November 25, 2020

Download Ebook Free Forensic Genetic Approaches For The Identification Of Human Skeletal Remains

Forensic Genetic Approaches for Identification of Human Skeletal Remains

Forensic Genetic Approaches for Identification of Human Skeletal Remains
Author : Angie Ambers
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2021-03-01
Category : Law
Total pages :500
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Forensic Genetic Approaches for Identification of Human Skeletal Remains: Challenges, Best Practices, and Emerging Technologies provides best practices on processing bone samples for DNA testing. The book outlines forensic genetics tools that are available for the identification of skeletal remains in contemporary casework and historical/archaeological investigations. Although the book focuses primarily on the use of DNA for direct identification or kinship analyses, it also highlights complementary disciplines often used in concert with genetic data to make positive identifications, such as forensic anthropology, forensic odontology, and forensic art/sculpting. Unidentified human remains are often associated with tragic events, such as fires, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, war conflicts, genocide, airline crashes, homicide, and human rights violations under oppressive totalitarian regimes. In these situations, extensive damage to soft tissues often precludes the use of such biological samples in the identification process. In contrast, bone material is the most resilient, viable sample type for DNA testing. DNA recovered from bone often is degraded and in low quantities due to the effects of human decomposition, environmental exposure, and the passage of time. The complexities of bone microstructure and its rigid nature make skeletal remains one of the most challenging sample types for DNA testing. Provides best practices on processing bone samples for DNA testing Presents detailed coverage of proper facilities design for skeletal remains processing, selection of optimal skeletal elements for DNA recovery, specialized equipment needed, preparation and cleaning of bone samples for DNA extraction, and more Highlights complementary disciplines often used in concert with genetic data to make positive identifications, such as forensic anthropology, forensic odontology, and forensic art/sculpting

Biological Affinity in Forensic Identification of Human Skeletal Remains

Biological Affinity in Forensic Identification of Human Skeletal Remains
Author : Gregory E. Berg,Sabrina C Ta'ala
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2014-12-13
Category : Law
Total pages :334
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Ancestry determination in the identification of unknown remains can be a challenge for forensic scientists and anthropologists, especially when the remains available for testing are limited. There are various techniques for the assessment of ancestry, ranging from traditional to new microbiological and computer-assisted methods. Biological Affinity in Forensic Identification of Human Skeletal Remains: Beyond Black and White presents a range of tools that can be used to identify the probable socio-cultural "race" category of unknown human remains. Gathering insight from those who have made recent improvements and scientific advances in the field, the book begins with the historical foundations of the concept of biological affinity and the need for increased research into methods for determining ancestry of skeletal remains. The contributors cover a range of topics, including: Ancestry estimation from the skull using morphoscopic and morphometric traits and variables Innovative methods from metric analyses of the postcrania, and new approaches to dental non-metric variation The biological diversity of Hispanic populations and use of discriminant function analysis and 3D-ID software to determine ancestry Methods of age progression and facial reconstructions to create two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) facial composites for missing people The preparation of skeletal remains for DNA extraction and sampling, and mtDNA methods that are available for identification of haplogroups (e.g., ancestral populations) No single method or technique is adequate in the assessment of ancestry. For accurate determinations, the use of traditional and new techniques combined yields better results. This book demonstrates the large repertoire of tools available to those tasked with these challenging determinations.

New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification

New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification
Author : Krista E. Latham,Eric J. Bartelink,Michael Finnegan
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2017-07-27
Category : Law
Total pages :374
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New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification provides a comprehensive and up-to-date perspective on human identification methods in forensic anthropology. Divided into four distinct sections, the chapters will reflect recent advances in human skeletal identification, including statistical and morphometric methods for assessing the biological profile (sex, age, ancestry, stature), biochemical methods of identification (DNA analysis, stable isotope analysis, bomb curve analysis), and use of comparative radiography. The final section of this book highlights advances in human identification techniques that are being applied to international populations and disaster victims. The contributing authors represent established experts in forensic anthropology and closely related fields. New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification will be an essential resource for researchers, practitioners, and advanced students interested in state-of-the-art methods for human identification. A comprehensive and up-to-date volume on human identification methods in forensic anthropology Focuses on recent advances such as statistical and morphometric methods for assessing the biological profile, biochemical methods of identification and use of comparative radiography Includes an entire section on human identification techniques being applied to international populations and disaster victims

Recovery, Analysis, and Identification of Commingled Human Remains

Recovery, Analysis, and Identification of Commingled Human Remains
Author : Bradley J. Adams,John E. Byrd
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2008-02-23
Category : Medical
Total pages :374
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Commingling of human remains presents an added challenge to all phases of the forensic process. This book brings together tools from diverse sources within forensic science to offer a set of comprehensive approaches to handling commingled remains. It details the recovery of commingled remains in the field, the use of triage in the assessment of commingling, various analytical techniques for sorting and determining the number of individuals, the role of DNA in the overall process, ethical considerations, and data management. In addition, the book includes case examples that illustrate techniques found to be successful and those that proved problematic.

