national trial to question the ethical behavior of forensic scientists - and the National Academy of Science critique of forensic science, ethical issues have come to the forefront of concern within the forensic community.

Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science

Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science
Author : Robin T. Bowen
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2017-09-20
Category : Law
Total pages :254
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While one would hope that forensic scientists, investigators, and experts are intrinsically ethical by nature, the reality is that these individuals have morality as varied as the general population. These professionals confront ethical dilemmas every day, some with clear-cut protocols and others that frequently have no definitive answers. Since the publication of the first edition of Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science, the field of forensic science has continued to see its share of controversy. This runs the gamut of news stories from investigators, lab personnel, or even lab directors falsifying results, committing perjury, admitting to fraud, to overturned convictions, questions about bias, ethics, and what constitutes an "expert" on the witness stand. This fully updated edition tackles all these issues—including some specific instances and cases of unethical behavior—and addresses such salient issues as accreditation requirements, standardization of ethical codes, examiner certification, and standards for education and training. The new edition provides: A new chapter on the "Ferguson Effect" faced by the criminal justice system The context of forensic science ethics in relation to general scientific ethics, measurement uncertainty, and ethics in criminal justice Ethical conundrums and real-world examples that forensic scientists confront every day The ethics and conduct codes of 20 different forensic and scientific professional organizations An outline of the National Academies of Science (NAS) recommendations and progress made on ethics in forensic science since the release of the NAS report Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science, Second Edition explores the range of ethical issues facing those who work in the forensic sciences—highlights the complicated nature of ethics and decision-making at the crime scene, in the lab, and in the courts. The book serves both as an essential resource for laboratories to train their employees and as an invaluable textbook for the growing number of courses on ethics in criminal justice and forensic science curricula. Accompanying PowerPoint® slides and an Instructor’s Manual with Test Bank are available to professors upon qualifying course adoption.

Ethics in Forensic Science

Ethics in Forensic Science
Author : Peter D. Barnett
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2001-06-27
Category : Law
Total pages :232
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With the complexity of the interactions between the methodology of science, the principles of justice, and the realities of the practice of law and criminalistics, ethical issues frequently arise. One of the hallmarks of a profession is a code of ethics to govern the actions of members of the profession with one another, with users of the professional service, and with those who are affected by actions of the practitioner. Ethics in Forensic Science: Professional Standards for the Practice of Criminalistics examines the necessity for a code of ethics for forensic scientists, describes the fundamental features of such an ethical code, illustrates some ethical conflicts that arise in the course of professional practice, and gives examples of resolution of some of these conflicts. This volume also describes the development of alternative ethical codes that have been adopted by forensic science organizations. It explores the strengths and weaknesses of varied codes and provides concrete examples that illustrate alternative courses of action that might be taken and how different codes of ethics may require, permit, or proscribe alternatives under consideration.

Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science

Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science
Author : Robin T. Bowen
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2016-04-19
Category : Law
Total pages :217
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While we would like to believe that forensic science professionals are intrinsically ethical by nature, the reality is that these individuals have moral compasses as varied as those of any individual you may know. They confront ethical dilemmas every day, some with clear-cut protocols and others that frequently have no definitive answers. Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science explores the range of ethical issues facing those who work in the field and highlights the complicated nature of ethical decision-making in this complex arena. Ethics in the courtroom and the lab Written by one of the leading researchers in forensic ethics, the book provides data-driven examples of the behaviors – both good and bad – that shape the forensic profession. It provides real examples of ethical behavior combined with research to demonstrate how ethics works (and sometimes does not) in this richly interesting scientific field. The book begins by exploring philosophical approaches related to ethical decision-making. It examines the ethics of the criminal justice culture, ethical issues in the courtroom, and ethics in science and research. Next, the book shifts to a discussion of unethical behavior, and provides actual case studies spotlighting ethical breaches, including the O.J. Simpson case and other reported examples. Ethics codes in various organizations The book concludes with a discussion of the code of ethics. Appendices discuss research data on ethics in forensic science and provide ethics codes from various forensic science organizations. Offering a lively source of debate for professionals and academics, this volume provides a window on a topic that is frequently fraught with uncertainty. Robin T. Bowen was interviewed recently for Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology.

