January 23, 2021

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Nonvolatile Memory Design

Nonvolatile Memory Design
Author : Hai Li,Yiran Chen
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2017-12-19
Category : Computers
Total pages :203
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The manufacture of flash memory, which is the dominant nonvolatile memory technology, is facing severe technical barriers. So much so, that some emerging technologies have been proposed as alternatives to flash memory in the nano-regime. Nonvolatile Memory Design: Magnetic, Resistive, and Phase Changing introduces three promising candidates: phase-change memory, magnetic random access memory, and resistive random access memory. The text illustrates the fundamental storage mechanism of these technologies and examines their differences from flash memory techniques. Based on the latest advances, the authors discuss key design methodologies as well as the various functions and capabilities of the three nonvolatile memory technologies.

VLSI-Design of Non-Volatile Memories

VLSI-Design of Non-Volatile Memories
Author : Giovanni Campardo,Rino Micheloni,David Novosel
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2005-12-06
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :582
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The electronics and information technology revolution continues, but it is a critical time in the development of technology. Once again, we stand on the brink of a new era where emerging research will yield exciting applications and products destined to transform and enrich our daily lives! The potential is staggering and the ultimate impact is unimaginable, considering the continuing marriage of te- nology with fields such as medicine, communications and entertainment, to name only a few. But who will actually be responsible for transforming these potential new pr- ucts into reality? The answer, of course, is today’s (and tomorrow’s) design en- neers! The design of integrated circuits today remains an essential discipline in s- port of technological progress, and the authors of this book have taken a giant step forward in the development of a practice-oriented treatise for design engineers who are interested in the practical, industry-driven world of integrated circuit - sign.

Emerging Memory Technologies

Emerging Memory Technologies
Author : Yuan Xie
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-10-21
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :322
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This book explores the design implications of emerging, non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies on future computer memory hierarchy architecture designs. Since NVM technologies combine the speed of SRAM, the density of DRAM, and the non-volatility of Flash memory, they are very attractive as the basis for future universal memories. This book provides a holistic perspective on the topic, covering modeling, design, architecture and applications. The practical information included in this book will enable designers to exploit emerging memory technologies to improve significantly the performance/power/reliability of future, mainstream integrated circuits.

Design Exploration of Emerging Nano-scale Non-volatile Memory

Design Exploration of Emerging Nano-scale Non-volatile Memory
Author : Hao Yu,Yuhao Wang
Publisher : Springer Science & Business
Release Date : 2014-04-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :192
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This book presents the latest techniques for characterization, modeling and design for nano-scale non-volatile memory (NVM) devices. Coverage focuses on fundamental NVM device fabrication and characterization, internal state identification of memristic dynamics with physics modeling, NVM circuit design and hybrid NVM memory system design-space optimization. The authors discuss design methodologies for nano-scale NVM devices from a circuits/systems perspective, including the general foundations for the fundamental memristic dynamics in NVM devices. Coverage includes physical modeling, as well as the development of a platform to explore novel hybrid CMOS and NVM circuit and system design. • Offers readers a systematic and comprehensive treatment of emerging nano-scale non-volatile memory (NVM) devices; • Focuses on the internal state of NVM memristic dynamics, novel NVM readout and memory cell circuit design and hybrid NVM memory system optimization; • Provides both theoretical analysis and practical examples to illustrate design methodologies; • Illustrates design and analysis for recent developments in spin-toque-transfer, domain-wall racetrack and memristors.

Non-volatile Memories

Non-volatile Memories
Author : Pierre-Camille Lacaze,Jean-Claude Lacroix
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2014-12-15
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :286
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Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology

Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology
Author : Yoshio Nishi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-06-24
Category : Computers
Total pages :532
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New solutions are needed for future scaling down of nonvolatile memory. Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology provides an overview of developing technologies and explores their strengths and weaknesses. After an overview of the current market, part one introduces improvements in flash technologies, including developments in 3D NAND flash technologies and flash memory for ultra-high density storage devices. Part two looks at the advantages of designing phase change memory and resistive random access memory technologies. It looks in particular at the fabrication, properties, and performance of nanowire phase change memory technologies. Later chapters also consider modeling of both metal oxide and resistive random access memory switching mechanisms, as well as conductive bridge random access memory technologies. Finally, part three looks to the future of alternative technologies. The areas covered include molecular, polymer, and hybrid organic memory devices, and a variety of random access memory devices such as nano-electromechanical, ferroelectric, and spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive devices. Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology is a key resource for postgraduate students and academic researchers in physics, materials science, and electrical engineering. It is a valuable tool for research and development managers concerned with electronics, semiconductors, nanotechnology, solid-state memories, magnetic materials, organic materials, and portable electronic devices. Provides an overview of developing nonvolatile memory and storage technologies and explores their strengths and weaknesses Examines improvements to flash technology, charge trapping, and resistive random access memory Discusses emerging devices such as those based on polymer and molecular electronics, and nanoelectromechanical random access memory (RAM)

Nonvolatile Memory Technologies with Emphasis on Flash

Nonvolatile Memory Technologies with Emphasis on Flash
Author : Joe Brewer,Manzur Gill
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2011-09-23
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :792
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Presented here is an all-inclusive treatment of Flash technology, including Flash memory chips, Flash embedded in logic, binary cell Flash, and multilevel cell Flash. The book begins with a tutorial of elementary concepts to orient readers who are less familiar with the subject. Next, it covers all aspects and variations of Flash technology at a mature engineering level: basic device structures, principles of operation, related process technologies, circuit design, overall design tradeoffs, device testing, reliability, and applications.