Forensic Anthropology

Forensic Anthropology
Author : Angi M. Christensen,Nicholas V. Passalacqua,Eric J. Bartelink
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2013-12-30
Category : Law
Total pages :464
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Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice—winner of a 2015 Textbook Excellence Award (Texty) from The Text and Academic Authors Association—approaches forensic anthropology through an innovative style using current practices and real case studies drawn from the varied experiences, backgrounds, and practices of working forensic anthropologists. This text guides the reader through all aspects of human remains recovery and forensic anthropological analysis, presenting principles at a level that is appropriate for those new to the field, while at the same time incorporating evolutionary, biomechanical, and other theoretical foundations for the features and phenomena encountered in forensic anthropological casework. Attention is focused primarily on the most recent and scientifically valid applications commonly employed by working forensic anthropologists. Readers will therefore learn about innovative techniques in the discipline, and aspiring practitioners will be prepared by understanding the necessary background needed to work in the field today. Instructors and students will find Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice comprehensive, practical, and relevant to the modern discipline of forensic anthropology. Winner of a 2015 Most Promising New Textbook Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association Focuses on modern methods, recent advances in research and technology, and current challenges in the science of forensic anthropology Addresses issues of international relevance such as the role of forensic anthropology in mass disaster response and human rights investigations Includes chapter summaries, topicoriented case studies, keywords, and reflective questions to increase active student learning

Ortner's Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains

Ortner's Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains
Author : Jane E. Buikstra
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-01-29
Category : Law
Total pages :858
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Ortner's Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains, Third Edition, provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of the pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. As ancient skeletal remains can reveal a treasure trove of information to the modern orthopedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist, this book presents a timely resource. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, it provides an essential text and material on bone pathology, thus helping improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. Presents a comprehensive review of the skeletal diseases encountered in archaeological human remains Includes more than 1100 photographs and line drawings illustrating skeletal diseases, including both microscopic and gross features Based on extensive research on skeletal paleopathology in many countries Reviews important theoretical issues on how to interpret evidence of skeletal disease in archaeological human populations

New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification

New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification
Author : Krista E. Latham,Eric J. Bartelink,Michael Finnegan
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2017-07-27
Category : Law
Total pages :374
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New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification provides a comprehensive and up-to-date perspective on human identification methods in forensic anthropology. Divided into four distinct sections, the chapters will reflect recent advances in human skeletal identification, including statistical and morphometric methods for assessing the biological profile (sex, age, ancestry, stature), biochemical methods of identification (DNA analysis, stable isotope analysis, bomb curve analysis), and use of comparative radiography. The final section of this book highlights advances in human identification techniques that are being applied to international populations and disaster victims. The contributing authors represent established experts in forensic anthropology and closely related fields. New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification will be an essential resource for researchers, practitioners, and advanced students interested in state-of-the-art methods for human identification. A comprehensive and up-to-date volume on human identification methods in forensic anthropology Focuses on recent advances such as statistical and morphometric methods for assessing the biological profile, biochemical methods of identification and use of comparative radiography Includes an entire section on human identification techniques being applied to international populations and disaster victims

Forensic Anthropology

Forensic Anthropology
Author : Sue Black,Eilidh Ferguson
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2011-02-07
Category : Law
Total pages :427
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Advances in our ability to analyse information from skeletal remains and subsequent developments in the field of forensic anthropology make it possible to identify more victims of homicides, mass-fatality disasters, and genocide. Summarizing the vast collection of international literature that has developed over the past decade, Forensic Anthropolo

