January 26, 2021

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Fluorine

Fluorine
Author : Tom Jackson
Publisher : Marshall Cavendish
Release Date : 2004
Category : Juvenile Nonfiction
Total pages :32
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Discusses the characteristics, sources, and uses of fluorine.

Guide to Fluorine NMR for Organic Chemists

Guide to Fluorine NMR for Organic Chemists
Author : W. R. Dolbier
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2009-05-20
Category : Science
Total pages :235
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AN UNPARALLELED ONE-STOP GUIDE TO FLUORINE NMR Guide to Fluorine NMR for Organic Chemists provides a unique single source on both fluorine NMR and the impact of fluorine substituents on proton and carbon NMR spectra. Helping working chemists overcome the challenges associated with the synthetic methodologies of fluorinated compounds, this guide enables the effective use of these increasingly popular spectroscopic techniques to accurately characterize compounds that contain fluorine. Following a thorough introduction of fluorinated compounds, chapters in the text cover: An overview of fluorine NMR The single fluorine substituent The CF2 group The trifluoromethyl group More heavily fluorinated compounds Compounds and substituents with fluorine directly bound to heteroatoms With unparalleled depth and completeness, the coverage ranges from those compounds containing only a few fluorinated substituents, typically employed in pharmaceutical and agricultural applications, to more heavily fluorinated compounds. Featuring NMR data for more than 1,000 specific compunds and including more than 100 exemplary spectra, Guide to Fluorine NMR for Organic Chemists gives the working chemist and advanced student an essential tool for understanding cutting-edge NMR techniques and interpreting the resulting spectroscopic data.

Fluorine in Organic Chemistry

Fluorine in Organic Chemistry
Author : Richard D. Chambers
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2004
Category : Science
Total pages :406
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Replacing hydrogen with fluorine in organic molecules can profoundly influence their chemical and physical properties, leading to a range of chemical compounds, from Prozac to Teflon, which rely on organic fluorine chemistry for their useful and highly desirable properties. Fluorine in Organic Chemistry introduces its subject by discussing the chemical properties and electronic effects of fluorocarbon systems. Subsequent chapters detail the most efficient methods for the preparation and synthesis of partially, selectively, and highly fluorinated systems, from electrochemical flourination, to the addition of fluorine to olefins and aceytylenes. Other topics include: the characteristics of fluorocarbon groups in terms of ions, acids, and bases; substitution effects of fluorocarbon groups on nucleophilic displacement; elimination reactions; flouroalkane, functional, and polyfluoroaromatic compounds; fluorine in biochemistry; and organometallic reagents. With applications that extend from pharmaceuticals to fine and specialty chemicals to polymers, Fluorine in Organic Chemistry is an excellent reference for all organic chemists.

Fluorine Chemistry Research Advances

Fluorine Chemistry Research Advances
Author : Ira V. Gardiner
Publisher : Nova Publishers
Release Date : 2007
Category : Science
Total pages :322
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Fluorine continues to intrigue chemists who overcome the challenge of handling this remarkable halogen and work to develop varied methods for synthesising fluorine compounds. The unique properties of these materials, ranging from inert perfluorocarbons and fluoropolymers to a multitude of other fascinating fluorinated compounds, firmly established their place amidst the technological achievements of the 20th Century. Fluorine substitution in biologically active compounds has become particularly significant in recent years. This book presents new and significant research in this field.

Experimental Methods in Organic Fluorine Chemistry

Experimental Methods in Organic Fluorine Chemistry
Author : Tomoya Kitazume,Takashi Yamazaki
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 1999-03-08
Category : Science
Total pages :272
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In the fields of biologically active materials and functional materials, fluorinated organic materials are becoming a focus of significant interest. Over the past decade synthetic methodologies and reagents in fluorine chemistry have been developed, especially stereocontrolled synthetic methods, enzymatic resolution to synthesize enantiomers, fluoromethylated reagents, and fluorination reagents. These methods have contributed to the opening of new pathways for fluorinated materials. However, few fluorinated materials have been put to commercial use. Furthermore, there remain problems to be solved, such as the handling of the materials, availability of reagents and selectivity (stereo-, regio-, and/or chemoselectivity). Research chemists, technical engineers, and graduate students in all branches of chemistry, pharmaceutics, and material science interested in fluorinated materials need to know detailed experimental procedures of how to synthesize the target fluorinated materials. This volume summarizes the chemical and microbial methods for obtaining functionalized fluorinated materials for use as building blocks; detailed experimental methods (reaction conditions, solvent, temperature, handling techniques, etc.); and the stereoview (possible absolute configuration) of the structures with spectral data. Mono-, di-, tri-, and polyfluorinated materials derived from fluorinating agents, fluoromethylated reagents and building blocks are summarized. A chemical name index, molecular formula index, and reagent index are also included. The publication of this monograph will provide access to the enormous possibilities in fluorine chemistry, biological material chemistry, and functionalized material chemistry.

