October 28, 2020

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The Return of Cultural Treasures

The Return of Cultural Treasures
Author : Jeanette Greenfield
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2007-12-06
Category : History
Total pages :500
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This is a new edition of Greenfield's pioneering study about the legal, political and historical aspects of cultural restitution.

The Return of Cultural Treasures

The Return of Cultural Treasures
Author : Jeanette Greenfield
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 1996-01-26
Category : Law
Total pages :351
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New edition of Greenfield's pioneering study about the legal, political and historical aspects of cultural restitution.

The Return of Cultural Treasures

The Return of Cultural Treasures
Author : Jeanette Greenfield
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2013-08-22
Category : Social Science
Total pages :524
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In recent years controversial cases such as the so-called Elgin Marbles have prompted public debate on the return of cultural treasures to their homelands. In this fully revised and expanded third edition of her seminal work, first published in 2007, Jeanette Greenfield analyzes and discusses the historical, legal and political issues surrounding a wide cross-section of similar cases. Bringing the story up to date, this edition includes new chapters on wartime plunders, deliberately destroyed art and the return of ethnic art such as Australian aboriginal and Native American art. It also explores the palaeontological and marine archaeology issues at play and examines new approaches taken by museums when dealing with cultural objects and their return. Written in a highly accessible style with an interdisciplinary approach, this book will appeal to a wide range of readers interested in cultural heritage, archaeology and anthropology, museums, art history and international law.

The Return of Cultural and Historical Treasures

The Return of Cultural and Historical Treasures
Author : Jos van Beurden
Publisher : Kit Press
Release Date : 2012
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :88
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The return of cultural and historical treasures touches on a number of political and cultural issues, and often inspires controversy. As the world is changing, the concept of return is changing as well. The shrinking divisions between a poor South and a rich North, colonizer and colonized, and source countries and art and antique market countries all impact our thinking about return. How do Dutch heritage institutions deal with this new reality, when the return of their objects or collections comes under discussion? That is the central question in this critical book. In The Return of Cultural and Historical Treasures: The Case of the Netherlands, Jos van Beurden researches cases in which the Dutch state and Dutch heritage institutions have been handing over cultural and historical treasures that were acquired in colonial times and more recently. He investigates the dynamics of their return practice and gives his analysis extra depth by including cases in which the return has not materialized. The most remarkable of these is that of a keris--the traditional sword of Indonesia's national hero Diponegoro. Where is it? In addition to research the written records, many heritage directors and experts were interviewed for the book, making The Return of Cultural and Historical Treasures an indispensable addition to the literature about return by the Netherlands of art and human remains.

America and the Return of Nazi Contraband

America and the Return of Nazi Contraband
Author : Michael J. Kurtz
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2006-03-06
Category : Art
Total pages :278
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The Nazi war on European culture produced the greatest dislocation of art, archives, and libraries in the history of the world. In the ruins of the Reich, Allied occupiers found millions of paintings, books, manuscripts, and pieces of sculpture, from the mediocre to the priceless, hidden in thousands of secret hideaways. This book tells the story of how the American Military Government in Germany, spearheaded by a few dozen dedicated Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives (MFA&A) officers and enlisted men, coped with restoring Europe's cultural heritage.

Keeping Their Marbles

Keeping Their Marbles
Author : Tiffany Jenkins
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2016-02
Category :
Total pages :368
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For the past two centuries and more, the West has acquired the treasures of antiquity to fill its museums. But all this came at a cost. From the Napoleonic campaigns that filled the Louvre with Egyptian artefacts, to the plunder that accompanied British imperialism across the globe, the amazing collections in the West's great museums were wrenched from their original context by means that often amounted to theft. Now the countries from which they came would likethem back. The Greek demand for the return of the Elgin Marbles is only the tip of an iceberg that includes a host of world-historical artefacts, from the Benin Bronzes to the Bust of Nefertiti. Formany, these items are looted property - and should be returned immediately.Keeping Their Marbles tells the story of how the West acquired these treasures - and controversially argues that they should not be returned.

