January 20, 2021

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Emerging Non-Volatile Memories

Emerging Non-Volatile Memories
Author : Seungbum Hong,Orlando Auciello,Dirk Wouters
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-11-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :273
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This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers’ understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

Emerging Non-volatile Memory Technologies

Emerging Non-volatile Memory Technologies
Author : Wen Siang Lew,Gerard Joseph Lim,Putu Andhita Dananjaya
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2021-01-09
Category : Science
Total pages :438
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This book offers a balanced and comprehensive guide to the core principles, fundamental properties, experimental approaches, and state-of-the-art applications of two major groups of emerging non-volatile memory technologies, i.e. spintronics-based devices as well as resistive switching devices, also known as Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM). The first section presents different types of spintronic-based devices, i.e. magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), domain wall, and skyrmion memory devices. This section describes how their developments have led to various promising applications, such as microwave oscillators, detectors, magnetic logic, and neuromorphic engineered systems. In the second half of the book, the underlying device physics supported by different experimental observations and modelling of RRAM devices are presented with memory array level implementation. An insight into RRAM desired properties as synaptic element in neuromorphic computing platforms from material and algorithms viewpoint is also discussed with specific example in automatic sound classification framework.

Emerging Non-volatile Memory Technologies for Computing and Security

Emerging Non-volatile Memory Technologies for Computing and Security
Author : Rekha Govindaraj
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category : Associative storage
Total pages :114
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With CMOS technology scaling reaching its limitations rigorous research of alternate and competent technologies is paramount to push the boundaries of computing. Spintronic and resistive memories have proven to be effective alternatives in terms of area, power and performance to CMOS because of their non-volatility, ability for logic computing and easy integration with CMOS. However, deeper investigations to understand their physical phenomenon and improve their properties such as writability, stability, reliability, endurance, uniformity with minimal device-device variations is necessary for deployment as memories in commercial applications. Application of these technologies beyond memory and logic are investigated in this thesis i.e. for security of integrated circuits and systems and special purpose memories. We proposed a spintonic based special purpose memory for search applications, present design analysis and techniques to improve the performance for larger word lengths upto 256 bits. Salient characteristics of RRAM is studied and exploited in the design of widely accepted hardware security primitives such as Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) and True Random Number Generators (TRNG). Vulnerability of these circuits to adversary attacks and countermeasures are proposed. Proposed PUF can be implemented within 1T-1R conventional memory architecture which offers area advantages compared to RRAM memory and cross bar array PUFs with huge number of challenge response pairs. Potential application of proposed strong arbiter PUF in the Internet of things is proposed and performance is evaluated theoretically with valid assumptions on the maturity of RRAM technology. Proposed TRNG effectively utilizes the random telegraph noise in RRAM current to generate random bit stream. TRNG is evaluated for sufficient randomness in the random bit stream generated. Vulnerability and countermeasures to adversary attacks are also studied. Finally, in thesis we investigated and extended the application of emerging non-volatile memory technologies for search and security in integrated circuits and systems.

Emerging Memory Technologies

Emerging Memory Technologies
Author : Yuan Xie
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-10-21
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :322
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This book explores the design implications of emerging, non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies on future computer memory hierarchy architecture designs. Since NVM technologies combine the speed of SRAM, the density of DRAM, and the non-volatility of Flash memory, they are very attractive as the basis for future universal memories. This book provides a holistic perspective on the topic, covering modeling, design, architecture and applications. The practical information included in this book will enable designers to exploit emerging memory technologies to improve significantly the performance/power/reliability of future, mainstream integrated circuits.

Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology

Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology
Author : Yoshio Nishi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-06-24
Category : Computers
Total pages :532
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New solutions are needed for future scaling down of nonvolatile memory. Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology provides an overview of developing technologies and explores their strengths and weaknesses. After an overview of the current market, part one introduces improvements in flash technologies, including developments in 3D NAND flash technologies and flash memory for ultra-high density storage devices. Part two looks at the advantages of designing phase change memory and resistive random access memory technologies. It looks in particular at the fabrication, properties, and performance of nanowire phase change memory technologies. Later chapters also consider modeling of both metal oxide and resistive random access memory switching mechanisms, as well as conductive bridge random access memory technologies. Finally, part three looks to the future of alternative technologies. The areas covered include molecular, polymer, and hybrid organic memory devices, and a variety of random access memory devices such as nano-electromechanical, ferroelectric, and spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive devices. Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology is a key resource for postgraduate students and academic researchers in physics, materials science, and electrical engineering. It is a valuable tool for research and development managers concerned with electronics, semiconductors, nanotechnology, solid-state memories, magnetic materials, organic materials, and portable electronic devices. Provides an overview of developing nonvolatile memory and storage technologies and explores their strengths and weaknesses Examines improvements to flash technology, charge trapping, and resistive random access memory Discusses emerging devices such as those based on polymer and molecular electronics, and nanoelectromechanical random access memory (RAM)

Micro-Architecture and Systems Support for Emerging Non-Volatile Memories

Micro-Architecture and Systems Support for Emerging Non-Volatile Memories
Author : Meenakshi Sundaram Bhaskaran
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2016
Category :
Total pages :127
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Emerging non-volatile memory technologies such as phase-change memory, resistive random access memory, spin-torque transfer memory and 3D XPoint memory promise to significantly increase the I/O sub-system performance. But, current disk-centric systems fall short in taking advantage of the bandwidth and latency characteristics of such memories. This dissertation presents three systems that address: hardware, system software and micro-architecture support for faster-than-flash non-volatile memories. First, we explore system design for using emerging non-volatile memories (NVM) as a persistent cache that bridges the price and density gap between NVMs and denser storage. Bankshot is a prototype PCIe-based intelligent cache with access latencies an order of magnitude lower than conventional SSDs. Unlike previous designs of SSD caches, Bankshot relies on the OS for heavyweight operations such as servicing misses and write-backs while allows cache hits to bypass the operating system (OS) and its associated software overhead entirely. Second, we extend the ability to define application specific interface to emerging NVM SSDs such that a broad range of applications can benefit from low-latency, high-bandwidth access to the SSD's data. Our prototype system, called Willow, supports concurrent execution of an application and trusted code within the SSD without compromising on file system protections. We present three SSD apps - Caching, Append and zero-out that showcase Willows capabilities. Caching extends Willows semantics to use the SSD storage as a persistent cache while file-append and zero-out extends the semantics for file system operations. Finally, we address the challenge of accessing byte-addressable, emerging NVMs with higher than DRAM latency when attached to the processor memory bus; specifically for loads. We propose Non-Blocking Load (NBLD), an instruction set extension to mitigate pipeline stalls from long-latency memory accesses. NBLD is a non-blocking instruction that brings data into the upper levels of the cache hierarchy, however, unlike prefetch instructions, NBLD triggers the execution of application-specific code once data is resident in the cache, effectively hiding the latency of the memory.

Charge-Trapping Non-Volatile Memories

Charge-Trapping Non-Volatile Memories
Author : Panagiotis Dimitrakis
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-02-14
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :211
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This book describes the technology of charge-trapping non-volatile memories and their uses. The authors explain the device physics of each device architecture and provide a concrete description of the materials involved and the fundamental properties of the technology. Modern material properties, used as charge-trapping layers, for new applications are introduced. Provides a comprehensive overview of the technology for charge-trapping non-volatile memories; Details new architectures and current modeling concepts for non-volatile memory devices; Focuses on conduction through multi-layer gate dielectrics stacks.

In Search of the Next Memory

In Search of the Next Memory
Author : Roberto Gastaldi,Giovanni Campardo
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-03-07
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :247
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This book provides students and practicing chip designers with an easy-to-follow yet thorough, introductory treatment of the most promising emerging memories under development in the industry. Focusing on the chip designer rather than the end user, this book offers expanded, up-to-date coverage of emerging memories circuit design. After an introduction on the old solid-state memories and the fundamental limitations soon to be encountered, the working principle and main technology issues of each of the considered technologies (PCRAM, MRAM, FeRAM, ReRAM) are reviewed and a range of topics related to design is explored: the array organization, sensing and writing circuitry, programming algorithms and error correction techniques are reviewed comparing the approach followed and the constraints for each of the technologies considered. Finally the issue of radiation effects on memory devices has been briefly treated. Additionally some considerations are entertained about how emerging memories can find a place in the new memory paradigm required by future electronic systems. This book is an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction for students in courses on memory circuit design or advanced digital courses in VLSI or CMOS circuit design. It also serves as an essential, one-stop resource for academics, researchers and practicing engineers.