Ethical Standards in Forensic Science

Ethical Standards in Forensic Science
Author : Harold Franck,Darren Franck
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2020-02-25
Category : Law
Total pages :104
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Ethical Standards in Forensic Science seeks to address the myriad practices in forensic science for a variety of evidence and analyses. The book looks at ethics, bias, what constitutes an expert in the field—both as a practitioner and to the court system—as well as the standards of practice as purported by the top forensic organizations. Coverage addresses evidence collection, chain of custody, real versus "junk" science, the damage questionable science can cause to a discipline and the judicial process, testing methods, report writing, and expert witness testimony in civil and criminal cases in a court of law. The authors’ background in engineering provides a unique perspective on a variety of evidence and testing methods. As such, in addition to coverage the range of evidence and topics cited in the 2009 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Report, they address numerous challenges that have arisen specifically in forensic engineering cases—their specific area of expertise. Numerous case example are provided to illustrate the inherent danger of bias, inexact science, or expert witnesses taking dangerous and harmful liberties on the stand. Students, lawyers, and professionals in all forensic disciplines will find this a refreshing and accessible approach to elucidate the problem and offer suggestions for reform and change for the good of the entire profession.

Ethics and Professionalism in Forensic Anthropology

Ethics and Professionalism in Forensic Anthropology
Author : Nicholas V. Passalacqua,Marin A. Pilloud
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-04-12
Category : Law
Total pages :146
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Forensic anthropologists are confronted with ethical issues as part of their education, research, teaching, professional development, and casework. Despite the many ethical challenges that may impact forensic anthropologists, discourse and training in ethics are limited. The goal for Ethics and Professionalism in Forensic Anthropology is to outline the current state of ethics within the field and to start a discussion about the ethics, professionalism, and legal concerns associated with the practice of forensic anthropology. This volume addresses: The need for professional ethics Current ethical guidelines applicable to forensic anthropologists and their means of enforcement Different approaches to professionalism within the context of forensic anthropology, including issues of scientific integrity, qualifications, accreditation and quality assurance The use of human subjects and human remains in forensic anthropology research Ethical and legal issues surrounding forensic anthropological casework, including: analytical notes, case reports, peer review, incidental findings, and testimony Harassment and discrimination in science, anthropology, and forensic anthropology

Professional Issues in Forensic Science

Professional Issues in Forensic Science
Author : Max M. Houck
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-04-15
Category : Law
Total pages :390
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Professional Issues in Forensic Science will introduce students to various topics they will encounter within the field of Forensic Science. Legal implications within the field will focus on expert witness testimony and procedural rules defined by both legislative statute and court decisions. These decisions affect the collection, analysis, and court admissibility of scientific evidence, such as the Frye and Daubert standards and the Federal Rules of Evidence. Existing and pending Forensic Science legislation will be covered, including laws governing state and national DNA databases. Ethical concerns stemming from the day-to-day balancing of competing priorities encountered by the forensic student will be discussed. Such competing priorities may cause conflicts between good scientific practice and the need to expedite work, meet legal requirements, and satisfy client’s wishes. The role of individual morality in Forensic Science and competing ethical standards between state and defense experts will be addressed. Examinations of ethical guidelines issued by various professional forensic organizations will be conducted. Students will be presented with examples of ethical dilemmas for comment and resolution. The management of crime laboratories will provide discussion on quality assurance/quality control practices and the standards required by the accreditation of laboratories and those proposed by Scientific Working Groups in Forensic Science. The national Academy of Sciences report on Strengthening Forensic Science will be examined to determine the impact of the field. Professional Issues in Forensic Science is a core topic taught in forensic science programs. This volume will be an essential advanced text for academics and an excellent reference for the newly practicing forensic scientist. It will also fit strategically and cluster well with our other forensic science titles addressing professional issues. Introduces readers to various topics they will encounter within the field of Forensic Science Covers legal issues, accreditation and certification, proper analysis, education and training, and management issues Includes a section on professional organizations and groups, both in the U.S. and Internationally Incorporates effective pedagogy, key terms, review questions, discussion question and additional reading suggestions