Treasures in Trusted Hands

Treasures in Trusted Hands
Author : Jos van Beurden
Publisher :
Release Date : 2017-05-22
Category :
Total pages :230
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This pioneering study charts the one-way traffic of cultural and historical objects during five centuries of European colonialism. It presents abundant examples of disappeared colonial objects and systematizes these into war booty, confiscations by missionaries and contestable acquisitions by private persons and other categories. Former colonies consider this as a historical injustice that has not been undone. Former colonial powers have kept most of the objects in their custody. In the 1970s the Netherlands and Belgium returned objects to their former colonies Indonesia and DR Congo; but their number was considerably smaller than what had been asked for. Nigeria's requests for the return of some Benin objects, confiscated by British soldiers in 1897, are rejected. As there is no consensus on how to deal with colonial objects, disputes about other categories of contestable objects are analyzed. For Nazi-looted artworks the 1998 Washington Conference Principles have been widely accepted. Although non-binding, they promote fair and just solutions and help people to reclaim art works that they lost involuntarily. To promote solutions for colonial objects, nine Principles for Dealing with Colonial Cultural and Historical Objects are presented, based on the Washington Conference Principles. The nine are part of a model to facilitate mediation in disputes about them. This model can help to break the impasse in negotiations between former colonizers and colonies. Europe, the former colonizers, should do more pro-active provenance research into the acquisitions from the colonial era, both in public institutions and private collections. "This is a very commendable treatise which has painstakingly and with detachment explored the emotive issue of the return of cultural objects removed in colonial times to the metropolis. He has looked at the issues from every continent with clarity and perspicuity." Prof. Folarin Shyllon (University of Ibadan) "Momumentaal werk van hoge kwaliteit. Het hoofdstuk over Congo is bijzonder goed gedocumenteerd en leerrijk" Dr. Guido Gryseels (Director-General of the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren) CLUES is an international scientific series covering research in the field of culture, history and heritage which have been written by, or were performed under the supervision of members of the research institute CLUE+.

International Law, Museums and the Return of Cultural Objects

International Law, Museums and the Return of Cultural Objects
Author : Ana Filipa Vrdoljak
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2006-07-13
Category : Art
Total pages :342
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While the question of the return of cultural objects is by no means a new one, it has become the subject of increasingly intense debate in recent years. This important book explores the removal and the return of cultural objects from occupied communities during the last two centuries and analyses the concurrent evolution of international cultural heritage law. The book focuses on the significant influence exerted by British, U.S. and Australian governments and museums on international law and museum policy in response to restitution claims. It shows that these claims, far from heralding the long-feared dissolution of museums and their collections, provide museums with a vital, new role in the process of self-determination and cultural identity. Compelling and thought-provoking throughout, this book is essential reading for archaeologists, international lawyers and all those involved in cultural resource management.

Everyday Objects/cultural Treasures

Everyday Objects/cultural Treasures
Author : Vadim Gushchin,Mikhail Sidlin
Publisher : Schilt Pub
Release Date : 2013-03-18
Category : Art
Total pages :96
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We live in the Universe of Malevich, though we very rarely notice it. Vadim Gushchin photographs Everyday Objects in such a way that it is immediately obvious that they have originated from Malevichs Black Square. The main idea of design is the sparing use of form. El Lissitzky, a pupil of Kazimir Malevich, was the first to formulate this idea in relation to the industrial object. Malevich used the expressive means of painting sparingly. Lissitzky transformed his world for the needs of production. Consequently, Malevich can be found in the depths of an industrial object. In his rejection of illusionism, Vadim Gushchin follows in the path of Malevich. Because when we talk about pure forms, we recall Malevich his works, reduced to the depiction of the pure plane. A paradoxical effect arises when photographing objects. It would appear that reality is being documented. That is to say, things are presented as they are. But in fact, in order to do this, things are taken beyond their usual context. That is, each separate object is placed in a meta position in relation to reality. And the better the shooting is done, the more accurately the object is reproduced, and the bigger the size, and the better the lens, the more that object will be alienated from its habitual existence. Once photographed, objects rise above themselves. In Gushchins artistic space, industrial objects are transformed into sculptures. And each of these sculptures gives witness to its source the Universe of Malevich. Photography is the royal road into perspective-unconscious. That is, more or less, what Walter Benjamin wrote about in A Short History of Photography. His idea became the principle of development of modernity in this art form. Vadim Gushchin subjects it to scrupulous analysis. In his Cultural Treasures he complicates the conditions of the experiment, introducing colour into his formerly classical black and white series of still-lifes. It comprises a few series, the heroes of which are, for the most part, cultural objects. The books in his photographs do not simply refer to a specific time on the strength of the author/title, but due to their thumbed and faded state they cause tactile-olfactory experiences to arise from the past. Absolutely brand new envelopes demonstrate cardboard elasticity and unwittingly one has to suppress an involuntary reflex of the fingers folding a note to place it there. Musical laser discs, shimmering in the rays of a halted beam of light, as if they visually radiate music, cause something within us to resonate. The objects of this series address namely the cultural subconscious and compel one to think about the origins of that very culture which, as it turns out, is rooted so deeply inside us. With regard to the working surface of Gushchins still-lifes, it should be perceived as being abstract-material. Except for in one or two series (for example, with books, which could be described as the most realistic due to the special spirit of historicism which is manifest in it), it does not remind us of anything. Because the setting is photographed from above, the working surface hovers in space, creating a support for the objects, but not for our efforts to perceive, which are constantly thrown into bewilderment that corresponds in Gushchins compositions to gaping darkness that opposes the objects characteristics. Perhaps this is the most expressive image of his still-lifes, found long ago and cultivated by him. It is the basic concept of his photographic philosophy. Gushchins photography is not created from light , but rather its absence, structuring all of his visual imagery. The heroes in his still-lifes are estranged from all earthly things, like the colour planes of Suprematist compositions. Gushchins photography reveals the fundamental duality of culture: the abstract nature of objects in it and the specificity of colour.