Non-Volatile Memory Database Management Systems

Non-Volatile Memory Database Management Systems
Author : Joy Arulraj,Andrew Pavlo
Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release Date : 2019-02-12
Category : Computers
Total pages :191
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This book explores the implications of non-volatile memory (NVM) for database management systems (DBMSs). The advent of NVM will fundamentally change the dichotomy between volatile memory and durable storage in DBMSs. These new NVM devices are almost as fast as volatile memory, but all writes to them are persistent even after power loss. Existing DBMSs are unable to take full advantage of this technology because their internal architectures are predicated on the assumption that memory is volatile. With NVM, many of the components of legacy DBMSs are unnecessary and will degrade the performance of data-intensive applications. We present the design and implementation of DBMS architectures that are explicitly tailored for NVM. The book focuses on three aspects of a DBMS: (1) logging and recovery, (2) storage and buffer management, and (3) indexing. First, we present a logging and recovery protocol that enables the DBMS to support near-instantaneous recovery. Second, we propose a storage engine architecture and buffer management policy that leverages the durability and byte-addressability properties of NVM to reduce data duplication and data migration. Third, the book presents the design of a range index tailored for NVM that is latch-free yet simple to implement. All together, the work described in this book illustrates that rethinking the fundamental algorithms and data structures employed in a DBMS for NVM improves performance and availability, reduces operational cost, and simplifies software development.

LOW POWER, SECURE AND ROBUST DESIGNS OF NON-VOLATILE MEMORIES.

LOW POWER, SECURE AND ROBUST DESIGNS OF NON-VOLATILE MEMORIES.
Author : Seyedhamidreza Motaman
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category :
Total pages :129
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In the last few decades, computation power has been increasing, thanks to CMOS scaling, which in turn results in growing demand for high-density memories to meet the large bandwidth requirement. However, CMOS scaling is approaching the end of roadmap and it is experiencing significant challenges such as high power-density, process variation, high standby power, and reliability issues. In addition, the increasing demand for high performance computing (HPC) and integration of multiple cores on a single die have widened the speed gap between logic and memory, that is known as the memory-wall. Process variability and standby power are posing severe obstruction towards SRAM/DRAM scaling to future nodes. On one hand, industry and academia began investigating alternative memory technologies, such as Spin-Torque Transfer RAM (STT-RAM), Domain Wall memory (DWM), Phase-Change RAM (PCRAM), Ferro-electric RAM (FeRAM), Resistive RAM (RRAM), and Magnetic RAM (MRAM). These emerging non-volatile memory technologies offer the speed of SRAM, the high density of DRAM, and the non-volatility of Flash memory. On the other hand, the speed gap between the processor and memory impedes the continuous performance improvement of the traditional von Neumann architecture. In order to address this challenge, extensive amount of research is performed to explore the alternative non-von Neumann architectures based on the concept of computing in memory. Among these memories, spintronic memories (i.e. STTRAM, DWM) have proven to be potential alternatives to replace on-chip SRAM owing to their remarkable high density, zero standby power, high speed, high endurance and CMOS compatibility. Nevertheless, STTRAM suffers from crucial challenges such as high write energy, long write time and poor sense margin. Furthermore, it suffers from process variation induced write latency and write power degradation. Moreover, the sensitivity of magnets to ambient parameters and data persistence makes the spintronic memories vulnerable to tampering and data leakage. In addition to the aforementioned challenges associated with STTRAM, DWM suffers from shift latency and shift power overhead, aspect ratio mismatch, and segregated read and write heads. The recent experimental studies have revealed that RRAM is a promising alternative to implement main memory due to their small footprint and zero standby power. Therefore, realizing logic operations within RRAM crossbar arrays is a promising approach to implement computing-in-memory systems. However, RRAM crossbar array suffers from sneak-path problem which leads to poor sense margin, higher power consumption, and limited array size. In the first part of this thesis, we propose the circuit and architectural techniques to improve read yield, write latency, write power and data security of STTRAM. We introduce slope sensing, a destructive sensing technique for elimination of the reference resistance variation in order to enhance read yield of STTRAM arrays. Further, we propose a non-destructive sensing scheme which exploits a voltage feedback and boosting (VFAB) approach to develop large sense margin and substantially reduce sensing power. We introduce a novel and adaptive write current boosting to mitigate process variation induced write latency and write power degradation. In this technique, the bits experiencing worst-case write latency are fixed through write current boosting. Next, we investigate data security of STTRAM last level cache under magnetic attack where we apply low-overhead micro-architecture methods to avoid errors in presence of the magnetic attack. In the second part of this thesis, we propose circuit and architectural techniques to overcome the design challenges associated with DWM. We apply layout techniques such as sharing of diffusion, bitlines and shift lines in order to enhance bitcell density. Circuit methods such as merged read-write head for improvement of bitcell density and shift gating to reduce shift power are proposed. Furthermore, we apply the micro-architecture techniques such as cache segregation using a novel replacement policy as well as dynamic current boosting based on workload monitoring in order to mitigate shift power and shift latency. Moreover, adaptive write and shift current boosting is proposed to mitigate process variation induced performance and power degradation.Lastly, we propose a low-power dynamic computing in memory system which can implement various functions in the Sum of Product (SoP) form in RRAM crossbar array architecture. This technique benefits from the nonlinear characteristic of a selector diode for improvement of the sense margin in order to implement higher fan-in logic gates.

