December 3, 2020

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Genetic Control of Malaria and Dengue

Genetic Control of Malaria and Dengue
Author : Zach N. Adelman
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-10-15
Category : Medical
Total pages :486
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Genetic Control of Malaria and Dengue focuses on the knowledge, technology, regulation and ethics of using genetically modified mosquitoes to interrupt the transmission of important vector-borne diseases including Malaria. It contains coverage of the current state of knowledge of vector-borne diseases and how they are currently controlled; vaccine, drug and insecticide development; various strategies for altering the genome of mosquitoes in beneficial ways; and the regulatory, ethical and social environment concerning these strategies. For more than five decades, the prospect of using genetically-modified mosquitoes to control vector-borne disease transmission has been a purely hypothetical scenario. We simply did not have the technology or basic knowledge to be able to do it. With the explosion of field trials and potential interventions in development, Genetic Control of Malaria and Dengue provides a comprehensive overview of research in genetics, microbiology, virology, and ecology involved in the development and implementation of genetic modification programs for virus and disease control. This book is meant to provide a practical guide to researchers, regulators and the general public about how this technology actually works, how it can be improved, and what is still unknown. Includes coverage of vectorial capacity, critical to understanding vector-borne disease transmission Provides a summary of the concepts of both population suppression and population replacement Contains pivotal coverage of ethical and ecological ramifications of genetics-based control strategies

Exam Prep for: Genetic Control of Malaria and Dengue

Exam Prep for: Genetic Control of Malaria and Dengue
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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Gene Drives on the Horizon

Gene Drives on the Horizon
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Committee on Gene Drive Research in Non-Human Organisms: Recommendations for Responsible Conduct
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2016-08-28
Category : Science
Total pages :230
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Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, which disproportionately impact low and middle income countries. However, due to their intrinsic qualities of rapid spread and irreversibility, gene drive systems raise many questions with respect to their safety relative to public and environmental health. Because gene drive systems are designed to alter the environments we share in ways that will be hard to anticipate and impossible to completely roll back, questions about the ethics surrounding use of this research are complex and will require very careful exploration. Gene Drives on the Horizon outlines the state of knowledge relative to the science, ethics, public engagement, and risk assessment as they pertain to research directions of gene drive systems and governance of the research process. This report offers principles for responsible practices of gene drive research and related applications for use by investigators, their institutions, the research funders, and regulators.

The Ecology of Malaria Vectors

The Ecology of Malaria Vectors
Author : Jacques Derek Charlwood
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2019-07-31
Category : Medical
Total pages :282
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This practical book covers all aspects of the biology of malaria vectors, with notes on the vectors of dengue. It is the first work in this field to concentrate on mosquitoes, rather than covering all disease vectors. Authored by renowned field entomologist Jacques Derek Charlwood, it disseminates his vast experience working on mosquito biology, ecology and the evaluation of new vector control tools across five continents over the past 40 years. Covering all aspects from classification and systematics, population dynamics, vector control, to surveillance and sampling, epidemics, and a selection of case histories, the book also considers genetics and resistance, Aedes biology, and malaria and dengue models. It is designed to fill the gap between very specialized texts and undergraduate books on general disease vectors, and is ideal as a textbook for postgraduate courses in entomology and mosquito vectors of disease.

Ecological Aspects for Application of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes

Ecological Aspects for Application of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes
Author : W. Takken,T.W. Scott
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2003-07-31
Category : Science
Total pages :244
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This book is the reflection of a workshop, held in June 2002. Experts on mosquito ecology met for the first time to discuss the current knowledge of mosquito ecology with respect to GM-insect technology. Emphasis of the workshop was on evaluating how human health and natural ecosystems, including target wild-mosquito populations, will respond to the invasion of GM vectors. This volume will stimulate discussion by clearly showing the importance of vector ecology for prevention of vector-borne diseases.

Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases

Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2016-09-21
Category : Medical
Total pages :396
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Pathogens transmitted among humans, animals, or plants by insects and arthropod vectors have been responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout recorded history. Such vector-borne diseases â€" including malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and plague â€" together accounted for more human disease and death in the 17th through early 20th centuries than all other causes combined. Over the past three decades, previously controlled vector-borne diseases have resurged or reemerged in new geographic locations, and several newly identified pathogens and vectors have triggered disease outbreaks in plants and animals, including humans. Domestic and international capabilities to detect, identify, and effectively respond to vector-borne diseases are limited. Few vaccines have been developed against vector-borne pathogens. At the same time, drug resistance has developed in vector-borne pathogens while their vectors are increasingly resistant to insecticide controls. Furthermore, the ranks of scientists trained to conduct research in key fields including medical entomology, vector ecology, and tropical medicine have dwindled, threatening prospects for addressing vector-borne diseases now and in the future. In June 2007, as these circumstances became alarmingly apparent, the Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a workshop to explore the dynamic relationships among host, pathogen(s), vector(s), and ecosystems that characterize vector-borne diseases. Revisiting this topic in September 2014, the Forum organized a workshop to examine trends and patterns in the incidence and prevalence of vector-borne diseases in an increasingly interconnected and ecologically disturbed world, as well as recent developments to meet these dynamic threats. Participants examined the emergence and global movement of vector-borne diseases, research priorities for understanding their biology and ecology, and global preparedness for and progress toward their prevention, control, and mitigation. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Dengue Fever

Dengue Fever
Author : Jorge Abelardo Falcón-Lezama,Miguel Betancourt-Cravioto,Roberto Tapia-Conyer
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2019-01-30
Category : Medical
Total pages :180
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For over 70 years, dengue fever has challenged health systems in every region of the World. It has evolved from a benign febrile illness from the tropics to a major concern in urban settlements, overwhelming health infrastructure with large outbreaks, as it continues to teach us important lessons with its complexities. This book intends to review the latest updates on dengue fever, the tools available for its study and control, and promising technologies currently in the pipeline. With this work, the editors wish to provide students with an updated reference text on the basics of this disease as well as researchers and academics, with a useful document to understand the current outlook and the perspectives for the future.

Current Topics in Chikungunya

Current Topics in Chikungunya
Author : Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2016-08-24
Category : Medical
Total pages :162
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Chikungunya, an arbovirus, is a major global threat affecting multiple areas of the world, even Europe, but recently (2014 - 2015) with large epidemics in Latin America, causing an important acute and chronic morbidity with a low, but present, mortality. This book tries to update the significant epidemiological and clinical research in many aspects with a multinational perspective. This book has been organized in two major sections: (I) ''Clinical and Epidemiological Aspects'' and (II) ''Entomology.'' Section I includes topics covering experiences and studies in different countries, including the infection during pregnancy and children, imported cases, ocular manifestations, coinfections, and therapeutics. Section II includes topics on entomological aspects, related to vector control, and new options for biological control of Aedes aegypti.

Transgenesis and the Management of Vector-Borne Disease

Transgenesis and the Management of Vector-Borne Disease
Author : Serap Aksoy
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2008-08-21
Category : Science
Total pages :171
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Parasitic, bacterial and viral agents continue to challenge the welfare of humans, livestock, wild life and plants worldwide. The public health impact and financial consequences of these diseases are particularly hard on the already overburdened economies of developing countries especially in the tropics. Many of these disease agents utilize insect hosts (vectors) to achieve their transmission to mammals. In the past, these diseases were largely controlled by insecticide-based vector reduction strategies. Now, many of these diseases have reemerged in the tropics, recolonizing their previous range, and expanding into new territories previously not considered to be endemic. Habitat change, irrigation practices, atmospheric and climate change, insecticide and drug resistance as well as increases in global tourism, human traffic and commercial activities, have driven the reemergence and spread of vector borne diseases. While these diseases can be controlled through interventions aimed at both their vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, no effective vaccines exist, and only limited therapeutic prospects are available for their control in mammalian hosts. Molecular technologies such as transgenesis, which is the subject of this book, stand to increase the toolbox and benefit disease management strategies.

