November 30, 2020

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Fouling in Refineries

Fouling in Refineries
Author : James G. Speight
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 2015-05-14
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :538
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Fouling in Refineries is an important and ongoing problem that directly affects energy efficiency resulting in increased costs, production losses, and even unit shutdown, requiring costly expenditures to clean up equipment and return capacity to positive levels. This text addresses this common challenge for the hydrocarbon processing community within each unit of the refinery. As refineries today face a greater challenge of accepting harder to process heavier crudes and the ongoing flow of the lighter shale oil feedstocks, resulting in bigger challenges to balance product stability within their process equipment, this text seeks to inform all relative refinery personnel on how to monitor fouling, characterize the deposits, and follow all available treatments. With basic modeling and chemistry of fouling and each unit covered, users will learn how to operate at maximum production rates and elongate the efficiency of their refinery’s capacity. Presents an understanding of the breakdown of fouling per refinery unit, including distillation and coking units Provides all the factors, crude types, and refining blends that cause fouling, especially the unconventional feedstocks and high acid crudes used today Helps users develop an analysis-based treatment and control strategy that empowers them to operate refinery equipment at a level that prevents fouling from occurring

Crude Oil Fouling

Crude Oil Fouling
Author : Francesco Coletti,Geoffrey Hewitt
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 2014-11-20
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :360
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With production from unconventional rigs continuing to escalate and refineries grappling with the challenges of shale and heavier oil feedstocks, petroleum engineers and refinery managers must ensure that equipment used with today’s crude oil is protected from fouling deposits Crude Oil Fouling addresses this overarching challenge for the petroleum community with clear explanations on what causes fouling, current models and new approaches to evaluate and study the formation of deposits, and how today’s models could be applied from lab experiment to onsite field usability for not just the refinery, but for the rig, platform, or pipeline. Crude Oil Fouling is a must-have reference for every petroleum engineer’s library that gives the basic framework needed to analyze, model, and integrate the best fouling strategies and operations for crude oil systems. Defines the most critical variables and events that cause fouling Explains the consequences of fouling and its impact on operations, safety, and economics Provides the technical models available to better predict and eliminate the potential for fouling in any crude system

Multi-scale Modelling of Refinery Pre-heat Trains Undergoing Fouling for Improved Energy Efficiency

Multi-scale Modelling of Refinery Pre-heat Trains Undergoing Fouling for Improved Energy Efficiency
Author : Francesco Coletti
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2010
Category :
Total pages :129
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Fouling in pre-heat trains of refinery crude distillation units causes major energy inefficiencies, resulting in increased costs, greenhouse gas emissions, maintenance efforts and health and safety hazards. Although chemical and physical phenomena underlying fouling deposition are extremely complex and several details remain unknown, the understanding of the fouling process has progressed significantly in the past 40 years. However, this knowledge has so far not been exploited to effectively improve heat exchanger and heat exchanger network design and operation. As a result, old methodologies that neglect the local effects and dynamics of fouling, in favour of lumped, steady-state, heuristic models (e.g. using TEMA fouling factors) are still used. In this thesis a novel mathematical model for pre-heat trains undergoing crude oil fouling was developed, validated with plant data and used to propose mitigation strategies. The model is dynamic, distributed and considers simultaneously several scales of investigation. Key phenomena are captured at the tube level as a function of local conditions. These include the dependence of fouling rate on temperature and velocity, the variation of physical properties, the structural changes of the deposits over time (ageing) and the dynamics of surface roughness. The single tube model was then extended to describe a unit-scale heat exchanger geometry. This has been validated against plant data from four units in two refineries operated by major oil companies. The predicted outlet temperatures over extended periods (i.e. 4-16 months) are accurate within ±1% for the tube-side and ± 2% for the shell-side. Model simulations were then used to assist the retrofit of one particular unit for which it was possible to save ca. 22% of the energy losses (not including pumping power) produced by fouling over ca. a year of operation. Finally, the interconnection of single heat exchangers in a network allowed the simulation of the fouling behaviour of two existing pre-heat trains. To systematically assess the impact of fouling on refinery economics, a set of key performance indicators (KPIs) was proposed. Network-level simulations were used in conjunction with the KPIs to unveil complex interactions and propose network retrofit arrangements that improve energy recovery over time whilst reducing fouling. It is concluded that the model can be used with confidence to predict fouling and assist monitoring, design and retrofit of refinery heat exchangers and heat exchanger networks. The results shown indicate that the approach proposed can lead to substantial benefits.

