January 27, 2021

Download Ebook Free Evolution Of Vulnerability

Evolution of Vulnerability

Evolution of Vulnerability
Author : David C. Geary
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-07-28
Category : Psychology
Total pages :444
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Biologists have known for decades that many traits involved in competition for mates or other resources and that influence mate choice are exaggerated, and their expression is influenced by the individuals’ ability to tolerate a variety of environmental and social stressors. Evolution of Vulnerability applies this concept of heightened sensitivity to humans for a host of physical, social, psychological, cognitive, and brain traits. By reframing the issue entirely, renowned evolutionary psychologist David C. Geary demonstrates this principle can be used to identify children, adolescents, or populations at risk for poor long-term outcomes and identify specific traits in each sex and at different points in development that are most easily disrupted by exposure to stressors. Evolution of Vulnerability begins by reviewing the expansive literature on traits predicted to show sex-specific sensitivity to environmental and social stressors, and details the implications for better assessing and understanding the consequences of exposure to these stressors. Next, the book reviews sexual selection—mate competition and choice—and the mechanisms involved in the evolution of condition dependent traits and the stressors that can undermine their development and expression, such as poor early nutrition and health, parasites, social stress, and exposure to man-made toxins. Then it reviews condition dependent traits (physical, behavioral, cognitive, and brain) in birds, fish, insects, and mammals to demonstrate the ubiquity of these traits in nature. The focus then turns to humans and covers sex-specific vulnerabilities in children and adults for physical traits, social behavior, psychological wellbeing, and brain and cognitive traits. The sensitivity of these traits is related to exposure to parasites, poor nutrition, social maltreatment, environmental toxins, chemotherapy, and Alzheimer’s disease, among others. The book concludes with an implications chapter that outlines how to better assess vulnerabilities in children and adults and how to more fully understand how, why, and when in development some types of environmental and social stressors are particularly harmful to humans. Describes evolved sex differences, providing predictions on the traits that will show sex-specific vulnerabilities Presents an extensive review of condition-dependent traits in non-human species, greatly expanding existing reviews published in scientific journals, and more critically, extending these to humans Applies condition-dependent traits to humans to identify children, adolescents, or populations at risk for poor long-term outcomes

Human Brain Evolution

Human Brain Evolution
Author : Stephen Cunnane,Kathlyn Stewart
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2010-06-01
Category : Social Science
Total pages :232
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The evolution of the human brain and cognitive ability is one of the central themes of physical/biological anthropology. This book discusses the emergence of human cognition at a conceptual level, describing it as a process of long adaptive stasis interrupted by short periods of cognitive advance. These advances were not linear and directed, but were acquired indirectly as part of changing human behaviors, in other words through the process of exaptation (acquisition of a function for which it was not originally selected). Based on studies of the modem human brain, certain prerequisites were needed for the development of the early brain and associated cognitive advances. This book documents the energy and nutrient constraints of the modern brain, highlighting the significant role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in brain development and maintenance. Crawford provides further emphasis for the role of essential fatty acids, in particular DHA, in brain development, by discussing the evolution of the eye and neural systems. This is an ideal book for Graduate students, post docs, research scientists in Physical/Biological Anthropology, Human Biology, Archaeology, Nutrition, Cognitive Science, Neurosciences. It is also an excellent selection for a grad student discussion seminar.

Evolution in Health and Disease

Evolution in Health and Disease
Author : Stephen C. Stearns,Jacob C. Koella
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release Date : 2007-11-22
Category : Health & Fitness
Total pages :400
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In this fully revised and updated edition, the editors have integrated a completely new set of contributions from the leading researchers in the field to describe the latest research in evolutionary medicine, providing a fresh summary of this rapidly expanding field 10 years after its predecessor was first compiled. It continues to adopt a broad approach to the subject, drawing on medically relevant research from evolutionary genetics, human behavioural ecology, evolutionary microbiology (especially experimental evolution of virulence and resistance), the evolution of aging and degenerative disease, and other aspects of biology or medicine where evolutionary approaches make important contributions. Evolution in Health and Disease describes how evolutionary thinking gives valuable insights and fresh perspectives into human health and disease, establishing evolutionary biology as an essential complementary science for medicine. Integrating evolutionary thought into medical research and practice helps to explain the origins of many medical conditions, including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, asthma, allergies, other autoimmune diseases, and aging. It also provides life-saving insights into the evolutionary responses of pathogens to antibiotics, vaccinations, and other human interventions. Why do we grow old? How can we stay healthy as we age? The book discusses these and many other fascinating questions, as well as suggesting exciting possibilities for future treatment and research. This research level text is suitable for graduate level students and researchers in the fields of evolutionary (Darwinian) medicine, evolutionary biology, anthropology, developmental biology and genetics. It will also be of relevance and use to medical researchers and doctors.

