November 30, 2020

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Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
Author : Merete Tangstad
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :536
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This chapter examines the theory and technology of the production of silicon and ferrosilicon alloys. An overview of silica raw materials, silica transformations, and carbon reductants for smelting is presented together with an exploration of the thermodynamics of silicon reduction and the formation of silicon carbide. For industrial practice, the results of furnace operation and zones formation are discussed, along with the main parameters required to ensure a smooth furnace operation. Finally, post–tap hole processes (refining and casting) and environmental issues (fumes and dust formation and handling) are described.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
Author : Lauri Holappa
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :536
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The word ferroalloy refers to an alloy of iron containing a significant proportion of one or more other elements like silicon, manganese, chromium, aluminum, or titanium. The main applications of ferroalloys occur in the steelmaking process. They are added to steel to improve properties like strength, ductility, and fatigue or corrosion resistance. Additionally, ferroalloys can have several other tasks, such as in refining, deoxidation, modification, and control of nonmetallic inclusions and precipitates. The production and role of ferroalloys are briefly introduced, both from a historical perspective and in light of current and future prospects. Examples of production figures, producers, and markets are presented. Recent developments and main drivers in ferroalloys processing, including energy saving, environmental issues, primary and secondary raw materials resources, and development trends in technology, are briefly discussed.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
Author : Mihail I. Gasik
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :536
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This chapter deals with alkaline-earth metals (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and their ferroalloys technology. The chapter provides an overview of these metals, their properties, and their reactions with other elements, and it outlines major relevant phase equilibria diagrams. Oxide systems equilibria are also considered. Different raw materials and methods for producing alkaline-earth ferroalloys and master alloys are presented. Specific details of the technology for smelting are described depending on the alloy type and grade. Additionally, the theory and technology used to produce calcium carbide and oxide (metallurgical lime) are described.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
Author : Heikki Jalkanen,Michael Gasik
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :536
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The metallurgical processing of ferroalloys is based on a coherent combination of many scientific fields, which are briefly outlined in this chapter. The metal’s recovery process is based on reduction reactions, where metallurgical thermodynamics and kinetics are of a paramount importance. This includes the knowledge and ability to calculate, monitor, and change the formation of solutions and phases, rate of the reactions, and handling of reaction products in the most efficient way. In parallel, theoretical and engineering data on heat, mass, momentum, and charge transfer are critical for the development and design of ferroalloy production processes and furnaces. The chapter also discusses the basics of the structure and properties of metal and oxide (slag) when melted together with carbon reductants.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2013
Category : Electronic books
Total pages :520
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Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
Author : Michael Gasik
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :536
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This chapter deals with molybdenum and its ferroalloy technology. An overview of molybdenum is presented, its properties are discussed, and its reactions with other elements and compounds are outlined with major relevant phase equilibria diagrams. The raw materials, sources, and methods for preparing and reducing molybdenum are presented. Different technologies for smelting ferromolybdenum alloys are described.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
Author : Merete Tangstad
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :536
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This chapter examines the theory and technology applied for the production of manganese ferroalloys. The focus is on smelting of ferromanganese, silicomanganese, and manganese metal in electric furnaces with different process types. The properties of manganese as well as its major compounds, minerals, and ores are presented. Agglomeration methods used to prepare ores for smelting are described. Refining techniques for low-carbon manganese ferroalloys are discussed, and postprocessing operations are outlined, together with tapping and casting processes. Additionally, the energy balance of manganese alloys smelting is outlined, and some potential hazards of the smelting technology are discussed, together with their preventive actions.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
Author : Johan Basson,Jorma Daavittila
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :536
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High carbon ferrochrome is one of the most common ferroalloys produced and is almost exclusively used in the production of stainless steel and high chromium steels. Production takes place primarily in countries with substantial chromite ore supply. Relatively cheap electricity and reductants also contribute to the viability of high carbon ferrochrome. The most common production technology utilized is submerged arc smelting in AC furnaces, although open arc smelting in DC furnaces is becoming increasingly common. A more advanced technology route that includes a prereduction step is only utilized at significant scale by one producer. Production processes have become more energy and metallurgically efficient by utilizing advanced processes such as prereduction, preheating, agglomeration of ore, and CO gas utilization. Recently installed plants display manageable risks in terms of environmental pollution and occupational health.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
Author : Oleg Polyakov
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :536
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This chapter deals with ferronickel technology. Properties of nickel and its reactions with relevant elements are described. The mineral resources of nickel are outlined with emphasis on oxide–silicate (laterite) ores processing. The technology of ferronickel smelting and all steps in the processing chain (roasting, smelting, desulfurization, and oxygen refining in converters) are discussed. Some examples of known industrial ferronickel practice are presented.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
Author : Gudrun Saevarsdottir
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :536
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Almost all ferroalloys are produced by smelting in submerged arc furnaces, powered by either AC or DC sources. To understand the smelting process and furnace operations, it is important to manage the theory of electrical circuits, efficiently apply and control active and reactive parts of the system, optimize the power factor and the operation of the electric arc, and so on. These issues are outlined and discussed in this chapter, which provides necessary theoretical and practical knowledge for those who do not have a background in electrical engineering. They are complemented with discussions of heat balance and electrical control of the smelting furnaces and different emissions associated with the ferroalloys production processes.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
Author : Michael M. Gasik
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :536
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This introductory chapter describes the importance of ferroalloys in modern steelmaking and the benefits of applying ferroalloys instead of pure alloying elements. The idea, scope, and structure of the book are outlined.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
Author : Michael Gasik
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release Date : 2013-05-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :536
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This handbook gathers, reviews and concisely presents the core principles and varied technology involved in processing ferroalloys. Background content in thermodynamics, kinetics, heat and mass transfer is accompanied by an overview of electrical furnaces theory and practice as well as sustainability issues. The work includes detailed coverage of the major technologies of ferrosilicon, ferronickel, ferromolybdenum, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, ferromanganese and lesser known minor ferroalloys. Distilling the results of many years' experience in ferroalloys, Michael Gasik has assembled contributions from the worlds' foremost experts. The work is therefore a unique source for scientists, engineers and university students, exploring in depth an area which is one of the most versatile and increasingly used fields within modern metallurgy. All-in-one source for the major ferroalloys and their metallurgical processing technologies, cutting research time otherwise spent digging through old handbooks or review articles. In-depth discussion of the C, Si, Al-reduction, groups II-VIII of the periodic table, supporting analysis of metallurgical processing. Contemporary coverage includes environment and energy saving issues.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
Author : Michael Gasik
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release Date : 2013
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :520
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Handbook of Ferroalloys gathers, reviews and concisely presents the core principles and varied technology involved in processing alloys of iron with a high proportion of one or more other elements. The work includes detailed coverage of the major technologies of ferrosilicon, ferronickel, ferromolybdenum, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, ferromanganese, and numerous lesser-known alloys. Distilling his 40 years' experience in ferroalloys, editor Michael Gasik assembles and tightly marshals lengthy contributions from the worlds' foremost experts. The work is a unique source for specialists, scientists, engineers and university students, exploring in depth an area that is one of the most versatile and increasingly used fields within modern metallurgy. The handbook's three sections cover basic knowledge, such as equipment, processes and theory; major ferroalloy technology like FeSi and FeMn; and less common technology, including alkali earth ferroalloys and complex master ferroalloys.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
Author : Mihail I. Gasik
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :536
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This chapter deals with niobium and its ferroalloy technology. An overview of niobium is presented, and its properties and reactions with other elements as well as reactions of Nb2O5 with other oxides are outlined with major relevant phase equilibria diagrams. Niobium sources (raw materials) and methods for niobium oxide reduction are presented. Different technologies for smelting ferroniobium alloys are described.