Quantifying Petroleum Fouling of Refining Heat Exchangers

Quantifying Petroleum Fouling of Refining Heat Exchangers
Author : Gregory Mark Jones
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1999
Category :
Total pages :129
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Fouling in Refinery Equipment

Fouling in Refinery Equipment
Author : Harald K. Lemke,American Institute of Chemical Engineers
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1999
Category : Chemical engineering
Total pages :7
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Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry
Author : Alec Groysman
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2016-10-24
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :356
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This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion fatigue occurring at refinery units. At last, fouling, corrosion and cleaning are discussed in this book.

Refinery Feedstocks

Refinery Feedstocks
Author : James G. Speight
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2020-10-21
Category : Science
Total pages :356
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Over the last several decades, the petroleum industry has experienced significant changes in resource availability, petro-politics, and technological advancements dictated by the changing quality of refinery feedstocks. However, the dependence on fossil fuels as the primary energy source has remained unchanged. Refinery Feedstocks addresses the problems of changing feedstock availability and properties; the refining process; and solids deposition during refining. This book will take the reader through the various steps that are necessary for crude oil evaluation and refining including the potential for the use of coal liquids, shale oil, and non-fossil fuel materials (biomass) as refinery feedstocks. Other features: Describes the various types of crude oil and includes a discussion of extra heavy oil and tar sand bitumen Includes basic properties and specifications of crude oil and the significance in refinery operations This book is a handy reference for engineers, scientists, and students who want an update on crude oil refining and on the direction the industry must take to assure the refinability of various feedstocks and the efficiency of the refining processes in the next fifty years. Non-technical readers, with help from the extensive glossary, will also benefit from reading this book.

Energy Management and Efficiency for the Process Industries

Energy Management and Efficiency for the Process Industries
Author : Alan P. Rossiter,Beth P. Jones
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2015-03-25
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :400
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Provides a unique overview of energy management for the process industries Provides an overall approach to energy management and places the technical issues that drive energy efficiency in context Combines the perspectives of freewheeling consultants and corporate insiders In two sections, the book provides the organizational framework (Section 1) within which the technical aspects of energy management, described in Section 2, can be most effectively executed Includes success stories from three very different companies that have achieved excellence in their energy management efforts Covers energy management, including the role of the energy manager, designing and implementing energy management programs, energy benchmarking, reporting, and energy management systems Technical topics cover efficiency improvement opportunities in a wide range of utility systems and process equipment types, as well as techniques to improve process design and operation

Guide to the Practical Use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines

Guide to the Practical Use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines
Author : Johannes Karl Fink
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 2016-05-09
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :266
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Guide to Practical Use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines delivers a well-rounded collection of content, references, and patents to show all the practical chemical choices available for refinery and pipeline usage, along with their purposes, benefits, and general characteristics. Covering the full spectrum of downstream operations, this reference solves the many problems that engineers and managers currently face, including corrosion, leakage in pipelines, and pretreatment of heavy oil feedstocks, something that is of growing interest with today's unconventional activity. Additional coverage on special refinery additives and justification on why they react the way they do with other chemicals and feedstocks is included, along with a reference list of acronyms and an index of chemicals that will give engineers and managers the opportunity to recognize new chemical solutions that can be used in the downstream industry. Presents tactics practitioners can use to effectively locate and utilize the right chemical application specific to their refinery or pipeline operation Includes information on how to safely perform operations with coverage on environmental issues and safety, including waste stream treatment and sulfur removal Helps readers understand the composition and applications of chemicals used in oil and gas refineries and pipelines, along with where they should be applied, and how their structure interacts when mixed at the refinery

Fouling of Heat Exchangers

Fouling of Heat Exchangers
Author : T.R. Bott
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 1995-04-13
Category : Science
Total pages :546
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This unique and comprehensive text considers all aspects of heat exchanger fouling from the basic science of how surfaces become fouled to very practical ways of mitigating the problem and from mathematical modelling of different fouling mechanisms to practical methods of heat exchanger cleaning. The problems that restrict the efficient operation of equipment are described and the costs, some of them hidden costs, that are associated with the fouling of heat exchangers are discussed. Some simple concepts and models of the fouling processes are presented as part of the introduction to the subject. Advice on the selection, design, installation and commissioning of heat exchangers to minimise fouling is given. A large part of the text is devoted to the use of chemical and other additives to reduce or eliminate the problem of fouling. Another large section is designed to give information on both on-line and off-line cleaning of heat exchangers. One of the difficulties faced by designers and operators of heat exchangers is anticipating the likely extent of fouling problems to be encountered with different flow streams. Another large section addresses the question and describes methods that have been used in attempting to define fouling potential. The book concludes with a chapter on how fouling information can be obtained using plant data, field tests and laboratory studies.