Vulnerability of Coastal Ecosystems and Adaptation

Vulnerability of Coastal Ecosystems and Adaptation
Author : André Monaco,Patrick Prouzet
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2014-12-01
Category : Science
Total pages :336
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The vulnerability of socio-ecosystem combines the probability of exposure to natural or anthropogenic pressure, sensitivity and resilience. This book presents a systemic view of the diversity of pressures and impacts produced by climate change and human actions. Erosion of biodiversity by changing ocean chemistry, the intensification of global change raises the problem of the adaptation of living resources.

Looming Vulnerability

Looming Vulnerability
Author : John H. Riskind,Neil A. Rector
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-10-09
Category : Psychology
Total pages :289
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This stimulating resource presents the Looming Vulnerability Model, a nuanced take on the cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of anxiety, worry, and other responses to real or imagined threat. The core feature of the model—the perception of growing, rapidly approaching threat—is traced to humans’ evolutionary past, and this dysfunctional perception is described as it affects cognitive processing, executive functioning, emotions, physiology, and behavior. The LVM framework allows for more subtle understanding of mechanisms of and risk factors for the range of anxiety disorders as well as for more elusive subclinical forms of anxiety, worry, and fear. In addition, the authors ably demonstrate how the LVM can inform and refine cognitive-behavioral and other approaches to conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of these often disabling conditions. This important volume: · Introduces the Looming Vulnerability Model in its evolutionary, developmental, cognitive, and ecological contexts. · Unites diverse theoretical strands regarding anxiety, fear, and worry including work on wildlife behavior, experimental cognition and perception, neuroimaging, and emotion. · Defines the looming cognitive style as a core aspect of vulnerability. · Describes the measurement of the looming cognitive style, Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire, and measures of looming vulnerability for specific disorders. · Details diverse clinical applications of the LVM across the anxiety disorders. Spotlighting phenomena particularly relevant to current times, Looming Vulnerability, brings a wealth of important new ideas to researchers studying anxiety disorders and practitioners seeking more avenues for treating anxiety in their patients.

East Asia Integrates

East Asia Integrates
Author : Kathie Krumm,Homi Kharas
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release Date : 2004-01-01
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :246
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Emerging East Asian economies have seen their share of world exports more than triple during the past quarter-century, and intraregional trade has driven this growth. Broad measures of development in East Asia have improved at the same headlong pace. Why push further integration now? Two economic events of historic proportions provide the context: strategic thinking of development in the region following the East Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 and the accession of China to the World Trade Organization. Policymakers interested in a stable, prosperous region are concerned by mildly rising inequality within countries and a widening gap between richer economies and the poorest economies. Increasingly, the development agenda in the region with its focus on growth, jobs, and social stability and the trade policy agenda with its focus on market access and competitiveness have become intertwined. East Asian policymakers seek to develop a coherent set of economic policies that can deliver stability, growth, and regional integration. Without attempting to be comprehensive, 'East Asia Integrates' offers fundamental strategies that promote cross-border flows of trade, along with domestic policies on logistics, trade facilitation, standards and institutions to maximize the impact of these flows on development and distribute the gains from trade widely. As the authors demonstrate, multilateral and regional trade initiatives must provide a compelling vision of how integration can deliver broadly shared growth and prosperity if they are to succeed. In addition, they must use the momentum offered by trade agreements to address the links between trade on the one hand, and social stability, poverty reduction, and growth on the other.

