November 28, 2020

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
Author : Temple Grandin,Mark J. Deesing
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-04-22
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :496
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Behavior is shaped by both genetics and experience--nature and nurture. This book synthesizes research from behavioral genetics and animal and veterinary science, bridging the gap between these fields. The objective is to show that principles of behavioral genetics have practical applications to agricultural and companion animals. The continuing domestication of animals is a complex process whose myriad impacts on animal behavior are commonly under-appreciated. Genetic factors play a significant role in both species-specific behaviors and behavioral differences exhibited by individuals in the same species. Leading authorities explore the impact of increased intensities of selection on domestic animal behavior. Rodents, cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, herding and guard dogs, and poultry are all included in these discussions of genetics and behavior, making this book useful to veterinarians, livestock producers, laboratory animal researchers and technicians, animal trainers and breeders, and any researcher interested in animal behavior. Includes four new chapters on dog and fox behavior, pig behavior, the effects of domestication and horse behavior Synthesizes research from behavioral genetics, animal science, and veterinary literature Broaches fields of behavior genetics and behavioral research Includes practical applications of principles discovered by behavioral genetics researchers Covers many species ranging from pigs, dogs, foxes, rodents, cattle, horses, and cats

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
Author : Temple Grandin,Mark J. Deesing
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-04-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :496
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Over-selection for production traits has caused animal welfare problems such as feather pecking in hens, tail biting in pigs, and overly aggressive animals. In dogs, over-selection for appearance traits has caused neurological problems such as deafness. Both feather pecking and tail biting may be displaced foraging behaviors, because these behaviors are reduced by providing foraging materials such as straw. Another problem is hunger in broiler breeder hens and breeding sows. Animals that have been selected for rapid growth are also selected for a huge appetite. If breeder animals eat to satiation, they will become obese and have health problems. High-roughage feeds may improve welfare. Researchers suggest that new genetic breeding tools could be used to select against harmful behaviors and still have a productive animal. Breeders must avoid creating animals that will have poor welfare even when they are housed in the best environment.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
Author : Temple Grandin,Mark J. Deesing
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-04-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :496
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Different tests have been developed for evaluating the temperament of cattle, pigs, and sheep and some studies appear to have conflicting results. This may be due to confusion between the basic emotional systems of fear and separation distress (panic). Methods used for temperament tests can alter results such as how tightly an animal is restrained in a squeeze chute during temperament evaluation. Animals with a more reactive (fearful) temperament will exhibit greater agitated behavioral reactions when suddenly confronted with novel objects. Animals can be habituated to new things but learning is very specific. Habituation to one type of strange object may not transfer to other types of objects. Animals with smaller-diameter leg bones and slender bodies may be more reactive (fearful). Facial hair whorl position is related to a vigilant temperament and it may be more evident in populations with more diverse genetic backgrounds.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
Author : Mark J. Deesing,Temple Grandin
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-04-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :496
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Since the late 1990s there has been a substantial increase in horse behavior genetics research. This chapter reviews recent work in molecular genetics, pre-and postnatal effects on behavior, the relationship between hair whorls and temperament, and lateralization in the nervous system. These factors are critical to understanding individual differences. Advancements in molecular genetics have identified genes associated with novelty seeking and gaited horse traits. Foal “imprint” training procedures are reviewed, and a gentle method for training foals is presented. Finding appropriate methods for reducing fearfulness in horses has important practical implications. High hair whorls are associated with reactivity, but differences are less apparent in calm breeds. Behavioral asymmetry is a fundamental feature of animal brains. Left-eye systems control avoidance behavior and right-eye systems control approach behaviors. An understanding of the cognitive and perceptual abilities is necessary to ensure horses receive proper training, handling, management, and care.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
Author : Temple Grandin
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1998
Category : Science
Total pages :356
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Behavior is shaped by both genetics and experience-nature and nurture. This book synthesizes research from behavioral genetics and animal and veterinary science, bridging the gap between these fields. The objective is to show that principles of behavioral genetics have practical applications to agricultural and companion animals. The continuing domestication of animals is a complex process whose myriad impacts on animal behavior are often under-appreciated. Genetic factors play a significant role in both species-specific behaviors and behavioral differences exhibited by individuals in the same species. Leading authorities explore the impact of increased intensities of selection on domestic animal behavior. Rodents, cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, herding and guard dogs, and poultry are all included in these discussions of genetics and behavior, making this book useful to veterinarians, livestock producers, laboratory animal researchers and technicians, animal trainers and breeders, and any researcher interested in animal behavior. * * Synthesizes research from behavioural genetics, animal science, and veterinary literature * Broaches fields of behaviour genetics and behavioural research * Includes practical applications of principles discovered by behavioural genetics researchers * Contains a minimum of scientific jargon