Fluorine and the Environment: Atmospheric Chemistry, Emissions & Lithosphere

Fluorine and the Environment: Atmospheric Chemistry, Emissions & Lithosphere
Author : Alain Tressaud
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2006-08-17
Category : Science
Total pages :318
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Advances in Fluorine Science presents critical multidisciplinary overviews for areas in which fluorine and fluoride compounds have a decisive impact. The individual volumes of Advances in Fluorine Science are thematic, addressing comprehensively both the science and applications on topics including the Environment, Green chemistry, Medicine, Health & Life Sciences, New Technologies & Materials Science, Energy and the Earth Sciences. For each subject the contributors will clearly inform the reader on the nature of the problem (if any) and on the solutions, combining knowledge from different scientific disciplines, that have been proposed to solve each issue. This volume covers a wide scope of important issues about our atmospheric environment and contains contributions from both chemists and environmental scientists. Articles review the origin of fluorine-emissions either from natural or anthropogenic origin; the chemistry of fluorine- and halogen-based species in the atmosphere; the monitoring and characterization of atmospheric pollutants; new generations of halocarbons and improved destruction procedures of banned CFCs; the role of fluorides within both our geosphere: volcanic magmas and natural fluorine emissions, and effects on our biosphere: life cycle, plants and animals. * Examines the role of fluorine and fluoride products in our environment: from the geosphere to the atmosphere through the biosphere * Discusses the efforts of scientists and industry groups towards the improvement of environmental and sustainability issues * Multidisciplinary contributions from chemists, geologists, biologists, environmentalists and industry staffs

Fluorine-Carbon and Fluoride-Carbon Materials

Fluorine-Carbon and Fluoride-Carbon Materials
Author : Tsuyoshi Nakajima
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2001-01-01
Category : Science
Total pages :416
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"This outstanding reference presents the latest scientific findings concerning the synthesis, structure, thermodynamics, and physical and chemical properties of fluorine- and fluoride-carbon compounds elucidating their practical applications in lithium batteries, superhydrophobic composites, and the electrolytic production of elemental fluorine."

Fluorine and Health

Fluorine and Health
Author : Alain Tressaud,Gunter Haufe
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2008-06-06
Category : Medical
Total pages :816
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Fluorine and Health presents a critical multidisciplinary overview on the contribution of fluorinated compounds to resolve the important global issue of medicinal monitoring and health care. The involved subjects are organized in three thematic parts devoted to Molecular Imaging, Biomedical Materials and Pharmaceuticals. Initially the key-position of partially fluorinated low molecular weight compounds labelled either with the natural 19F-isotope for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or labelled with the radioactive [18F]-isotope for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is highlighted. Both non-invasive methods belong to the most challenging in vivo imaging techniques in oncology, neurology and in cardiology for the diagnosis of diseases having the highest mortality in the industrialized countries. The manifold facets of fluorinated biomaterials range from inorganic ceramics to perfluorinated organic molecules. Liquid perfluorocarbons are suitable for oxygen transport and as potential respiratory gas carriers, while fluorinated polymers are connected to the pathology of blood vessels. Another important issue concerns the application of highly fluorinated liquids in ophthalmology. Moreover, fluorine is an essential trace element in bone mineral, dentine and tooth enamel and is applied for the prophylaxis and treatment of dental caries. The various origins of human exposure to fluoride species is detailed to promote a better understanding of the effect of fluoride species on living organisms. Medicinally relevant fluorinated molecules and their interactions with native proteins are the main focus of the third part. New molecules fluorinated in strategic position are crucial for the development of pharmaceuticals with desired action and optimal pharmacological profile. Among the hundreds of marketed active drug components there are more than 150 fluorinated compounds. The chapters will illustrate how the presence of fluorine atoms alters properties of bioactive compounds at various biochemical steps, and possibly facilitate its emergence as pharmaceuticals. Finally the synthetic potential of a fluorinase, the first C-F bond forming enzyme, is summarized. - New approach of topics involving chemistry, biology and medicinal techniques - Transdisciplinar papers on fluoride products - Importance of fluoride products in health - Updated data on specific topics

Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine (Update)

Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine (Update)
Author : Carolyn A. Tylenda
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release Date : 2011-05
Category :
Total pages :383
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This toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects information for fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine. Fluorides are often added to drinking water supplies and a variety of dental compounds. Some fluoride compounds are also used in the production of glass and enamel and in the steel industry. Fluorine gas is used primarily to make chemical compounds used in separating isotopes of uranium for use in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. Hydrogen fluoride is used in the manufacture of fluorocarbons, which are used as refrigerants, solvents, and aerosols. This profile includes: (A) The examination, summary, and interpretation of available toxicologic information and epidemiologic evaluations on fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine to ascertain the levels of significant human exposure for the substance and the associated acute, subacute, and chronic health effects; (B) A determination of whether adequate information on the health effects of fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine is available or in the process of development to determine levels of exposure that present a significant risk to human health of acute, subacute, and chronic health effects; and (C) Where appropriate, identification of toxicologic testing needed to identify the types or levels of exposure that may present significant risk of adverse health effects in humans. Tables and figures. This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication.