Risky Work Environments

Risky Work Environments
Author : Dr Christine Owen,Dr Ger Wackers,Professor Pascal Béguin
Publisher : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Release Date : 2012-10-01
Category : Psychology
Total pages :226
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Risky Work Environments provides new insights into the multiple and dynamic trajectories of both near misses and mistakes in complex work environments, based on actual case examples. It also studies the interactions between various activity systems or work practices (design, maintenance, incident investigation, regulation, operation) and their consequences for operational performance. The role of rules and regulations is explored, considering the consequences of deviations and the limitations of enforced compliance. Further, the book explains how to search for, think about and act on information about vulnerability, near misses and mistakes in a way that emphasizes accountability in ways that are not punitive but instead responsible, innovative and provide opportunities for learning. Writing from different disciplines and theoretical perspectives, the contributors analyse working in risky environments which include air traffic control, offshore mining, chemical plants, neo-natal intensive care units, ship piloting and emergency call dispatch centres. In each chapter the authors present rich empirical data and their analyses illustrate a variety of ways in which, despite imperfect systems, safety and resilience is created in human action. In the chapters where the focus is on error or mistakes, the analysis undertaken reveals the logic of actions undertaken at the time as well as their constraints. The contributors are all active researchers within their disciplines and come from Australia, Finland, France, Norway and the Netherlands. The book will be of direct interest to safety scientists, researchers and scientists, as well as human factors practitioners working in complex technological systems.

Engineering Secure Software and Systems

Engineering Secure Software and Systems
Author : Fabio Massacci,Dan Wallach,Nicola Zannone
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2010-01-27
Category : Computers
Total pages :240
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Engineering Secure Software and Systems, ESSoS 2010, held in Pisa, Italy, in February 2010. The 9 revised full papers presented together with 8 ideas papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 58 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on attack analysis and prevention, policy verification and enforcement, and secure system and software development.

Brain Evolution, Language and Psychopathology in Schizophrenia

Brain Evolution, Language and Psychopathology in Schizophrenia
Author : Paolo Brambilla,Andrea Marini
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2013-11-12
Category : Psychology
Total pages :252
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This book provides a comprehensive review of new developments in the study of language processing and related neural networks in schizophrenia by addressing the complex link between psychopathology, language and evolution at different levels of analysis. Psychopathological symptoms in schizophrenia are mainly characterized by thought and language disorders, which are strictly intertwined. In particular, language is the distinctive dimension of human beings and is ontologically related to brain development. Although normal at the levels of segmental phonology and morphological organization, the speech of patients suffering from schizophrenia is often characterized by flattened intonation and word-finding difficulties. Furthermore, research suggests that the superior temporal gyrus and specific prefrontal areas which support language in humans are altered in people with schizophrenia. Brambilla and Marini bring together international contributors to explore the link between brain evolution and the psychopathological features of schizophrenia, with a focus on language and its neural underpinnings. Divided into three sections the book covers: • brain evolution and language phylogenesis • brain abnormalities in schizophrenia • psychopathology and schizophrenia. This theoretical approach will appeal to professionals including clinical psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, neuropsychiatrists, neuropsychologists, neurolinguists, and researchers considering the links between brain evolution, language and psychopathology in schizophrenia.

Sustainable Communities on a Sustainable Planet

Sustainable Communities on a Sustainable Planet
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2021
Category :
Total pages :129
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Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease E-Book

Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease E-Book
Author : Pierre Theroux
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2010-09-24
Category : Medical
Total pages :448
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Acute Coronary Syndromes—a Companion to Braunwald’s Heart Disease—covers the state-of-the-art scientific and clinical information you need to rapidly evaluate and manage acute coronary syndromes. Dr. Pierre Theroux and his team of expert contributors present advances in diagnostic and imaging techniques such as biomarkers, nuclear cardiology, echocardiography, and multislice CT; secondary prevention; and new antiplatelet, anti-ischemic, and gene therapies. Tap into the most definitive knowledge available from one of the leading experts in the field and a stellar cast of contributors. Understand the special considerations for the care of acute coronary syndromes in the emergency department and the coronary care unit. Effectively handle the treatment of special populations and chronic patients thanks to coverage of these challenges See techniques and procedures in greater detail and clarity through the all-new full-color design. Approach treatment with a global perspective from the new section on Population-Based Perspective that discusses the INTERHEART study, insights from the REACH registry, lessons learned from European registries, and ACS in North America. Gain a comprehensive understanding of ACS through coverage of pathophysiology, molecular mechanisms, the role of the immune system, and brand-new chapters on cell necrosis and cell regeneration and pharmacogenetics in the section on Disease-Based Perspectives. Integrate the latest testing and treatment techniques into your practice thanks to new chapters on biomarkers in acute ischemic heart disease; the role of noninvasive testing in prognostic risk stratification; the culprit lesions and patient at risk; non-responsiveness to antiplatelet therapy; bleeding in the acute coronary syndromes; and the refractory patient.