Loot

Loot
Author : Sharon Waxman
Publisher : Macmillan
Release Date : 2010-04-01
Category : Art
Total pages :432
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A journey across four continents to the heart of the conflict over who should own the great works of ancient art Why are the Elgin Marbles in London and not on the Acropolis? Why do there seem to be as many mummies in France as there are in Egypt? Why are so many Etruscan masterworks in America? For the past two centuries, the West has been plundering the treasures of the ancient world to fill its great museums, but in recent years, the countries where ancient civilizations originated have begun to push back, taking museums to court, prosecuting curators, and threatening to force the return of these priceless objects. Where do these treasures rightly belong? Sharon Waxman, a former culture reporter for The New York Times and a longtime foreign correspondent, brings us inside this high-stakes conflict, examining the implications for the preservation of the objects themselves and for how we understand our shared cultural heritage. Her journey takes readers from the great cities of Europe and America to Egypt, Turkey, Greece, and Italy, as these countries face down the Louvre, the Metropolitan Museum, the British Museum, and the J. Paul Getty Museum. She also introduces a cast of determined and implacable characters whose battles may strip these museums of some of their most cherished treasures. For readers who are fascinated by antiquity, who love to frequent museums, and who believe in the value of cultural exchange, Loot opens a new window on an enduring conflict.

Stolen, Smuggled, Sold

Stolen, Smuggled, Sold
Author : Nancy Moses
Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield
Release Date : 2015-06-04
Category : Art
Total pages :184
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Stolen, Smuggled Sold: On the Hunt for Cultural Treasures tells the dark and compelling stories of iconic cultural objects that were stolen, smuggled or sold, and eventually returned back to their original owner. There are many books about museum heists, Holocaust artwork, insider theft, trafficking in antiquities, and stolen Native American objects. Now, there’s finally a book for the general public that covers the entire terrain. The book includes full-color photos of the objects. Stolen, Smuggled, Sold features seven vivid and true stories in which the reader joins the author as she uncovers a cultural treasure and follows its often-convoluted trail. Along the way author and reader encounter a cast of fascinating characters from the underbelly of the cultural world: unscrupulous grave robbers, sinister middlemen, ruthless art dealers, venal Nazis, canny lawyers, valiant academics, unstoppable investigative reporters, unwitting curators, and dedicated government officials. Stories include Gustav Klimt’s Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer 1, the typeset manuscript for Pearl Buck’s The Good Earth, a ceremonial Ghost Dance short from the massacre at Wounded Knee, the theft of 4,800 historical audio discs by a top official at the National Archives, a missing original copy of The Bill of Rights, the mummy of Ramses I, and an ancient treasure from Iraq. While each story is fascinating in and of itself, together they address one of the hottest issues in the museum world: how to deal with the millions of items that have breaks in the chain of ownership, suspicious ownership records, or no provenance at all. The issue of ownership touches on professional practices, international protocols, and national laws. It’s a financial issue since the illicit trade in antiquities and cultural items generates as much as $4 billion to $8 billion a year.