Emerging and Advanced Technologies in Diverse Forensic Sciences

Emerging and Advanced Technologies in Diverse Forensic Sciences
Author : Ronn Johnson
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2018-09-07
Category : Political Science
Total pages :332
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An important contribution to the professional work performed in the areas on emerging technologies, this book provides an extensive expansion of the literature base on contemporary theories and investigative techniques used in the forensic sciences. Forensic science, as a relatively new field of research still actively identifying itself in the larger landscape of the sciences, has been sharply criticized for utilizing techniques deemed largely unscientific by subject area experts. This book presents a collective analysis and review of the existing challenges as well as directions for state-of-the-art practices found in diverse forensic settings, enabling the reader to make an informed decision about the scientific validity of forensic techniques, and emphasizes the need for a greater understanding of the use of the most appropriate methodology and procedures. The contributors address cutting-edge, developing, and even hypothetical techniques and technologies in forensics research and practice, especially as it relates to the sphere of criminal justice and law enforcement in contemporary society. A useful work for forensics professionals, and students and scholars working in the fields of politics and technology, criminal justice, forensic psychology, police psychology, law enforcement, and forensic science.

Ethics in Forensic Science

Ethics in Forensic Science
Author : Peter D. Barnett
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2001-06-27
Category : Law
Total pages :232
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With the complexity of the interactions between the methodology of science, the principles of justice, and the realities of the practice of law and criminalistics, ethical issues frequently arise. One of the hallmarks of a profession is a code of ethics to govern the actions of members of the profession with one another, with users of the professional service, and with those who are affected by actions of the practitioner. Ethics in Forensic Science: Professional Standards for the Practice of Criminalistics examines the necessity for a code of ethics for forensic scientists, describes the fundamental features of such an ethical code, illustrates some ethical conflicts that arise in the course of professional practice, and gives examples of resolution of some of these conflicts. This volume also describes the development of alternative ethical codes that have been adopted by forensic science organizations. It explores the strengths and weaknesses of varied codes and provides concrete examples that illustrate alternative courses of action that might be taken and how different codes of ethics may require, permit, or proscribe alternatives under consideration.

Manual of Forensic Science

Manual of Forensic Science
Author : Anna Barbaro
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2017-12-14
Category : Law
Total pages :289
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A truly international and multi-disciplinary compendium of current best practices authored by top practitioners from around the world, the book covers current trends and technology advances in the following disciplines within forensic science: bloodstain pattern analysis, forensic photography, ballistics, latent prints, forensic genetics and DNA, questioned documents, forensic toxicology, forensic clinical medicine, forensic pathology, forensic odontology, forensic anthropology, forensic entomology, forensic biometry, forensic psychology and profiling, law comparison and ethics, and much more. The book serves as an invaluable resource and handbook for forensic professionals throughout the world.

ETHICS IN FORENSIC SCIENCE AND MEDICINE

ETHICS IN FORENSIC SCIENCE AND MEDICINE
Author : Melvin A. Shiffman
Publisher : Charles C Thomas Publisher
Release Date : 1999-01-01
Category : LAW
Total pages :326
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This book provides an invaluable source of information for physicians and forensic scientists who are involved as expert witnesses in civil and criminal litigation. Manipulative and opportunistic lawyers can lead an unsuspecting scientific expert into a potentially dangerous situation that could result in personal embarrassment, professional organizational disciplinary action, or even formal legal charges. Areas of ethical behavior are identified for the forensic witness concerning their relationships with attorneys, other experts, and litigants. Specific topics include: (1) selection, regulation, and duties of the forensic expert; (2) litigation and legal matters, unethical conduct, fees, advertising, and publicity; (3) oral testimony, the expert-client relationship, confidentiality, contractural arrangements, scientific and demonstrative evidence; (4) practical issues for attorney preparation and the qualities and attitudes of medical experts. In addition, forensic aspects of alcoholism and drug abuse plus the use and abuse of forensic sciences are discussed, with an entire chapter devoted to the O. J. Simpson case. Finally, the book thoroughly emphasizes the importance of the Ethical Medicolegal Report and the Code of Professional and Ethical Conduct.