Forensic DNA Applications

Forensic DNA Applications
Author : Dragan Primorac,Moses Schanfield
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2014-01-29
Category : Law
Total pages :647
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Forensic DNA Applications: An Interdisciplinary Perspective was developed as an outgrowth of a conference held by the International Society of Applied Biological Sciences. The topic was human genome–based applications in forensic science, anthropology, and individualized medicine. Assembling the contributions of contributors from numerous regions around the world, this volume is designed as both a textbook for forensic molecular biology students and a reference for practitioners and those in the legal system. The book begins with the history and development of DNA typing and profiling for criminal and civil purposes. It discusses the statistical interpretation of results with case examples, mitochondrial DNA testing, Y single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and short tandem repeats (STRs), and X SNP and STR testing. It also explores low copy number DNA typing, mixtures, and quality assurance and control. The second section examines the collection and preservation of biological evidence under a variety of different circumstances and the identification of human remains—including in mass disaster settings. It discusses applications to bioterrorism investigations, animal DNA testing in criminal cases, pedigree questions and wildlife forensic problems, applications in forensic entomology, and forensic botany. The third section explores recent developments and new technologies, including the rigorous identification of tissue of origin, mtDNA profiling using immobilized probe strips, chips and next-generation sequencing, the use of SNPs to ascertain phenotypic characteristics, and the "molecular autopsy" that looks at aspects of toxicogenetics and pharmacogenetics. The book concludes with a discussion on law, ethics, and policy. It examines the use of DNA evidence in the criminal justice system in both the United States and Europe, ethical issues in forensic laboratory practices, familial searches, DNA databases, ancestry searches, physical phenotyping, and report writing. The contributors also examine DNA applications in immigration and human trafficking cases and international perspectives on DNA databases.

Sex Estimation of the Human Skeleton

Sex Estimation of the Human Skeleton
Author : Alexandra R. Klales
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2020-05-30
Category : Law
Total pages :424
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Sex Estimation of the Human Skeleton is a comprehensive work on the theory, methods, and current issues for sexing human skeletal remains. This work provides practitioners a starting point for research and practice on sex estimation to assist with the identification and analysis of human remains. It contains a collection of the latest scientific research, using metric and morphological methods, and contains case studies, where relevant, to highlight methodological application to real cases. This volume presents a truly comprehensive representation of the current state of sex estimation while also detailing the history and how we got to this point. Divided into three main sections, this reference text first provides an introduction to the book and to sex estimation overall, including a history, practitioner preferences, and a deeper understanding of biological sex. The second section addresses the main methodological areas used to estimate sex, including metric and morphological methods, statistical applications, and software. Each chapter topic provides a review of older techniques and emphasizes the latest research and methodological improvements. Chapters are written by practicing physical anthropologists and also include their latest research on the topics, as well as relevant case studies. The third section addresses current considerations and future directions for sex estimation in forensic and bioarchaeological contexts, including DNA, secular change, and medical imaging Sex Estimation of the Human Skeleton is a one-of-a-kind resource for those involved in estimating the sex of human skeletal remains. Provides the first comprehensive text reference on sex estimation, with historical perspectives and current best practices Contains real case studies to underscore key estimation concepts Demonstrates the changing role of technology in sex estimation

Forensic Recovery of Human Remains

Forensic Recovery of Human Remains
Author : Tosha L. Dupras,John J. Schultz,Sandra M. Wheeler,Lana J Williams
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2005-08-23
Category : Law
Total pages :256
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An essential reference for both forensic experts and non-experts alike, Forensic Recovery of Human Remains: Archaeological Approaches is a comprehensive guide that focuses on the practical aspects of excavating and recovering human remains, along with any associated evidence, from crime scenes. It highlights the protocols and techniques that ar

Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton

Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton
Author : M. Anne Katzenberg,Shelley R. Saunders
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2011-09-23
Category : Social Science
Total pages :680
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"This book is virtually required reading for biological anthropologists and will be a useful, up-to-date primer on osteological analyses for a wider audience." —The Quarterly Review of Biology, March 2009 "… a comprehensive guide to the ever-changing discipline of physical anthropology… provides an in depth introduction to human skeletal biology. The structure of the book makes it easy for the reader to follow the progression of the field of human skeletal biology." —PaleoAnthropology, 2009 Issue The First Edition of Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton is the market-leading reference and textbook on the scientific analysis of human skeletal remains recovered from archaeological sites. Now, featuring scores of new or thoroughly revised content, this Second Edition provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the topic available. Like the previous edition, this Second Edition is organized into five parts with contributing chapters written by experts in the field of human skeletal biology: Part One covers theory and application; Part Two discusses morphological analyses of bone, teeth, and age changes; Part Three reviews prehistoric health and disease; Part Four examines chemical and genetic analysis of hard tissues; and Part Five closes with coverage of quantitative methods and population studies. Each chapter includes a review of recent studies, descriptions of analytical techniques and underlying assumptions, theory, methodological advances, and speculation about future research. New or thoroughly revised content includes: Techniques in the analysis of human skeletal and dental remains Extensive coverage of new technologies, including modern morphometric techniques Advances in the field of forensic anthropology Enhanced discussion of ethical terms regarding the study of aboriginal peoples' remains where those people are no longer the dominant culture This book serves as an indispensable research guide to biological anthropologists, osteologists, paleoanthropologists, and archaeologists. Now with a stronger focus on teaching complex material to students, this revised edition provides enhanced case studies and discussions for future directions, making it an invaluable textbook for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in biological anthropology and forensic anthropology programs.