Who Owns History?

Who Owns History?
Author : Geoffrey Robertson
Publisher : Biteback Publishing
Release Date : 2019-11-05
Category : Art
Total pages :320
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The biggest question in the world of art and culture concerns the return of property taken without consent. Throughout history, conquerors or colonial masters have taken artefacts from subjugated peoples, who now want them returned from museums and private collections in Europe and the USA. The controversy rages on over the Elgin Marbles, and has been given immediacy by figures such as France’s President Macron, who says he will order French museums to return hundreds of artworks acquired by force or fraud in Africa, and by British opposition leader Jeremy Corbyn, who has pledged that a Labour government would return the Elgin Marbles to Greece. Elsewhere, there is a debate in Belgium about whether the Africa Museum, newly opened with 120,000 items acquired mainly by armed forces in the Congo, should close. Although there is an international convention dated 1970 that deals with the restoration of artefacts stolen since that time, there is no agreement on the rules of law or ethics which should govern the fate of objects forcefully or lawlessly acquired in previous centuries. Who Owns History? delves into the crucial debate over the Elgin Marbles, but also offers a system for the return of cultural property based on human rights law principles that are being developed by the courts. It is not a legal text, but rather an examination of how the past can be experienced by everyone, as well as by the people of the country of origin.

Canada Refuses to Return Polish Cultural Treasures

Canada Refuses to Return Polish Cultural Treasures
Author : Stanisław Lorentz
Publisher : Warsaw : National Museum
Release Date : 1950
Category : Art
Total pages :85
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Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan
Author : Lola Karimova-Tillyaeva
Publisher : Pen and Sword History
Release Date : 2019-02
Category :
Total pages :80
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From the blue and gold splendors of Samarkand to the holy city of Bukhara, the architectural heritage of Uzbekistan is simply extraordinary. Over the 2,000 year history of the Silk Road, its fertile oases have attracted countless travelers and conquerors who have profoundly made their mark on human history, such as the conqueror Tamerlane or the scientist Ulugh Beg, who discovered the sundial. All have bequeathed an inheritance whose legacy can still be admired today. By its geographical position, Ancient Uzbekistan was created from a melting pot of different cultures. Iran, the Eastern Steppes, Siberia, India and China have all added their own influences on the local arts. Over the centuries, due in many parts to the Silk Road, these exchanges have continued to grow. Cities such as Samarkand, Bukhara, Tashkent and Khiva became famous in the Middle Ages not only for their cultural wealth, but also for science. In homage to this rich heritage, this book is a celebration of the arts and pictorial traditions of Uzbekistan. Photographs of architectural works, murals, ceramics, tapestries and ornamented textiles highlight the country's cultural treasures, accompanied by short texts explaining their historical significance. On the right-hand page, the reader is given the opportunity to color in their own drawings based on the beautiful photographs provided.

Art Treasures and War

Art Treasures and War
Author : Wojciech Kowalski,R. T. Schadla-Hall
Publisher : Inst of Art & Law
Release Date : 1998
Category : Law
Total pages :174
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The first objective of this timely reprint is to define the meaning of the term 'restitution' in international law in contrast with the other terms used in this area. The book then considers the opinions of various lawyers and academics, and the development of rules of international law relating to the return of cultural goods, alongside a study of the development of the practice of restitution. In the light of this general discussion, specific issues receive more detailed treatment, in particular the regulations of 'Allied Restitution Law, ' which came into force in various forms and situations after World War II. Art Treasures and War concludes with a summary of the historical evolution of the legal model of restitution. The Appendix contains a wealth of material, including the Regulation concerning confiscation of works of art in German-occupied Poland; the Inter-Allied Declaration against Acts of Dispossession; the Final Act and Annex of the Paris Conference on Reparations; Law No. 52: Blocking and Control of Property, British Zone; General Order No. 6: Declaration of Looted Property in British Zone; Law No. 59: Restitution of Identifiable Property (US Zone); Military Government Regulations, Title 18: Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives, US Zone