January 27, 2021

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High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
Author : Daniel Lundin,Tiberiu Minea,Jon Tomas Gudmundsson
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2019-08-28
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :398
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High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Fundamentals, Technologies, Challenges and Applications is an in-depth introduction to HiPIMS that emphasizes how this novel sputtering technique differs from conventional magnetron processes in terms of both discharge physics and the resulting thin film characteristics. Ionization of sputtered atoms is discussed in detail for various target materials. In addition, the role of self-sputtering, secondary electron emission and the importance of controlling the process gas dynamics, both inert and reactive gases, are examined in detail with an aim to generate stable HiPIMS processes. Lastly, the book also looks at how to characterize the HiPIMS discharge, including essential diagnostic equipment. Experimental results and simulations based on industrially relevant material systems are used to illustrate mechanisms controlling nucleation kinetics, column formation and microstructure evolution. Includes a comprehensive description of the HiPIMS process from fundamental physics to applications Provides a distinctive link between the process plasma and thin film communities Discusses the industrialization of HiPIMS and its real world applications

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
Author : Daniel Lundin,Jon Tomas Gudmundsson,Tiberiu Minea
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019-09-13
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :398
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High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Fundamentals, Technologies, Challenges and Applications is an in-depth introduction to HiPIMS that emphasizes how this novel sputtering technique differs from conventional magnetron processes in terms of both discharge physics and the resulting thin film characteristics. Ionization of sputtered atoms is discussed in detail for various target materials. In addition, the role of self-sputtering, secondary electron emission and the importance of controlling the process gas dynamics, both inert and reactive gases, are examined in detail with an aim to generate stable HiPIMS processes. Lastly, the book also looks at how to characterize the HiPIMS discharge, including essential diagnostic equipment. Experimental results and simulations based on industrially relevant material systems are used to illustrate mechanisms controlling nucleation kinetics, column formation and microstructure evolution. Includes a comprehensive description of the HiPIMS process from fundamental physics to applications Provides a distinctive link between the process plasma and thin film communities Discusses the industrialization of HiPIMS and its real world applications

Spectroscopic Imaging of Self-organization in High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Plasmas

Spectroscopic Imaging of Self-organization in High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Plasmas
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2013
Category :
Total pages :129
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Excitation and ionization conditions in traveling ionization zones of high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas were investigated using fast camera imaging through interference filters. The images, taken in end-on and side on views using light of selected gas and target atom and ion spectral lines, suggest that ionization zones are regions of enhanced densities of electrons, and excited atoms and ions. Excited atoms and ions of the target material (Al) are strongly concentrated near the target surface. Images from the highest excitation energies exhibit the most localized regions, suggesting localized Ohmic heating consistent with double layer formation.

Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition

Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 1999-10-14
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :255
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This volume provides the first comprehensive look at a pivotal new technology in integrated circuit fabrication. For some time researchers have sought alternate processes for interconnecting the millions of transistors on each chip because conventional physical vapor deposition can no longer meet the specifications of today's complex integrated circuits. Out of this research, ionized physical vapor deposition has emerged as a premier technology for the deposition of thin metal films that form the dense interconnect wiring on state-of-the-art microprocessors and memory chips. For the first time, the most recent developments in thin film deposition using ionized physical vapor deposition (I-PVD) are presented in a single coherent source. Readers will find detailed descriptions of relevant plasma source technology, specific deposition systems, and process recipes. The tools and processes covered include DC hollow cathode magnetrons, RF inductively coupled plasmas, and microwave plasmas that are used for depositing technologically important materials such as copper, tantalum, titanium, TiN, and aluminum. In addition, this volume describes the important physical processes that occur in I-PVD in a simple and concise way. The physical descriptions are followed by experimentally-verified numerical models that provide in-depth insight into the design and operation I-PVD tools. Practicing process engineers, research and development scientists, and students will find that this book's integration of tool design, process development, and fundamental physical models make it an indispensable reference. Key Features: The first comprehensive volume on ionized physical vapor deposition Combines tool design, process development, and fundamental physical understanding to form a complete picture of I-PVD Emphasizes practical applications in the area of IC fabrication and interconnect technology Serves as a guide to select the most appropriate technology for any deposition application *This single source saves time and effort by including comprehensive information at one's finger tips *The integration of tool design, process development, and fundamental physics allows the reader to quickly understand all of the issues important to I-PVD *The numerous practical applications assist the working engineer to select and refine thin film processes

