December 3, 2020

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General Philosophy of Science: Focal Issues

General Philosophy of Science: Focal Issues
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2007-07-18
Category : Philosophy
Total pages :708
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Scientists use concepts and principles that are partly specific for their subject matter, but they also share part of them with colleagues working in different fields. Compare the biological notion of a 'natural kind' with the general notion of 'confirmation' of a hypothesis by certain evidence. Or compare the physical principle of the 'conservation of energy' and the general principle of 'the unity of science'. Scientists agree that all such notions and principles aren't as crystal clear as one might wish. An important task of the philosophy of the special sciences, such as philosophy of physics, of biology and of economics, to mention only a few of the many flourishing examples, is the clarification of such subject specific concepts and principles. Similarly, an important task of 'general' philosophy of science is the clarification of concepts like 'confirmation' and principles like 'the unity of science'. It is evident that clarfication of concepts and principles only makes sense if one tries to do justice, as much as possible, to the actual use of these notions by scientists, without however following this use slavishly. That is, occasionally a philosopher may have good reasons for suggesting to scientists that they should deviate from a standard use. Frequently, this amounts to a plea for differentiation in order to stop debates at cross-purposes due to the conflation of different meanings. While the special volumes of the series of Handbooks of the Philosophy of Science address topics relative to a specific discipline, this general volume deals with focal issues of a general nature. After an editorial introduction about the dominant method of clarifying concepts and principles in philosophy of science, called explication, the first five chapters deal with the following subjects. Laws, theories, and research programs as units of empirical knowledge (Theo Kuipers), various past and contemporary perspectives on explanation (Stathis Psillos), the evaluation of theories in terms of their virtues (Ilkka Niiniluto), and the role of experiments in the natural sciences, notably physics and biology (Allan Franklin), and their role in the social sciences, notably economics (Wenceslao Gonzalez). In the subsequent three chapters there is even more attention to various positions and methods that philosophers of science and scientists may favor: ontological, epistemological, and methodological positions (James Ladyman), reduction, integration, and the unity of science as aims in the sciences and the humanities (William Bechtel and Andrew Hamilton), and logical, historical and computational approaches to the philosophy of science (Atocha Aliseda and Donald Gillies). The volume concludes with the much debated question of demarcating science from nonscience (Martin Mahner) and the rich European-American history of the philosophy of science in the 20th century (Friedrich Stadler). Comprehensive coverage of the philosophy of science written by leading philosophers in this field Clear style of writing for an interdisciplinary audience No specific pre-knowledge required