Phase Change Memory

Phase Change Memory
Author : Moinuddin K. Qureshi,Sudhanva Gurumurthi,Bipin Rajendran
Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release Date : 2011-11-01
Category : Computers
Total pages :120
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This book will educate readers on the theory and application of Phase-Change Memory (aka, PRAM, PCME, PCRAM, C-RAM, Chalcogenide RAM, and Ovonic Unified Memory). This non-volatile computer memory is a major competitor with the ubiquitous flash memory, which suffers from a number of practical problems that the newer Phase-Change Memory hopes to eradicate. This book is appropriate for professional researchers, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates.

Gate Stack Engineering for Emerging Polarization based Non-volatile Memories

Gate Stack Engineering for Emerging Polarization based Non-volatile Memories
Author : Milan Pesic
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2017-07-14
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :152
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The hafnium based ferroelectric memories offer a low power consumption, ultra-fast operation, non-volatile retention as well as the small relative cell size as the main requirements for future memories. These remarkable properties of ferroelectric memories make them promising candidates for non-volatile memories that would bridge the speed gap between fast logic and slow off-chip, long term storage. Even though the retention of hafnia based ferroelectric memories can be extrapolated to a ten-year specification target, they suffer from a rather limited endurance. Therefore, this work targets relating the field cycling behavior of hafnia based ferroelectric memories to the physical mechanisms taking place within the film stack. Establishing a correlation between the performance of the device and underlying physical mechanisms is the first step toward understanding the device and engineering guidelines for novel, superior devices. In the frame of this work, an in-depth ferroelectric and dielectric characterization, analysis and TEM study was combined with comprehensive modeling approach. Drift and diffusion based vacancy redistribution was found as the main cause for the phase transformation and consequent increase of the remnant polarization, while domain pinning and defect generation is identified to be responsible for the device fatigue. Finally, based on Landau theory, a simple way to utilize the high endurance strength of anti-ferroelectric (AFE) materials and achieve non-volatility in state-of-the-art DRAM stacks was proposed and the fabrication of the world's first non-volatile AFE-RAM is reported. These findings represent an important milestone and pave the way toward a commercialization of (anti)ferroelectric non-volatile memories based on simple binary-oxides.

Design Exploration of Emerging Nano-scale Non-volatile Memory

Design Exploration of Emerging Nano-scale Non-volatile Memory
Author : Hao Yu,Yuhao Wang
Publisher : Springer Science & Business
Release Date : 2014-04-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :192
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This book presents the latest techniques for characterization, modeling and design for nano-scale non-volatile memory (NVM) devices. Coverage focuses on fundamental NVM device fabrication and characterization, internal state identification of memristic dynamics with physics modeling, NVM circuit design and hybrid NVM memory system design-space optimization. The authors discuss design methodologies for nano-scale NVM devices from a circuits/systems perspective, including the general foundations for the fundamental memristic dynamics in NVM devices. Coverage includes physical modeling, as well as the development of a platform to explore novel hybrid CMOS and NVM circuit and system design. • Offers readers a systematic and comprehensive treatment of emerging nano-scale non-volatile memory (NVM) devices; • Focuses on the internal state of NVM memristic dynamics, novel NVM readout and memory cell circuit design and hybrid NVM memory system optimization; • Provides both theoretical analysis and practical examples to illustrate design methodologies; • Illustrates design and analysis for recent developments in spin-toque-transfer, domain-wall racetrack and memristors.