Memory Design Techniques for Low Energy Embedded Systems

Memory Design Techniques for Low Energy Embedded Systems
Author : Alberto Macii,Luca Benini,Massimo Poncino
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-03-14
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :144
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Memory Design Techniques for Low Energy Embedded Systems centers one of the most outstanding problems in chip design for embedded application. It guides the reader through different memory organizations and technologies and it reviews the most successful strategies for optimizing them in the power and performance plane.

In Search of the Next Memory

In Search of the Next Memory
Author : Roberto Gastaldi,Giovanni Campardo
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-03-07
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :247
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This book provides students and practicing chip designers with an easy-to-follow yet thorough, introductory treatment of the most promising emerging memories under development in the industry. Focusing on the chip designer rather than the end user, this book offers expanded, up-to-date coverage of emerging memories circuit design. After an introduction on the old solid-state memories and the fundamental limitations soon to be encountered, the working principle and main technology issues of each of the considered technologies (PCRAM, MRAM, FeRAM, ReRAM) are reviewed and a range of topics related to design is explored: the array organization, sensing and writing circuitry, programming algorithms and error correction techniques are reviewed comparing the approach followed and the constraints for each of the technologies considered. Finally the issue of radiation effects on memory devices has been briefly treated. Additionally some considerations are entertained about how emerging memories can find a place in the new memory paradigm required by future electronic systems. This book is an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction for students in courses on memory circuit design or advanced digital courses in VLSI or CMOS circuit design. It also serves as an essential, one-stop resource for academics, researchers and practicing engineers.

Phase Change Memory

Phase Change Memory
Author : Moinuddin K. Qureshi,Sudhanva Gurumurthi,Bipin Rajendran
Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release Date : 2011-11-01
Category : Computers
Total pages :120
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This book will educate readers on the theory and application of Phase-Change Memory (aka, PRAM, PCME, PCRAM, C-RAM, Chalcogenide RAM, and Ovonic Unified Memory). This non-volatile computer memory is a major competitor with the ubiquitous flash memory, which suffers from a number of practical problems that the newer Phase-Change Memory hopes to eradicate. This book is appropriate for professional researchers, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates.

Sensing of Non-Volatile Memory Demystified

Sensing of Non-Volatile Memory Demystified
Author : Swaroop Ghosh
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-08-10
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :107
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This book introduces readers to the latest advances in sensing technology for a broad range of non-volatile memories (NVMs). Challenges across the memory technologies are highlighted and their solutions in mature technology are discussed, enabling innovation of sensing technologies for future NVMs. Coverage includes sensing techniques ranging from well-established NVMs such as hard disk, flash, Magnetic RAM (MRAM) to emerging NVMs such as ReRAM, STTRAM, FeRAM and Domain Wall Memory will be covered.

Nanocrystals in Nonvolatile Memory

Nanocrystals in Nonvolatile Memory
Author : Writam Banerjee
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-10-09
Category : Science
Total pages :534
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In recent years, utilization of the abundant advantages of quantum physics, quantum dots, quantum wires, quantum wells, and nanocrystals has attracted considerable scientific attention in the field of nonvolatile memory. Nanocrystals are the driving element that have brought the nonvolatile flash memory technology to a distinguished height. However, new approaches are still required to strengthen this technology for future applications. This book details the methods of fabrication of nanocrystals and their application in baseline nonvolatile memory and emerging nonvolatile memory technologies. The chapters have been written by renowned experts of the field and will provide an in-depth understanding of these technologies. The book is a valuable tool for research and development sectors associated with electronics, semiconductors, nanotechnology, material sciences, solid state memories, and electronic devices.

Nonvolatile Semiconductor Memories

Nonvolatile Semiconductor Memories
Author : Chenming Hu
Publisher : Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers(IEEE)
Release Date : 1991
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :479
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