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
Author : Per Jensen,Dominic Wright
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-04-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :496
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In this chapter, we begin by defining domestication as a genetic process, whereby animals change phenotypically and genetically as a response to living under human supervision. This has caused a convergent set of phenotypic modifications across numerous different species, through a combination of relaxed natural selection, increased human selection, and correlated responses. The genetic mechanisms underlying these processes are discussed in addition to genetic drift and inbreeding. The driving types of mutations are dealt with, as is the way in which genes are organized in the genome to give rise to a specific genetic architecture facilitating selection responses. The different methods used to discover genes and mutations are divided into either top-down approaches, where one starts with the phenotype and uses mapping methods to find the causative genes, or bottom-up, where the genetic polymorphism is the starting point and the phenotype the desired response variable. A number of examples of single genes and mutations that have been coupled to behavioral variation are given, among them genes showing pleiotropic effects on pigmentation, and genes involved in regulation of the effects of neuropeptides. Finally, the relatively novel area of behavioral epigenetics is examined, in particular with its possible relation to domestication effects.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
Author : Anna V. Kukekova,Lyudmila N. Trut,Gregory M. Acland
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-04-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :496
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Dog domestication involved long-term genetic selection for behavior. The genetics-centered view of domestication is supported by experimental selection of farm-foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that began in the 1950s. Selection of foxes, separately, for tame and for aggressive behavior, has yielded two strains with markedly different, genetically determined behavioral phenotypes. Tame-strain foxes communicate with humans in a positive manner and are eager to establish human contact. Foxes from aggressive strains are aggressive to humans and difficult to handle. Although selected solely for behavior, changes in physiology, morphology, and appearance with significant parallels to characteristics of the domestic dog, were observed in tame-strain. Ongoing research is focused on identification of molecular genetic mechanisms associated with selection of foxes for behavior. Identification of behavioral loci in the fox genome in the region which is homologous to the region in the dog genome that differentiates dogs from wolves lead to the hypothesis that domesticated behavior in dogs and foxes may have similar genetic bases.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
Author : Kathryn Lord,Lorna Coppinger,Raymond Coppinger
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-04-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :496
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The domestic dog has many phenotypic and behavioral forms. In this chapter we describe five different kinds of dogs and how each has been derived. We trace the background village dog adapting to the age of agriculture, with the coincident transformation of human behavior to permanent settlement. Over centuries, this village dog has changed, adapting to its different geographies and to local agricultural activities. In tandem, people began sorting through the village populations for dogs with appropriate behaviors, and these eventually became the founding stock for breeding programs. In recent centuries, samples of these working and hunting breeds have been collected by kennel clubs, and sexually isolated, becoming at best historic representations of the working or hunting breeds. More commonly they are used as pets, or household dogs, sometimes with sport competitions in the show or agility ringl

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
Author : Alain Boissy,Hans W. Erhard
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-04-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :496
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This chapter provides an overview of the current behavioral and cognitive aspects of emotions in animals and explore the impacts of emotional experiences on the animal's adaptation to its current challenging circumstances. There is evidence that animal welfare results from the animal's perception of its environment and its background. The chapter is structured in four complementary sections. The first one addresses the nature of emotions that the animals can feel which is validated from commonalties in physiological and behavioral responses to dangers across and within species. The second section presents advanced features of the relationships between cognition and emotions originally studied in humans, which are now developed in animals to better access their affective states. The third section is devoted to the relevance of the personality concept, as resulting from both genetics and developmental experience, for assessing animal individuality in emotional behaviors and stress. The last section explores some approaches that can alleviate fear and induce positive affective states, with the potential to mitigate detrimental stress-induced effects on the welfare and health status by eliciting positive emotions in animals.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
Author : William M. Muir,Heng Wei Cheng
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-04-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :496
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Many behaviors in poultry can be modified by genetic selection. Selection of laying hens for maximum egg production had the unfortunate side effect of increased rates of beak inflicted damage on other birds. Selective breeding has eliminated broodiness and has either increased or decreased other behaviors, such as hysteria, fearfulness, appetite in broilers, social dominance, ability and damage to other birds. Genetic selection can be used to reduce behaviors that cause welfare problems. However, it must be approached with caution to avoid unintended consequences that would be detrimental to welfare. A calm, docile bird that appears behaviorally calm, may take longer for its heart rate to return to normal after it is frightened. The use of group selection instead of single-bird selection can be effectively used to reduce undesirable behaviors such as feather pecking and to maintain high egg production. An entire group of birds is selected instead of selecting individuals.

Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists

Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists
Author : Katherine A. Houpt
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2018-01-04
Category : Medical
Total pages :448
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Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists, Sixth Edition is a fully updated revision of this popular, classic text offering a thorough understanding of the normal behavior of domestic animals. Provides a complete understanding of the normal behavior of domestic animals Covers dogs, cats, horses, pigs, sheep, cattle, and goats Describes all key aspects of animal behavior, with images to support the concepts Revised and updated to cover the latest thinking, with enhanced coverage of behavioral genetics, animal cognition, and learning Includes access to a companion website with review questions and answers and the figures from the book in PowerPoint

Principles and Applications of Domestic Animal Behavior

Principles and Applications of Domestic Animal Behavior
Author : Edward O. Price
Publisher : CABI
Release Date : 2008
Category : Medical
Total pages :332
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In order to understand and manage animals in their natural or captive environments we must first understand why animals do what they do and recognize limitations in their ability to adapt to different environments. Drawing on the author's considerable experience in both teaching and research, this introductory-level textbook describes the basic principles underlying animal behavior and how those concepts can be used in managing the care of domestic and captive wild animals, covering four key themes: development of behavior, biological rhythms, social behavior and behavioral aspects of animal management. Extensively illustrated with many practical examples and over 150 photos and figures, the book will be essential reading for animal science and veterinary students.

Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog

Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog
Author : John Paul Scott,John L. Fuller
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release Date : 2012-07-10
Category : Science
Total pages :506
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The classic study of canine behavior: “A major authoritative work…Immensely rewarding reading for anyone concerned with dog-breeding.”—Times Literary Supplement Based on twenty years of research at the Jackson Laboratory, this is the single most important and comprehensive reference work on the behavior of dogs ever compiled, written by geneticist and comparative psychologist John Paul Scott, known for his research into social behavior and aggression. “One of the most important texts on canine behavior published to date. Anyone interested in breeding, training, or canine behavior must own this book.”—Wayne Hunthausen, D.V.M., Director of Animal Behavior Consultations “This pioneering research on dog behavioral genetics is a timeless classic for all serious students of ethology and canine behavior.”—Dr. Michael Fox, Senior Advisor to the President, The Humane Society of the United States “Comprehensive…[a] seminal work.”—Mark Derr, The Atlantic Monthly “Essential reading for anyone involved in the breeding of dogs. No breeder can afford to ignore the principles of proper socialization first discovered and articulated in this landmark study.”—The Monks of New Skete, authors of How to Be Your Dog's Best Friend and the video series Raising Your Dog with the Monks of New Skete

Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists

Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists
Author : Katherine A. Houpt
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2011-01-25
Category : Medical
Total pages :416
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Domestic Animal Behavior, Fifth Edition is a fully updated revision of this classic text, with chapters examining key behavior issues ranging from communication to social structure. Coverage encompasses a wide variety of domestic animals including cats, dogs, horses, pigs, sheep, and cattle. The Fifth Edition also expands its coverage on new key areas of behavior research, including cognition and the genetics of behavior, and provides valuable, current information on normal and aberrant behaviors, making it a must-have resource for veterinarians and animal scientists seeking a thorough understanding of animal behavior.

Animal Domestication and Behavior

Animal Domestication and Behavior
Author : Edward O. Price
Publisher : CABI
Release Date : 2002-11-27
Category : Animal behavior
Total pages :320
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written by a world authority on animal behavioura highly original contribution to the subjectcovers behaviour and domestication of farm, zoo and companion animalsThis book synthesizes existing knowledge of the process of domestication and how it has affected the behaviour of captive wild and domesticated animals. Three broad themes are addressed:Genetic contributions to the process of domesticationExperimental contributions to the process of domesticationThe process of feralization (i.e. the adaptation of domesticated animals when returned to their natural habitat)