Assuring Security and Privacy of Emerging Non-Volatile Memories

Assuring Security and Privacy of Emerging Non-Volatile Memories
Author : Mohammad Nasim Khan
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019
Category :
Total pages :129
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At the end of Silicon roadmap, keeping the leakage power in tolerable limit hasbecome one of the biggest challenges. Several promising Non-Volatile Memories(NVMs) such as, Spin-Transfer Torque RAM (STTRAM), Magnetic RAM(MRAM), Phase Change Memory (PCM), Resistive RAM (RRAM) and FerroelectricRAM (FeRAM) are being investigated to address the issue since they offerhigh density and consumes zero leakage power. On one hand, the above desiredproperties of emerging NVMs make them suitable candidates to several applicationsincluding replacing conventional memories. On the other hand, their uniquecharacteristics such as, high and asymmetric read/write current and persistencebring new threats to data security and privacy. Some of these memories are alreadydeployed in full systems and as discrete chips and are believed to become ubiquitousin future computing devices. Therefore, it is utmost important to investigatetheir security and privacy issues. Note that these NVMs can be considered forcache, main memory or storage application. They are also suitable to implementin-memory computation which increases system throughput and eliminates Von-Neumann Bottleneck. Compute-capable NVMs imposes new security and privacychallenges that are fundamentally different that their storage counterpart. Thiswork identifies NVM vulnerabilities, attack vectors originating from device levelall the way to circuit and system point of view considering both storage and computeapplications. It also summarizes the circuit/system level countermeasuresto make the NVMs robust against security and privacy issues. NVMs also sufferfrom new reliability issues that can be leveraged by an adversary to launch variousattacks. Therefore, test techniques are required to capture reliability issues duringtesting phase and discard the chip. This work also proposes test techniques thatcan capture reliability issues in short test time.

Nanocrystals in Nonvolatile Memory

Nanocrystals in Nonvolatile Memory
Author : Writam Banerjee
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-10-09
Category : Science
Total pages :534
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In recent years, utilization of the abundant advantages of quantum physics, quantum dots, quantum wires, quantum wells, and nanocrystals has attracted considerable scientific attention in the field of nonvolatile memory. Nanocrystals are the driving element that have brought the nonvolatile flash memory technology to a distinguished height. However, new approaches are still required to strengthen this technology for future applications. This book details the methods of fabrication of nanocrystals and their application in baseline nonvolatile memory and emerging nonvolatile memory technologies. The chapters have been written by renowned experts of the field and will provide an in-depth understanding of these technologies. The book is a valuable tool for research and development sectors associated with electronics, semiconductors, nanotechnology, material sciences, solid state memories, and electronic devices.

Design Exploration of Emerging Nano-scale Non-volatile Memory

Design Exploration of Emerging Nano-scale Non-volatile Memory
Author : Hao Yu,Yuhao Wang
Publisher : Springer Science & Business
Release Date : 2014-04-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :192
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This book presents the latest techniques for characterization, modeling and design for nano-scale non-volatile memory (NVM) devices. Coverage focuses on fundamental NVM device fabrication and characterization, internal state identification of memristic dynamics with physics modeling, NVM circuit design and hybrid NVM memory system design-space optimization. The authors discuss design methodologies for nano-scale NVM devices from a circuits/systems perspective, including the general foundations for the fundamental memristic dynamics in NVM devices. Coverage includes physical modeling, as well as the development of a platform to explore novel hybrid CMOS and NVM circuit and system design. • Offers readers a systematic and comprehensive treatment of emerging nano-scale non-volatile memory (NVM) devices; • Focuses on the internal state of NVM memristic dynamics, novel NVM readout and memory cell circuit design and hybrid NVM memory system optimization; • Provides both theoretical analysis and practical examples to illustrate design methodologies; • Illustrates design and analysis for recent developments in spin-toque-transfer, domain-wall racetrack and memristors.

Nonvolatile Memory Design

Nonvolatile Memory Design
Author : Hai Li,Yiran Chen
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2017-12-19
Category : Computers
Total pages :203
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The manufacture of flash memory, which is the dominant nonvolatile memory technology, is facing severe technical barriers. So much so, that some emerging technologies have been proposed as alternatives to flash memory in the nano-regime. Nonvolatile Memory Design: Magnetic, Resistive, and Phase Changing introduces three promising candidates: phase-change memory, magnetic random access memory, and resistive random access memory. The text illustrates the fundamental storage mechanism of these technologies and examines their differences from flash memory techniques. Based on the latest advances, the authors discuss key design methodologies as well as the various functions and capabilities of the three nonvolatile memory technologies.