Forensic Taphonomy

Forensic Taphonomy
Author : Marcella H. Sorg,William D. Haglund
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 1996-12-13
Category : Law
Total pages :668
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Links have recently been established between the study of death assemblages by archaeologists and paleontologists (taphonomy) and the application of physical anthropology concepts to the medicolegal investigation of death (forensic anthropology). Forensic Taphonomy explains these links in a broad-based, multidisciplinary volume. It applies taphonomic models in modern forensic contexts and uses forensic cases to extend taphonomic theories. Review articles, case reports, and chapters on methodology round out this book's unique approach to forensic science.

FORENSIC OSTEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

FORENSIC OSTEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
Author : Scott I. Fairgrieve
Publisher : Charles C Thomas Publisher
Release Date : 1999-01-01
Category : Social Science
Total pages :364
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This timely volume on case studies in forensic osteology with background information on how osteological analysis is applied to human/faunal remains found in legal contexts is primarily designed for students of forensic anthropology/osteology who have a background in human anatomy and/or osteology. It also will be of interest to those individuals lacking this background and who may very well want to read the book for its many case studies. Although many journals publish case reports, there are instances when a more detailed and full description of circumstances are warranted. Further, beginning students initially require a more thorough treatment of the thinking behind the application of analytical techniques; an important aspect that may not be covered in the professional literature. Based on the foregoing, the premise of this book is that each case has a unique quality and thus presents unique problems for the analyst to approach. It is important for the reader to understand the limits for forensic osteology by examining not only its successes but also its failures. This book presents this type of information. The chapters appear as follows: Forensic Osteological Analysis: An Introduction; Of Beasts and Humans: A Case of Recognition; Identification of Human Skeletal Remains: Was He a She or She a He?; Sex Determination: XX or XY from the Human Skeleton; Identification of a Missing Person Using Biomechanical and DNA Analysis: A Case Study; DISH Rats and a Rolex; Death on the Danforth; The Identification of the Remains of Don Francisco Pizarro; Clinkers on the Little Bighorn Battlefield: In Situ Investigation of Scattered Recent Cremains; The Wrong Urn: Commingling of Cremains in Mortuary Practices; Cremated Remains and Expert Testimony in a Homicide Case; An Anthropological Investigation of a Rural Homicide Scene; Forensic Osteology of Strangulation; Pathological Changes on Human Skeletal Remains: Before, During or After?; Unusual Skeletal Anomalies and Pathologies in Forensic Casework; Biker's Bones: An Avocational Syndrome; Identity Crisis: Two Case Studies -- Success and Failure in Personal Identification Determination; Mass Disasters: Comments and Discussion Regarding the Hinton Train Collision of 1986; The Role of Forensic Anthropology in Human Rights Issues; and Forensic Entomology: The Use of Insects in Death Investigations.

DNA Fingerprinting: Approaches and Applications

DNA Fingerprinting: Approaches and Applications
Author : G. Dolf
Publisher : Birkhäuser
Release Date : 2013-03-08
Category : Science
Total pages :402
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Although DNA fingerprinting is a very young branch of molecular genetics, being barely six years old, its recent impact on science, law and politics has been dramatic. The application of DNA finger printing to forensic and legal medicine has guaranteed a high public profile for this technology, and indeed, scarcely a week goes by with out the press reporting yet another crime successfully solved by molec ular genetics. Less spectacularly, but equally importantly, DNA typing methods are steadily diffusing into an ever wider set of applications and research fields, ranging from medicine through to conservation biology. To date, two DNA fingerprinting workshops have been held in the UK, one in 1988 organised by Terry Burke at the University of Leicester, and the second in 1989 at the University of Nottingham, co-ordinated by David Parkin. In parallel with these workshops, which have provided an important focus for researchers, Bill Amos and Josephine Pemberton in Cambridge have established an informal newsletter "Fingerprint News" which is playing a major role as a forum for DNA fingerprinters. By 1989, it was clear that the field had broadened sufficiently to warrant a full international meeting. As a result, Gaudenz Dolf took on the task of organising the first, of what I hope will be many, International Symposium of DNA Fingerprinting held at Bern during Ist-3rd October 1990. The success of the meeting can be judged from the remarkable attendance, with 270 delegates from no less than 30 countries.