Mechanistic Explanations in Physics and Beyond

Mechanistic Explanations in Physics and Beyond
Author : Brigitte Falkenburg,Gregor Schiemann
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2019-08-28
Category : Mathematics
Total pages :220
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This volume offers a broad, philosophical discussion on mechanical explanations. Coverage ranges from historical approaches and general questions to physics and higher-level sciences . The contributors also consider the topics of complexity, emergence, and reduction. Mechanistic explanations detail how certain properties of a whole stem from the causal activities of its parts. This kind of explanation is in particular employed in explanatory models of the behavior of complex systems. Often used in biology and neuroscience, mechanistic explanation models have been often overlooked in the philosophy of physics. The authors correct this surprising neglect. They trace these models back to their origins in physics. The papers present a comprehensive historical, methodological, and problem-oriented investigation. The contributors also investigate the conditions for using models of mechanistic explanations in physics. The last papers make the bridge from physics to economics, the theory of complex systems and computer science . This book will appeal to graduate students and researchers with an interest in the philosophy of science, scientific explanation, complex systems, models of explanation in physics higher level sciences, and causal mechanisms in science.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science
Author : Paul Humphreys,Anjan Chakravartty,Margaret Morrison,Andrea Woody
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2016
Category : Philosophy
Total pages :917
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Advertisement for the philosophy of the computational sciences / Oron Shagrir -- Part I. Overviews. Philosophy of the social sciences : naturalism and anti-naturalism in the philosophy of social science / Francesco Guala -- Philosophy of biology / Ben Fraser and Kim Sterelny -- Philosophy of the psychological and cognitive sciences / Mark Sprevak -- Philosophy of the physical sciences / Carl Hoefer and Chris Smeenk -- Having science in view : general philosophy of science and its significance / Stathis Psillos -- Part II. Traditional topics. Causation in science / James Woodward -- Confirmation and induction / Jan Sprenger -- Determinism and indeterminism / Charlotte Werndl -- Epistemology and philosophy of science / Otavio Bueno -- Ethics in science / David B. Resnik -- Experiment / Uljana Feest and Friedrich Steinle -- Game theory / Cristina Bicchieri and Giacomo Sillari -- Instrumentalism : global, local, and scientific / P. Kyle Stanford -- Laws of nature / John T. Roberts -- Metaphysics in science / Richard Healey -- Models and theories / Margaret Morrison -- Natural kinds / Muhammad Ali Khalidi -- Probability / Antony Eagle -- Representation in science / Mauricio Suarez -- Reduction / Andreas Huttemann and Alan C. Love -- Science and non-science / Sven Ove Hansson -- Scientific concepts / Hyundeuk Cheon and Edouard Machery -- Scientific explanation / Bradford Skow -- Scientific progress / Alexander Bird -- Scientific realism / Timothy D. Lyons -- Scientific theories / Hans Halvorson -- Values in science / Heather Douglas -- Part III. New directions. After Kuhn / Philip Kitcher -- Astronomy and astrophysics / Sibylle Anderl -- Challenges to evolutionary theory / Denis Walsh -- Complexity theory / Michael Strevens -- Computer simulation / Johannes Lenhard -- Data / Aidan Lyon -- Emergence / Paul Humphreys -- Empiricism and after / Jim Bogen -- Mechanisms and mechanical philosophy / Stuart Glennan -- Philosophy and cosmology / Claus Beisbart -- Philosophy of neuroscience / Adina L. Roskies and Carl F. Craver -- Social organization of science / Martin Carrier -- Spaces / Dean Rickles.

Journal for General Philosophy of Science

Journal for General Philosophy of Science
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2002
Category : Electronic journals
Total pages :129
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Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences

Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2009-11-27
Category : Philosophy
Total pages :1472
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The Handbook Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences addresses numerous issues in the emerging field of the philosophy of those sciences that are involved in the technological process of designing, developing and making of new technical artifacts and systems. These issues include the nature of design, of technological knowledge, and of technical artifacts, as well as the toolbox of engineers. Most of these have thus far not been analyzed in general philosophy of science, which has traditionally but inadequately regarded technology as mere applied science and focused on physics, biology, mathematics and the social sciences. • First comprehensive philosophical handbook on technology and the engineering sciences • Unparalleled in scope including explorative articles • In depth discussion of technical artifacts and their ontology • Provides extensive analysis of the nature of engineering design • Focuses in detail on the role of models in technology

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science
Author : Kent W. Staley
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2014-11-06
Category : Science
Total pages :281
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This book explores central philosophical concepts, issues, and debates in the philosophy of science, both historical and contemporary.

The Philosophy of Science

The Philosophy of Science
Author : Anouk Barberousse,Denis Bonnay,Mikael Cozic
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2018-06-28
Category : Science
Total pages :688
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Philosophy of science studies the methods, theories, and concepts used by scientists. It mainly developed as a field in its own right during the twentieth century and is now a diversified and lively research area. This book surveys the current state of the discipline by focusing on central themes like confirmation of scientific hypotheses, scientific explanation, causality, the relationship between science and metaphysics, scientific change, the relationship between philosophy of science and science studies, the role of theories and models, unity of science. These themes define general philosophy of science. The book also presents sub-disciplines in the philosophy of science dealing with the main sciences: logic, mathematics, physics, biology, medicine, cognitive science, linguistics, social sciences, and economics. While it is common to address the specific philosophical problems raised by physics and biology in such a book, the place assigned to the philosophy of special sciences is much more unusual. Most authors collaborate on a regular basis in their research or teaching and share a common vision of philosophy of science and its place within philosophy and academia in general. The chapters have been written in close accordance with the three editors, thus achieving strong unity of style and tone.