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2007
Category :
Total pages :129
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The commonly used current-voltage characteristics are foundinadequate for describing the pulsed nature of the high power impulsemagnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge, rather, the description needs tobe expanded to current-voltage-time characteristics for each initial gaspressure. Using different target materials (Cu, Ti, Nb, C, W, Al, Cr) anda pulsed constant-voltage supply it is shown that the HIPIMS dischargestypically exhibit an initial pressure dependent current peak followed bya second phase that is power and material dependent. This suggests thatthe initial phase of a HIPIMS discharge pulse is dominated by gas ionswhereas the later phase has a strong contribution from self-sputtering. For some materials the discharge switches into a mode of sustainedself-sputtering. The very large differences between materials cannot beascribed to the different sputter yields but they indicate thatgeneration and trapping ofsecondary electrons plays a major role forcurrent-voltage-time characteristics. In particular, it is argued thatthe sustained self-sputtering phase is associated with thegeneration ofmultiply charged ions because only they can cause potential emission ofsecondary electrons whereas the yield caused by singly charged metal ionsis negligibly small.

Reactive Sputter Deposition

Reactive Sputter Deposition
Author : Diederik Depla,Stijn Mahieu
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2008-06-24
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :572
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In this valuable work, all aspects of the reactive magnetron sputtering process, from the discharge up to the resulting thin film growth, are described in detail, allowing the reader to understand the complete process. Hence, this book gives necessary information for those who want to start with reactive magnetron sputtering, understand and investigate the technique, control their sputtering process and tune their existing process, obtaining the desired thin films.

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) - FundamentalPlasma Studies and Materials Synthesis

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) - FundamentalPlasma Studies and Materials Synthesis
Author : Ante Hecimovic
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2009
Category :
Total pages :129
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Fundamentals of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

Fundamentals of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
Author : Johan Böhlmark,Linköpings universitet. Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2006
Category :
Total pages :64
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Plasma Potential Mapping of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Discharges

Plasma Potential Mapping of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Discharges
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2011
Category :
Total pages :129
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Pulsed emissive probe techniques have been used to determine the plasma potential distribution of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges. An unbalanced magnetron with a niobium target in argon was investigated for pulse length of 100?s at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz, giving a peak current of 170 A. The probe data were taken with a time resolution of 20 ns and a spatial resolution of 1 mm. It is shown that the local plasma potential varies greatly in space and time. The lowest potential was found over the target's racetrack, gradually reaching anode potential (ground) several centimeters away from the target. The magnetic pre-sheath exhibits a funnel-shaped plasma potential resulting in an electric field which accelerates ions toward the racetrack. In certain regions and times, the potential exhibits weak local maxima which allow for ion acceleration to the substrate. Knowledge of the local E and static B fields lets us derive the electrons' E×B drift velocity, which is about 105 m/s and shows structures in space and time.

The Foundations of Vacuum Coating Technology

The Foundations of Vacuum Coating Technology
Author : Donald M. Mattox
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2004-04-26
Category : Science
Total pages :150
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The Foundations of Vacuum Coating Technology is a concise review of the developments that have led to the wide variety of applications of this technology. This book is a must for materials scientists and engineers working with vacuum coating in the invention of new technologies or applications in all industries. With over 370 references, this is an excellent starting point for those who don’t want to reinvent the wheel. In particular, the book is a valuable reference for those interested in researching proposed or existing patents. This unique book provides a starting point for more in-depth surveys of past and recent work in all aspects of vacuum coating. The author uses his extensive knowledge of the subject to draw comparisons and place the information into the proper context. This is particularly important for the patent literature where the terminology does not always match industry jargon. A section of acronyms for vacuum coating and glossary of terms at the end of the book are critical additions to the information every reader needs.

Cathodic Arcs

Cathodic Arcs
Author : André Anders
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2009-07-30
Category : Science
Total pages :544
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Cathodic arcs are among the longest studied yet least understood objects in science. Plasma-generating, tiny spots appear on the cathode; they are highly dynamic and hard to control. With an approach emphasizing the fractal character of cathode spots, strongly fluctuating plasma properties are described such as the presence of multiply charged ions that move with supersonic velocity. Richly illustrated, the book also deals with practical issues, such as arc source construction, macroparticle removal, and the synthesis of dense, well adherent coatings. The book spans a bridge from plasma physics to coatings technology based on energetic condensation, appealing to scientists, practitioners and graduate students alike.