Production of Manganese Ferroalloys

Production of Manganese Ferroalloys
Author : Sverre E. Olsen,Sverre Olsen,Merete Tangstad,Tor Lindstad
Publisher : Tapir Academic Press
Release Date : 2007
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :247
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Progress in our knowledge of thermodynamics and physico-chemical factors in manganese ferroalloy production has developed rapidly during the past twenty-five years or so. The authors' intention has been to use this basic knowledge in discussions of industrial manganese ferroalloy production. The book presents the principles and current knowledge of processes in the production of high carbon ferromanganese, silicomanganese and low carbon manganese alloys. The book is intended for professionals working in production, plant design or development. It will also be useful for researchers in industry, universities and research institutes. The book can be used as a textbook for courses in extractive and process metallurgy, and for company in-house courses. Thermodynamics of the slag and metal systems are extensively covered. Computational modelling based on assessed thermochemical databases has made it possible to calculate and present a large number of phase and equilibrium diagrams. These diagrams are useful for easy understanding and analysis of the complex heterogeneous equilibria in the manganese ferroalloy metallurgy. The manganese ferroalloys are mainly produced in electric submerged arc furnaces. Electrical relations are briefly discussed. Supply of raw materials, especially manganese ores and coke, is extremely important for the manganese industry. The book gives the reader appropriate knowledge regarding the selection the best of available raw materials. Environmental issues, including greenhouse gas emissions and climate changes, are of growing concern to ferroalloy producers. Carbon will always be needed as a reducing agent, and consequently emission of CO2 gas is inevitable. The book describes solutions to dealing with pollution problems and gives the latest guidelines for greenhouse gas inventories.