The Logic in Philosophy of Science

The Logic in Philosophy of Science
Author : Hans Halvorson
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2019-06-30
Category : Philosophy
Total pages :286
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Major figures of twentieth-century philosophy were enthralled by the revolution in formal logic, and many of their arguments are based on novel mathematical discoveries. Hilary Putnam claimed that the Lwenheim-Sklem theorem refutes the existence of an objective, observer-independent world; Bas van Fraassen claimed that arguments against empiricism in philosophy of science are ineffective against a semantic approach to scientific theories; W. V. O. Quine claimed that the distinction between analytic and synthetic truths is trivialized by the fact that any theory can be reduced to one in which all truths are analytic. This book dissects these and other arguments through in-depth investigation of the mathematical facts undergirding them. It presents a systematic, mathematically rigorous account of the key notions arising from such debates, including theory, equivalence, translation, reduction, and model. The result is a far-reaching reconceptualization of the role of formal methods in answering philosophical questions.

Social Philosophy of Science for the Social Sciences

Social Philosophy of Science for the Social Sciences
Author : Jaan Valsiner
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020-02-10
Category : Psychology
Total pages :305
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This is an international and interdisciplinary volume that provides a new look at the general background of the social sciences from a philosophical perspective and provides directions for methodology. It seeks to overcome the limitations of the traditional treatises of a philosophy of science rooted in the physical sciences, as well as extend the coverage of basic science to intentional and socially normative features of the social sciences. The discussions included in this book are divided into four thematic sections: Social and cognitive roots for reflexivity upon the research process Philosophies of explanation in the social sciences Social normativity in social sciences Social processes in particular sciences Social Philosophy of Science for the Social Sciences will find an interested audience in students of the philosophy of science and social sciences. It is also relevant for researchers and students in the fields of psychology, sociology, economics, anthropology, education, and political science.

Philosophy of Science

Philosophy of Science
Author : Gerhard Schurz
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2013-11-20
Category : Philosophy
Total pages :460
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Philosophy of Science: A Unified Approach combines a general introduction to philosophy of science with an integrated survey of all its important subfields. As the book’s subtitle suggests, this excellent overview is guided methodologically by "a unified approach" to philosophy of science: behind the diversity of scientific fields one can recognize a methodological unity of the sciences. This unity is worked out in this book, revealing all the while important differences between subject areas. Structurally, this comprehensive book offers a two-part approach, which makes it an excellent introduction for students new to the field and a useful resource for more advanced students. Each chapter is divided into two sections. The first section assumes no foreknowledge of the subject introduced, and the second section builds upon the first by bringing into the conversation more advanced, complementary topics. Definitions, key propositions, examples and figures overview all of the core material. At the end of every chapter there are selected readings and exercises (with solutions at the end of the book). The book also includes a comprehensive bibliography and an index.

Understanding Philosophy of Science

Understanding Philosophy of Science
Author : James Ladyman
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2012-08-06
Category : Philosophy
Total pages :304
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Few can imagine a world without telephones or televisions; many depend on computers and the Internet as part of daily life. Without scientific theory, these developments would not have been possible. In this exceptionally clear and engaging introduction to philosophy of science, James Ladyman explores the philosophical questions that arise when we reflect on the nature of the scientific method and the knowledge it produces. He discusses whether fundamental philosophical questions about knowledge and reality might be answered by science, and considers in detail the debate between realists and antirealists about the extent of scientific knowledge. Along the way, central topics in philosophy of science, such as the demarcation of science from non-science, induction, confirmation and falsification, the relationship between theory and observation and relativism are all addressed. Important and complex current debates over underdetermination, inference to the best explaination and the implications of radical theory change are clarified and clearly explained for those new to the subject.