Fluorine Chemistry for Organic Chemists

Fluorine Chemistry for Organic Chemists
Author : Milos Hudlic'ky
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2000-04-20
Category : Science
Total pages :152
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This book is a synthesis of two of Hudlicky's earlier books outlining the many unpredictable properties of fluorine and its compounds that are not analogous to the properties of any other halogens and their compounds. It is divided into two separate sections, the first presenting peculiar reactions as problems to be solved. Each reaction can be analyzed in the lab without the help of the second section, however if a solution is not easily reached, the second section provides discussion of the problems, outlining the products of the reactions and their mechanisms. Among the 105 reactions outlined are the introduction of fluorine into organic molecules, reduction and oxidation of fluorine compounds, reactions of fluorocompounds with halogens and their derivatives, nitration, acid catalyzed reactions, organometallic syntheses, and pyrolyses. The reactions are documented in the experimental material of the earlier volumes and will be important background knowledge for anyone working in organic chemistry.

Fluorine in Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology

Fluorine in Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology
Author : Iwao Ojima
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2009-03-23
Category : Science
Total pages :640
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The extraordinary potential of fluorine-containing molecules in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology has been recognized by researchers outside of the traditional fluorine chemistry field, and thus a new wave of fluorine chemistry is rapidly expanding its biomedical frontiers. With several of the best selling drugs in the world crucially containing fluorine atoms, the incorporation of fluorine to drug leads has become an essential practice in biomedical research, especially for drug design and discovery as well as development. Focusing on the unique and significant roles that fluorine plays in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology, this book reviews recent advances and future prospects in this rapidly developing field. Topics covered include: Discovery and development of fluorine containing drugs and drug candidates. New and efficient synthetic methods for medicinal chemistry and the optimisation of fluorine-containing drug candidates. Structural and chemical biology of fluorinated amino acids and peptides. Fluorine labels as probes in metabolic study, protein engineering and clinical diagnosis. Applications of 19F NMR spectroscopy in biomedical research. An appendix presents an invaluable index of all fluorine-containing drugs that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, including information on structure and pharmaceutical action. Fluorine in Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology will serve as an excellent reference source for graduate students as well as academic and industrial researchers who want to take advantage of fluorine in biomedical research.

Fluorine in Heterocyclic Chemistry Volume 1

Fluorine in Heterocyclic Chemistry Volume 1
Author : Valentine Nenajdenko
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-06-30
Category : Science
Total pages :681
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This two-volume work combines comprehensive information on the chemistry of the fluorinated heterocycles. The material has been divided such that the first volume is dedicated to 5-membered fluorinated heterocycles and macrocycles, while the second volume combines data connected with the chemistry of fluorine containing 6-membered heterocycles. Both volumes will be of interest to synthetic organic chemists in general, and particularly for those colleagues working in the fields of heterocyclic-compound chemistry, materials chemistry, medicinal chemistry, and fluorine chemistry. All information is presented and classified clearly to be effective source for broad auditory of chemists. It will be interesting for scientists working in the field of inorganic and coordination chemistry. Fluorinated heterocycles are becoming increasingly important in many areas including the pharmaceutical industry, materials science and agriculture. The presence of fluorine can result in substantial functional changes in the biological as well as physicochemical properties of organic compounds. Incorporation of fluorine into drug molecules can greatly affect their physicochemical properties, such as bond strength, lipophilicity, bioavailability, conformation, electrostatic potential, dipole moment, pKa etc. as well as pharmacokinetic properties, such as tissue distribution, rate of metabolism and pharmacological properties, such as pharmacodynamics and toxicology.

Fluorine

Fluorine
Author : Heather Hasan
Publisher : The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
Release Date : 2007-01-15
Category : Juvenile Nonfiction
Total pages :48
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Explains the characteristics of fluorine, where it is found, how it is used by humans, and its relationship to other elements found in the periodic table.

The Chemistry of Fluorine

The Chemistry of Fluorine
Author : T. A. O'Donnell
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :111
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Pergamon Texts in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 5: The Chemistry of Fluorine comprises a series of reviews on the physical and chemical properties of fluorine compounds. This book discusses the general properties of fluorine and fluorides; hydrogen fluoride solvent system; ionization in halogen fluorides; fluorides of main group elements; and chemical reactivity of higher fluorides of d- and f-transition elements. The production of elemental fluorine; acidity of hydrogen fluoride; preparative reactions in halogen fluorides; specificity of fluorination in rare gas reactivity; and bonding and structure in higher transition metal are also elaborated in this text. This publication is intended for chemical engineering students and chemists researching on the characteristics of fluorine and fluorides.

Fluorine in Agriculture

Fluorine in Agriculture
Author : Anonim
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release Date : 1995
Category : Fluorine compounds
Total pages :218
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