Fouling Science and Technology

Fouling Science and Technology
Author : L. Melo,T.R. Bott,Carlos A. Bernardo
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :744
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The fouling of heat exchangers, reactors and catalysts remains one of the most urgent problems facing the process industries. Over the past ten years there has been limited research and investigation into the underlying mechanisms which give rise to this problem. For convenience, particularly in heat exchanger technology, the mechanisms involved have been subdivided into different subject areas. It is often the situation that individuals or groups of workers have concentra ted efforts in one or two of these specialist areas and there is a need to integrate the ideas across the whole spectrum of the subject. In addition, topics such as adhesion and surface phenomena have not been properly taken into account up till now in the assessment of the fouling processes. For this reason it was considered essential that the recognised experts from around the world, who are actively concerned with research, development and design in the fieId, should meet and exchange ideas and experience. Such a meeting was held at Alvor, Portugal, in May 1987, sponsored by the NATO Advanced St~dy Institutes Programme. In order to obtain a common basis for the work of the Advanced Study Institute, the whole technological field was reviewed right from the basic concepts to the frontiers of present knowledge. Each invited contributor was asked to make an overall presentation covering his or her area of expertise.

Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational Fluid Dynamics
Author : Adela Ionescu
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2018-02-14
Category : Computers
Total pages :410
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This book is the result of a careful selection of contributors in the field of CFD. It is divided into three sections according to the purpose and approaches used in the development of the contributions. The first section describes the "high-performance computing" (HPC) tools and their impact on CFD modeling. The second section is dedicated to "CFD models for local and large-scale industrial phenomena." Two types of approaches are basically contained here: one concerns the adaptation from global to local scale, - e.g., the applications of CFD to study the climate changes and the adaptations to local scale. The second approach, very challenging, is the multiscale analysis. The third section is devoted to "CFD in numerical modeling approach for experimental cases." Its chapters emphasize on the numerical approach of the mathematical models associated to few experimental (industrial) cases. Here, the impact and the importance of the mathematical modeling in CFD are focused on. It is expected that the collection of these chapters will enrich the state of the art in the CFD domain and its applications in a lot of fields. This collection proves that CFD is a highly interdisciplinary research area, which lies at the interface of physics, engineering, applied mathematics, and computer science.

Fouling of Crude Oil Refinery Preheat Exchangers

Fouling of Crude Oil Refinery Preheat Exchangers
Author : Imelda Louise Downey
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1993
Category :
Total pages :129
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10th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering

10th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering
Author : Rita Maria de Brito Alves,Cláudio Augusto Oller do Nascimento,Evaristo Chalbaud Biscaia (Jr)
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2009
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :1224
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The 10th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering, PSE'09, will be held in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil on August 16-20, 2009. The special focus of PSE 2009 is Sustainability, Energy and Engineering. PSE 2009 is the tenth in the triennial series of international symposia on process systems engineering initiated in 1982. The meeting is brings together the worldwide PSE community of researchers and practitioners who are involved in the creation and application of computing-based methodologies for planning, design, operation, control and maintenance of chemical and petrochemical process industries. PSE'09 will look at how the PSE methods and tools can support sustainable resource systems and emerging technologies in the areas of green engineering: environmentally conscious design of industrial processes. PSE methods and tools support: - sustainable resource systems - emerging technologies in the areas of green engineering - environmentally conscious design of industrial processes

Crude Unit Corrosion Guide

Crude Unit Corrosion Guide
Author : Gutzeit Joerg
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018-07-23
Category : Electronic book
Total pages :262
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This revision is based primarily on the author's experience dealing with all aspects of corrosion and fouling in crude units. The Guide also reflects the Industry's consensus experiences reported at past meetings of the NACE1 STG34 Committee on Petroleum Refining and Gas Processing and the API2 Subcommittee on Corrosion and Materials.