Theory and Reality

Theory and Reality
Author : Peter Godfrey-Smith
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release Date : 2009-12-11
Category : Science
Total pages :288
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How does science work? Does it tell us what the world is "really" like? What makes it different from other ways of understanding the universe? In Theory and Reality, Peter Godfrey-Smith addresses these questions by taking the reader on a grand tour of one hundred years of debate about science. The result is a completely accessible introduction to the main themes of the philosophy of science. Intended for undergraduates and general readers with no prior background in philosophy, Theory and Reality covers logical positivism; the problems of induction and confirmation; Karl Popper's theory of science; Thomas Kuhn and "scientific revolutions"; the views of Imre Lakatos, Larry Laudan, and Paul Feyerabend; and challenges to the field from sociology of science, feminism, and science studies. The book then looks in more detail at some specific problems and theories, including scientific realism, the theory-ladeness of observation, scientific explanation, and Bayesianism. Finally, Godfrey-Smith defends a form of philosophical naturalism as the best way to solve the main problems in the field. Throughout the text he points out connections between philosophical debates and wider discussions about science in recent decades, such as the infamous "science wars." Examples and asides engage the beginning student; a glossary of terms explains key concepts; and suggestions for further reading are included at the end of each chapter. However, this is a textbook that doesn't feel like a textbook because it captures the historical drama of changes in how science has been conceived over the last one hundred years. Like no other text in this field, Theory and Reality combines a survey of recent history of the philosophy of science with current key debates in language that any beginning scholar or critical reader can follow.

Philosophy of Science Today

Philosophy of Science Today
Author : Peter Clark,Katherine Hawley
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2003
Category : Philosophy
Total pages :299
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A state-of-the-art guide to the fast-developing area of the philosophy of science.

Feminism, Science, and the Philosophy of Science

Feminism, Science, and the Philosophy of Science
Author : J. Nelson
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 1997-08-31
Category : Science
Total pages :316
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Feminism, Science, and the Philosophy of Science brings together original essays by both feminist and mainstream philosophers of science that examine issues at the intersections of feminism, science, and the philosophy of science. Contributors explore parallels and tensions between feminist approaches to science and other approaches in the philosophy of science and more general science studies. In so doing, they explore notions at the heart of the philosophy of science, including the nature of objectivity, truth, evidence, cognitive agency, scientific method, and the relationship between science and values.

Philosophy of Economics

Philosophy of Economics
Author : Uskali Mäki
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012
Category : Mathematics
Total pages :903
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Part of the Handbook of the Philosophy of Science Series edited by: Dov M. Gabbay King's College, London, UK; Paul Thagard University of Waterloo, Canada; and John Woods University of British Columbia, Canada. Philosophy of Economics investigates the foundational concepts and methods of economics, the social science that analyzes the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. This groundbreaking collection, the most thorough treatment of the philosophy of economics ever published, brings together philosophers, scientists and historians to map out the central topics in the field. The articles are divided into two groups. Chapters in the first group deal with various philosophical issues characteristic of economics in general, including realism and Lakatos, explanation and testing, modeling and mathematics, political ideology and feminist epistemology. Chapters in the second group discuss particular methods, theories and branches of economics, including forecasting and measurement, econometrics and experimentation, rational choice and agency issues, game theory and social choice, behavioral economics and public choice, geographical economics and evolutionary economics, and finally the economics of scientific knowledge. This volume serves as a detailed introduction for those new to the field as well as a rich source of new insights and potential research agendas for those already engaged with the philosophy of economics. Provides a bridge between philosophy and current scientific findings Encourages multi-disciplinary dialogue Covers theory and applications