Vulnerability of Land Systems in Asia

Vulnerability of Land Systems in Asia
Author : Ademola K. Braimoh,He Qing Huang
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2014-09-12
Category : Science
Total pages :368
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This book provides a comprehensive yet accessible overview of landsystems vulnerability assessment in Asia - fundamental to theunderstanding of the link between global change, environmentalsustainability and human wellbeing. The extent and intensity ofhuman interactions with the environment have increasedspectacularly since the Industrial Revolution. Thus, the globalchange research community and development practitionersincreasingly recognize the need to address the adverse consequencesof changes taking place in the structure and function of thebiosphere and the implications for society. With a focus onAsia, this book provides an overview of the vulnerability of landsystems and the subsequent multiple stressors in this region. Thebook offers a discussion surrounding the potential causal processesthat affect land systems vulnerability and our capacity to copewith different perturbations. It also identifies factors that helpto integrate vulnerability assessment into policy anddecision-making. • Addresses the complex issues arising fromhuman–environment interactions that cannot be satisfactorilydealt with by core disciplinary methods alone. • Key coverage of a variety of topics from thevulnerability of smallholder agriculture and urban systems to theimpact of socioeconomic processes at the sub-regional level. • Coverage of the causal processes that affect landsystems vulnerability and capacity to cope with differentperturbations are documented. • Focus on integrating vulnerability assessment intopolicies and decision-making • Includes contributions from leading academics in thefield.

Single women, land and livelihood vulnerability in a communal area in Zimbabwe

Single women, land and livelihood vulnerability in a communal area in Zimbabwe
Author : Gaynor Gamuchirai Makura-Paradza
Publisher : Wageningen Academic Publishers
Release Date : 2010-06-01
Category : Social Science
Total pages :304
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There has been limited research on single women in customary tenure areas. Single women's experiences have been marginalized in research that focuses on notions of property, male headed domestic units and relies on normative research methods to investigate resource access in the communal farming areas of Zimbabwe. This work focuses on the hearth-hold as a domestic unit and uses innovative research methods to investigate how women outside the marriage institution negotiate access to land, livelihood resources and make decisions to cope with livelihood vulnerability in customary tenure areas. The research illustrates through a focus on pathways and rural-urban connections how single women make decisions to secure livelihoods under fast changing conditions. The findings that patriarchy is only one but not the only institution governing land access in customary tenure areas and that women have more room to negotiate land access in communal areas especially through entitlements, family obligations and exploitation of multi-layered tenure systems are some of the publication's contribution to knowledge on single women, customary land tenure and livelihood vulnerability.

Information Security Management Handbook, Sixth Edition

Information Security Management Handbook, Sixth Edition
Author : Harold F. Tipton,Micki Krause
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2007-05-14
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :3280
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Considered the gold-standard reference on information security, the Information Security Management Handbook provides an authoritative compilation of the fundamental knowledge, skills, techniques, and tools required of today's IT security professional. Now in its sixth edition, this 3200 page, 4 volume stand-alone reference is organized under the CISSP Common Body of Knowledge domains and has been updated yearly. Each annual update, the latest is Volume 6, reflects the changes to the CBK in response to new laws and evolving technology.

At Risk in America

At Risk in America
Author : Lu Ann Aday
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2002-02-28
Category : Medical
Total pages :400
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This updated second edition of At Risk in America provides a detailed analysis of those key population groups most vulnerable to disease and injury in the United States today-including homeless persons, refugees and immigrants, people living with AIDS, alcohol and substance abusers, high-risk mothers and infants, victims of family or other violence, and the chronically or mentally ill. Lu Ann Aday reviews the major theories and knowledge concerning these at-risk groups and offers new approaches and methodologies for tracing the social determinants and societal influences on health. She examines the specific health needs and risks faced by these groups, their experience in the health care system, the current policies and programs that serve them, and the research and policy initiatives that might be undertaken to help reduce their vulnerability.