Duty Cycle Control in Reactive High-power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering of Hafnium and Niobium

Duty Cycle Control in Reactive High-power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering of Hafnium and Niobium
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2016
Category :
Total pages :129
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Abstract: Instabilities in reactive sputtering have technological consequences and have been attributed to the formation of a compound layer on the target surface ('poisoning'). Here we demonstrate how the duty cycle of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) can be used to control the surface conditions of Hf and Nb targets. Variations in the time resolved target current characteristics as a function of duty cycle were attributed to gas rarefaction and to the degree of poisoning of the target surface. As the operation transitions from Ar driven sputtering to metal driven sputtering, the secondary electron emission changes and reduces the target current. The target surface transitions smoothly from a poisoned state at low duty cycles to a quasi-metallic state at high duty cycles. Appropriate selection of duty cycle increases the deposition rate, eliminates the need for active regulation of oxygen flow and enables stable reactive deposition of stoichiometric metal oxide films. A model is presented for the reactive HIPIMS process in which the target operates in a partially poisoned mode with different degrees of oxide layer distribution on its surface that depends on the duty cycle. Finally, we show that by tuning the pulse characteristics, the refractive indices of the metal oxides can be controlled without increasing the absorption coefficients, a result important for the fabrication of optical multilayer stacks.

Boron-rich Plasma by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering of Lanthanum Hexaboride

Boron-rich Plasma by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering of Lanthanum Hexaboride
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2012
Category :
Total pages :129
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AlN Films Deposited by Dc Magnetron Sputtering and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering for SAW Applications

AlN Films Deposited by Dc Magnetron Sputtering and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering for SAW Applications
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2015
Category :
Total pages :129
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Abstract In this work, aluminium nitride (AlN) films were deposited on silicon substrates buffered by an epitaxial AlN thin film for surface acoustic wave (SAW) applications. The films were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) deposition techniques. The structural properties of AlN films were investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In both cases of films deposited by dcMS and HiPIMS, the XRD results showed that the obtained films are oriented, with full width at half maximum rocking curves of around 1°. Raman spectroscopy revealed higher residual stress relaxation in the AlN epilayers grown by HiPIMS compared to AlN grown by dcMS, highlighted by a blue shift in the E2(high) Raman mode. The SAW measurements indicated an insertion loss of AlN-SAW devices of about 53 and 35 dB for the AlN films deposited by dcMS and HiPIMS respectively. The relation between the structural properties of AlN and the characteristics of AlN-SAW devices were correlated and discussed.

Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processing

Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processing
Author : D. M. Mattox
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2014-09-19
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :944
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This book covers all aspects of physical vapor deposition (PVD) process technology from the characterizing and preparing the substrate material, through deposition processing and film characterization, to post-deposition processing. The emphasis of the book is on the aspects of the process flow that are critical to economical deposition of films that can meet the required performance specifications. The book covers subjects seldom treated in the literature: substrate characterization, adhesion, cleaning and the processing. The book also covers the widely discussed subjects of vacuum technology and the fundamentals of individual deposition processes. However, the author uniquely relates these topics to the practical issues that arise in PVD processing, such as contamination control and film growth effects, which are also rarely discussed in the literature. In bringing these subjects together in one book, the reader can understand the interrelationship between various aspects of the film deposition processing and the resulting film properties. The author draws upon his long experience with developing PVD processes and troubleshooting the processes in the manufacturing environment, to provide useful hints for not only avoiding problems, but also for solving problems when they arise. He uses actual experiences, called ""war stories"", to emphasize certain points. Special formatting of the text allows a reader who is already knowledgeable in the subject to scan through a section and find discussions that are of particular interest. The author has tried to make the subject index as useful as possible so that the reader can rapidly go to sections of particular interest. Extensive references allow the reader to pursue subjects in greater detail if desired. The book is intended to be both an introduction for those who are new to the field and a valuable resource to those already in the field. The discussion of transferring technology between R&D and manufacturing provided in Appendix 1, will be of special interest to the manager or engineer responsible for moving a PVD product and process from R&D into production. Appendix 2 has an extensive listing of periodical publications and professional societies that relate to PVD processing. The extensive Glossary of Terms and Acronyms provided in Appendix 3 will be of particular use to students and to those not fully conversant with the terminology of PVD processing or with the English language.