Ecology of parasite-vector interactions

Ecology of parasite-vector interactions
Author : Willem Takken,Sander Koenraadt
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2013-03-15
Category : Science
Total pages :275
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Vector-borne diseases continue to be one of the most important determinants affecting human and animal health. Large numbers of people suffer from diseases like malaria, dengue, filariasis and leishmaniasis, especially in the tropics. Whereas these diseases were eradicated from the temperate climate zones, in recent years the rising incidence of 'emerging' vector-borne diseases such as bluetongue, West Nile Virus, Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis and the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue in southern Europe provide evidence that these diseases are resilient and can disperse to other regions and continents where before they were not present or relevant. Many tools for the management of vector-borne diseases are currently under pressure because of increasing drug and insecticide resistance, as well as the realization of biological variation of parasites and vectors and their ecosystems. At the same time, progress in our understanding of genetics, immunology, population biology and epidemiology allow for a better understanding of parasite-vector interactions. Here the state-of-the-art of these interactions is being reviewed, and means for using this information for advanced strategies of vector-borne disease control are proposed. This 3rd edition of ECVD aims to provide a rapid overview of recent developments in the field of parasite-vector interactions and how this can be used for more effective and sustainable disease control.

Gene Drives at Tipping Points

Gene Drives at Tipping Points
Author : Arnim von Gleich,Winfried Schröder
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020-01-01
Category : Ecotoxicology
Total pages :256
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This open access book reports on a pilot project aiming at collecting information on the socio-ecological risks that could arise in the event of an uncontrolled spread of genetically engineered organisms into the environment. The researchers will, for instance, be taking a closer look at genetically engineered oilseed rape, genetically engineered olive flies as well as plants and animals with so-called gene drives. The book mainly adresses researchers.

The Molecular Biology of Insect Disease Vectors

The Molecular Biology of Insect Disease Vectors
Author : J.M. Crampton,C.B. Beard,C. Louis
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :578
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Only one generation ago, entomology was a proudly isolated discipline. In Comstock Hall, the building of the Department of Entomology at Cornell University where I was first introduced to experimental science in the laboratory of Tom Eisner, those of us interested in the chemistry of life felt like interlopers. In the 35 years that have elapsed since then, all of biology has changed, and entomology with it. Arrogant molecular biologists and resentful classical biologists might think that what has happened is a hostile take-over of biology by molecular biology. But they are wrong. More and more we now understand that the events were happier and much more exciting, amounting to a new synthesis. Molecular Biology, which was initially focused on the simplest of organisms, bacteria and viruses, broke out of its confines after the initial fundamental questions were answered - the structure of DNA, the genetic code, the nature of regulatory genes - and, importantly, as its methods became more and more generally applicable. The recombinant DNA revo lution of the 1970s, the development of techniques for sequencing macromolecules, the polymerase chain reaction, new molecular methods of genetic analysis, all brought molecular biology face to face with the infinite complexity and the exuber ant diversity of life. Molecular biology itself stopped being an isolated diScipline, pre occupied with the universal laws of life, and became an approach to addressing fas cinating specific problems from every field of biology.

Dengue

Dengue
Author : World Health Organization
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release Date : 2009
Category : Medical
Total pages :147
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This publication is intended to contribute to prevention and control of the morbidity and mortality associated with dengue and to serve as an authoritative reference source for health workers and researchers. These guidelines are not intended to replace national guidelines but to assist in the development of national or regional guidelines. They are expected to remain valid for five years (until 2014), although developments in research could change their validity.--Publisher's description

Current Topics in Malaria

Current Topics in Malaria
Author : Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2016-11-30
Category :
Total pages :506
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Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases

Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases
Author : Michel Tibayrenc
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2017-01-12
Category : Medical
Total pages :686
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Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases, Second Edition, discusses the constantly evolving field of infectious diseases and their continued impact on the health of populations, especially in resource-limited areas of the world. Students in public health, biomedical professionals, clinicians, public health practitioners, and decisions-makers will find valuable information in this book that is relevant to the control and prevention of neglected and emerging worldwide diseases that are a major cause of global morbidity, disability, and mortality. Although substantial gains have been made in public health interventions for the treatment, prevention, and control of infectious diseases during the last century, in recent decades the world has witnessed a worldwide human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, increasing antimicrobial resistance, and the emergence of many new bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral pathogens. The economic, social, and political burden of infectious diseases is most evident in developing countries which must confront the dual burden of death and disability due to infectious and chronic illnesses. Takes an integrated approach to infectious diseases Includes contributions from leading authorities Provides the latest developments in the field of infectious disease