Forensic Ethics and the Expert Witness

Forensic Ethics and the Expert Witness
Author : Philip J. Candilis,Robert Weinstock,Richard Martinez
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2007-08-19
Category : Psychology
Total pages :211
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This book details possible ethical situations and pitfalls that forensic psychiatric experts would commonly encounter when making a court testimony. Richly illustrated with cases from medicine, psychiatry, and law, this elegantly written volume examines the common moral ground that links these usually separate domains, and relates forensic ethics to larger concepts of morality and justice.

Forensic Science and the Administration of Justice

Forensic Science and the Administration of Justice
Author : Kevin J. Strom,Matthew J. Hickman
Publisher : SAGE Publications
Release Date : 2014-04-04
Category : Law
Total pages :312
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Uniting forensics, law, and social science in meaningful and relevant ways, Forensic Science and the Administration of Justice, by Kevin J. Strom and Matthew J. Hickman, is structured around current research on how forensic evidence is being used and how it is impacting the justice system. This unique book—written by nationally known scholars in the field—includes five sections that explore the demand for forensic services, the quality of forensic services, the utility of forensic services, post-conviction forensic issues, and the future role of forensic science in the administration of justice. The authors offer policy-relevant directions for both the criminal justice and forensic fields and demonstrate how the role of the crime laboratory in the American justice system is evolving in concert with technological advances as well as changing demands and competing pressures for laboratory resources.

Forensic Psychiatry

Forensic Psychiatry
Author : John Gunn,Pamela Taylor
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2014-01-06
Category : Law
Total pages :1035
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Highly Commended, BMA Medical Book Awards 2014 Comprehensive and erudite, Forensic Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Issues, Second Edition is a practical guide to the psychiatry of offenders, victims, and survivors of crime. This landmark publication has been completely updated but retains all the features that made the first edition such a well-established text. It integrates the clinical, legal, and ethical aspects of forensic psychiatry with contributions from internationally regarded experts from a range of clinical professions. The Second Edition features updates to all current chapters and several new chapters that explore: The genetics of antisocial behavior Disorders of brain structure and function that relate to crime Offenders with intellectual disabilities Older people and the criminal justice system Deviant and mentally ill staff Although the book focuses on jurisdictions in the UK, a substantial comparative chapter written by an international group from all five continents explores the different philosophies, legal principles, and style of services elsewhere. This book is an essential reference for specialists and postgraduate trainees in forensic psychiatry but also for general psychiatrists, and clinical and forensic psychologists. It is also an invaluable resource for other forensic mental health professionals, including nurses, social workers, occupational therapists, probation service staff, police, attorneys, criminologists, and sociologists.

Ethics for the Public Service Professional

Ethics for the Public Service Professional
Author : Aric W. Dutelle, M. F. S.
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2011-03-22
Category : House & Home
Total pages :229
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Public service professionals — government officials, those in the legal system, first responders, and investigators — confront ethical issues every day. In an environment where each decision can mean the difference between life and death or freedom and imprisonment, deciding on an ethical course of action can pose challenges to even the most seasoned professional. Ethics for the Public Service Professional explores these issues as they relate to virtually all areas of public service. Examining the history of ethics, codes, and legislation relating to public service, this volume: Provides timely coverage of current police and public service controversies Discusses important new mechanisms of accountability, including comprehensive use-of-force reporting, citizen complaint procedures, early intervention systems, and police auditors Presents real-life situations faced by those within public service, encouraging discussion and debate Incorporates news stories throughout the text to demonstrate the diverse scope of ethical issues within the public service workplace Includes a list of Web sites to facilitate further research Each chapter begins with learning objectives to emphasize active rather than passive learning, along with key terms for readers to assimilate. Many chapters contain Ripped from the Headlines current event examples that demonstrate actual scenarios involving the issues discussed within the chapter. Case studies and summations further assist readers in comprehending the material, along with sections offering insight from public servants specializing in a particular area. Review questions at the end of each chapter test comprehension.